NCERT Solutions Class 10 (Power Sharing) (Civics) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Class 10 : NCERT Solutions Class 10 (Power Sharing) (Civics) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


What are the different forms of power sharing in modern 
democracies? Give an example of each of these. 
Answer 
Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies: 
Horizontal division of power: It is the sharing of power among the 
different organs of government. The division of government into the 
executive, the legislature and the judiciary is an example of horizontal 
division of power. In such a power sharing arrangement, different 
organs of government, placed at the same level, exercise different 
powers. This separation of powers ensures that no organ exercises 
unlimited power. Each organ checks the others, thereby putting in 
place a system of checks and balances. The division of power between 
the Council of Ministers headed by the Indian Prime Minister, the 
Parliament of India and the Indian Supreme Court is an example of 
this kind of power sharing. 
Vertical division of power: It is the sharing of power among 
governments at different levels — a general government for the entire 
country and governments at the provincial or regional level. For 
example, in India, the Constitution defines the way power is to be 
shared between the Central or Union government and the various 
State governments. There are certain matters on which only the 
Central government can take decisions, while there are others on 
which only an individual state government has an exclusive right for 
decision making. 
Division of power among social groups: Power can also be shared 
among different groups which differ socially. The system of 
'community government' in Belgium is an example of this type of 
power division. This government is elected by people belonging to one 
language community (Dutch, French and German-speaking), and has 
the power to take decisions regarding cultural, educational and 
languagerelated issues. The system of reserved constituencies in India 
is another example. 
Division of power between political parties, pressure groups and 
movements:Political parties are the organisations which aim to 
Page 2


What are the different forms of power sharing in modern 
democracies? Give an example of each of these. 
Answer 
Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies: 
Horizontal division of power: It is the sharing of power among the 
different organs of government. The division of government into the 
executive, the legislature and the judiciary is an example of horizontal 
division of power. In such a power sharing arrangement, different 
organs of government, placed at the same level, exercise different 
powers. This separation of powers ensures that no organ exercises 
unlimited power. Each organ checks the others, thereby putting in 
place a system of checks and balances. The division of power between 
the Council of Ministers headed by the Indian Prime Minister, the 
Parliament of India and the Indian Supreme Court is an example of 
this kind of power sharing. 
Vertical division of power: It is the sharing of power among 
governments at different levels — a general government for the entire 
country and governments at the provincial or regional level. For 
example, in India, the Constitution defines the way power is to be 
shared between the Central or Union government and the various 
State governments. There are certain matters on which only the 
Central government can take decisions, while there are others on 
which only an individual state government has an exclusive right for 
decision making. 
Division of power among social groups: Power can also be shared 
among different groups which differ socially. The system of 
'community government' in Belgium is an example of this type of 
power division. This government is elected by people belonging to one 
language community (Dutch, French and German-speaking), and has 
the power to take decisions regarding cultural, educational and 
languagerelated issues. The system of reserved constituencies in India 
is another example. 
Division of power between political parties, pressure groups and 
movements:Political parties are the organisations which aim to 
control power by contesting elections. In a democracy, citizens have 
the freedom to choose among the various contenders for power (the 
different political parties or the different alliances comprising political 
parties). Such a freedom of choice entails competition among the 
different parties, which in turn ensures that power does not remain in 
one hand, and is shared among different political parties representing 
different ideologies and social groups. 
Pressure groups and movements also share governmental power, 
either through participation in governmental committees or by 
influencing the decision-making process.  
What are the different forms of power sharing in modern 
democracies? Give an example of each of these. 
Answer 
Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies: 
Horizontal division of power: It is the sharing of power among the 
different organs of government. The division of government into the 
executive, the legislature and the judiciary is an example of horizontal 
division of power. In such a power sharing arrangement, different 
organs of government, placed at the same level, exercise different 
powers. This separation of powers ensures that no organ exercises 
unlimited power. Each organ checks the others, thereby putting in 
place a system of checks and balances. The division of power between 
the Council of Ministers headed by the Indian Prime Minister, the 
Parliament of India and the Indian Supreme Court is an example of 
this kind of power sharing. 
Vertical division of power: It is the sharing of power among 
governments at different levels — a general government for the entire 
country and governments at the provincial or regional level. For 
example, in India, the Constitution defines the way power is to be 
shared between the Central or Union government and the various 
State governments. There are certain matters on which only the 
Central government can take decisions, while there are others on 
which only an individual state government has an exclusive right for 
Page 3


What are the different forms of power sharing in modern 
democracies? Give an example of each of these. 
Answer 
Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies: 
Horizontal division of power: It is the sharing of power among the 
different organs of government. The division of government into the 
executive, the legislature and the judiciary is an example of horizontal 
division of power. In such a power sharing arrangement, different 
organs of government, placed at the same level, exercise different 
powers. This separation of powers ensures that no organ exercises 
unlimited power. Each organ checks the others, thereby putting in 
place a system of checks and balances. The division of power between 
the Council of Ministers headed by the Indian Prime Minister, the 
Parliament of India and the Indian Supreme Court is an example of 
this kind of power sharing. 
