NCERT Solutions - Industries Class 8 Notes | EduRev

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Q 1. Answer the following questions.
 (i) What is meant by the term 'industry'?

The term 'industry' refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods (e.g., iron and steel industry), extraction of minerals (e.g., coal mining industry) or provision of services (e.g., tourism industry).

(ii) What are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?

The factors affecting the location of industry are grouped into physical and human factors.

Physical Factors:
(i) Availability of Raw materials: The factory needs to be close to the location of raw material if they are heavy and bulky to transport. For example, the iron and steel industry is located near the source of raw material.
(ii) Water Source: Water is required for various industrial processes. River water and waterfalls can also be used to generate hydroelectricity.
(iii) Climate: It plays a significant role in the establishment of industries. Harsh climate is not much suitable for industries. Extremely hot, humid, dry or cold climate is not very conducive for industries. For example, the cotton textile industry requires a humid climate because of thread breaks in a dry climate.

Human Factors:
(i) Labour: A large and cheap labour force is required for labour-intensive and manufacturing industries. High-tech industries have to be located where suitable skilled workers are available.
(ii) Capital: This is the money that is invested to start a business. The amount of capital will determine the size and location of the factor.
(iii) Government Policies: Industrial development is encouraged in some areas and restricted in others. Industries that are located in depressed areas may receive financial incentives and assistance from the government in the form of low rent and tax rates.

(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?

Iron and steel industry is often referred to as the backbone of the modern industry because almost everything is either made from iron or steel or has been made using tools and
machineries of these metals. There are plenty of examples like -ships, trains, vehicles; all are made largely of steel. Materials of our day-to-day use starting safety pin to our building in which we live, are made from steel. Without the use of iron no industry can run.
(iv) Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?

The cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. In India, Mumbai was the first place which saw the establishment of a successful mechanized textile mill in 1854. Mumbai saw the rapid expansion of the cotton textile industry after this because of the following reasons:-

(i) Favourable climatic conditions such as warm and moist climate 

(ii) Nearness of a port which facilitated import of machinery 

(iii) Availability of raw material and skilled labour.
(v) What are the similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California?

Similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California: → Presence of high quality educational institutions, and advanced scientific and technological centres.
→ Pleasant climate and clean environment.
→ Presence of good quality, skilled workforce.
→ Access to markets.
→ Well-developed and well-connected.
Q 2. Tick the correct answer.
 (i) Silicon Valley is located in
 (a) Bangalore
 (b) California
 (c) Ahmedabad

► (b) California
(ii) Which one of the following industries is known as sunrise industry?
 (a) Iron and steel industry
 (b) Cotton textile
 (c) Information technology

► (c) Information technology
(iii) Which one of the following is a natural fibre?
 (a) Nylon
 (b) Jute
 (c) Acrylic

► (b) Jute

Q 3. Distinguish between the following
 (i) Agro-based and mineral-based industry

Agro-based industry

Mineral-based industry

Uses plant and animal products as raw materials

Uses mineral ores as raw materials

Source of employment for people in rural areas

Source of employment for people in rural as well as urban areas

Example: Dairy industry, cotton textile industry

Example: Iron and steel industry, heavy machinery industry

(ii) Public-sector and joint-sector industry

Public-sector industry

Joint-sector industry

 These industries are owned and operated by the government

These industries are owned and operated jointly by the government and individuals or a group of individuals

Example: Hindustan Aeronautics

Limited, Steel Authority of India


Example: Maruti Udyog Limited,Vistara airlines

Q 4. Give two examples of the following in the space provided.
 (i) Raw materials: ____________ and _____________
 (ii) End product: ____________ and _____________
 (iii) Tertiary activities: ____________ and _____________
 (iv) Agro-based industries: ____________ and _____________
 (v) Cottage industries: ____________ and _____________
 (vi) Co-operatives: ____________ and _____________

(i)Raw materials: cotton and steel
(ii)End product: shirt and safety pin
(iii)Tertiary activities: banking and transport
(iv)Agro-based industries: dairy industry and cotton textile industry
(v)Cottage industries: pottery industry and basket-weaving industry
(vi)Co-operatives: Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy

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