Vertical division of power: It is the sharing of power among 
governments at different levels — a general government for the entire 
country and governments at the provincial or regional level. For 
example, in India, the Constitution defines the way power is to be 
shared between the Central or Union government and the various 
State governments. There are certain matters on which only the 
Central government can take decisions, while there are others on 
which only an individual state government has an exclusive right for 
decision making. 
Division of power among social groups: Power can also be shared 
among different groups which differ socially. The system of 
'community government' in Belgium is an example of this type of 
power division. This government is elected by people belonging to one 
language community (Dutch, French and German-speaking), and has 
the power to take decisions regarding cultural, educational and 
languagerelated issues. The system of reserved constituencies in India 
is another example. 
Division of power between political parties, pressure groups and 
movements:Political parties are the organisations which aim to 
control power by contesting elections. In a democracy, citizens have 
the freedom to choose among the various contenders for power (the 
different political parties or the different alliances comprising political 
parties). Such a freedom of choice entails competition among the 
different parties, which in turn ensures that power does not remain in 
one hand, and is shared among different political parties representing 
different ideologies and social groups. 
Pressure groups and movements also share governmental power, 
either through participation in governmental committees or by 
influencing the decision-making process.  
What are the different forms of power sharing in modern 
democracies? Give an example of each of these. 
Answer 
Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies: 
Horizontal division of power: It is the sharing of power among the 
different organs of government. The division of government into the 
executive, the legislature and the judiciary is an example of horizontal 
division of power. In such a power sharing arrangement, different 
organs of government, placed at the same level, exercise different 
powers. This separation of powers ensures that no organ exercises 
unlimited power. Each organ checks the others, thereby putting in 
place a system of checks and balances. The division of power between 
the Council of Ministers headed by the Indian Prime Minister, the 
Parliament of India and the Indian Supreme Court is an example of 
this kind of power sharing. 
Vertical division of power: It is the sharing of power among 
governments at different levels — a general government for the entire 
country and governments at the provincial or regional level. For 
example, in India, the Constitution defines the way power is to be 
shared between the Central or Union government and the various 
State governments. There are certain matters on which only the 
Central government can take decisions, while there are others on 
which only an individual state government has an exclusive right for 
decision making. 
Division of power among social groups: Power can also be shared 
among different groups which differ socially. The system of 
'community government' in Belgium is an example of this type of 
power division. This government is elected by people belonging to one 
language community (Dutch, French and German-speaking), and has 
the power to take decisions regarding cultural, educational and 
language related issues. The system of reserved constituencies in 
India is another example. 
Division of power between political parties, pressure groups and 
movements: Political parties are the organisations which aim to 
control power by contesting elections. In a democracy, citizens have 
the freedom to choose among the various contenders for power (the 
different political parties or the different alliances comprising political 
parties). Such a freedom of choice entails competition among the 
different parties, which in turn ensures that power does not remain in 
one hand, and is shared among different political parties representing 
different ideologies and social groups. 
Pressure groups and movements also share governmental power, 
either through participation in governmental committees or by 
influencing the decision-making process. 
Question 2: State one prudential reason and one moral reason for 
power sharing with an example from the Indian context.  
Answer:  
A prudential reason for power sharing is that it leads to an avoidance 
of conflict between social groups. Since social conflict often leads to 
violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to 
ensure the stability of political order. In India, seats have been 
reserved in legislatures for the socially weaker sections keeping in 
mind this prudential reason for power sharing. 
A moral reason for power sharing is that it upholds the spirit of 
democracy. In a truly democratic setup, the citizens too have a stake in 
governance. In India, the citizens can come together to debate and 
criticise the policies and decisions of the government. This in turn 
Page 4


What are the different forms of power sharing in modern 
democracies? Give an example of each of these. 
Answer 
Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies: 
Horizontal division of power: It is the sharing of power among the 
different organs of government. The division of government into the 
executive, the legislature and the judiciary is an example of horizontal 
division of power. In such a power sharing arrangement, different 
organs of government, placed at the same level, exercise different 
powers. This separation of powers ensures that no organ exercises 
unlimited power. Each organ checks the others, thereby putting in 
place a system of checks and balances. The division of power between 
the Council of Ministers headed by the Indian Prime Minister, the 
Parliament of India and the Indian Supreme Court is an example of 
this kind of power sharing. 
Vertical division of power: It is the sharing of power among 
governments at different levels — a general government for the entire 
country and governments at the provincial or regional level. For 
example, in India, the Constitution defines the way power is to be 
shared between the Central or Union government and the various 
State governments. There are certain matters on which only the 
Central government can take decisions, while there are others on 
which only an individual state government has an exclusive right for 
decision making. 
Division of power among social groups: Power can also be shared 
among different groups which differ socially. The system of 
'community government' in Belgium is an example of this type of 
power division. This government is elected by people belonging to one 
language community (Dutch, French and German-speaking), and has 
the power to take decisions regarding cultural, educational and 
languagerelated issues. The system of reserved constituencies in India 
is another example. 
Division of power between political parties, pressure groups and 
movements:Political parties are the organisations which aim to 
control power by contesting elections. In a democracy, citizens have 
the freedom to choose among the various contenders for power (the 
different political parties or the different alliances comprising political 
parties). Such a freedom of choice entails competition among the 
different parties, which in turn ensures that power does not remain in 
one hand, and is shared among different political parties representing 
different ideologies and social groups. 
Pressure groups and movements also share governmental power, 
either through participation in governmental committees or by 
influencing the decision-making process.  
What are the different forms of power sharing in modern 
democracies? Give an example of each of these. 
Answer 
Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies: 
Horizontal division of power: It is the sharing of power among the 
different organs of government. The division of government into the 
executive, the legislature and the judiciary is an example of horizontal 
division of power. In such a power sharing arrangement, different 
organs of government, placed at the same level, exercise different 
powers. This separation of powers ensures that no organ exercises 
unlimited power. Each organ checks the others, thereby putting in 
place a system of checks and balances. The division of power between 
the Council of Ministers headed by the Indian Prime Minister, the 
Parliament of India and the Indian Supreme Court is an example of 
this kind of power sharing. 
Vertical division of power: It is the sharing of power among 
governments at different levels — a general government for the entire 
country and governments at the provincial or regional level. For 
example, in India, the Constitution defines the way power is to be 
shared between the Central or Union government and the various 
State governments. There are certain matters on which only the 
Central government can take decisions, while there are others on 
which only an individual state government has an exclusive right for 
decision making. 
Division of power among social groups: Power can also be shared 
among different groups which differ socially. The system of 
'community government' in Belgium is an example of this type of 
power division. This government is elected by people belonging to one 
language community (Dutch, French and German-speaking), and has 
the power to take decisions regarding cultural, educational and 
language related issues. The system of reserved constituencies in 
India is another example. 
Division of power between political parties, pressure groups and 
movements: Political parties are the organisations which aim to 
control power by contesting elections. In a democracy, citizens have 
the freedom to choose among the various contenders for power (the 
different political parties or the different alliances comprising political 
parties). Such a freedom of choice entails competition among the 
different parties, which in turn ensures that power does not remain in 
one hand, and is shared among different political parties representing 
different ideologies and social groups. 
Pressure groups and movements also share governmental power, 
either through participation in governmental committees or by 
influencing the decision-making process. 
Question 2: State one prudential reason and one moral reason for 
power sharing with an example from the Indian context.  
Answer:  
A prudential reason for power sharing is that it leads to an avoidance 
of conflict between social groups. Since social conflict often leads to 
violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to 
ensure the stability of political order. In India, seats have been 
reserved in legislatures for the socially weaker sections keeping in 
mind this prudential reason for power sharing. 
A moral reason for power sharing is that it upholds the spirit of 
democracy. In a truly democratic setup, the citizens too have a stake in 
governance. In India, the citizens can come together to debate and 
criticise the policies and decisions of the government. This in turn 
puts pressure on the government to rethink its policies and reconsider 
its decisions. This active political participation is in keeping with the 
moral reason for power sharing. 
Question 4: The Mayor of Merchtem, a town near Brussels in Belgium, 
has defended a ban on speaking French in the town’s schools. He said 
that the ban would help all non-Dutch speakers integrate in this 
Flemish town. Do you think that this measure is in keeping with the 
spirit of Belgium’s power sharing arrangements? Give your reasons in 
about 50 words.  
Answer:  
This measure is not in keeping with Belgium’s power sharing 
arrangements. The arrangements seek to maintain peace between the 
French and Dutch-speaking communities. By banning French, the 
mayor will cause civil unrest. Both the languages should be made 
acceptable in the town’s schools. This bilingual education system will 
be a better way to integrate the people of the town. 
Question 5: Read the following passage and pick out any one of the 
prudential reasons for power sharing offered in this. "We need to give 
more power to the panchayats to realise the dream of Mahatma 
Gandhi and the hopes of the makers of our Constitution. Panchayati 
Raj establishes true democracy. It restores power to the only place 
where power belongs in a democracy - in the hands of the people. 
Given power to panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and 
increase administrative efficiency. When people participate in the 
planning and implementation of developmental schemes, they would 
naturally exercise greater control over these schemes. This would 
eliminate the corrupt middlemen. Thus, Panchayati Raj will 
strengthen the foundations of our democracy." 
Answer:  
"When people participate in the planning and implementation of 
developmental schemes, they would naturally exercise greater control 
over these schemes. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen." 
Question 6: Different arguments are usually put forth in favour of and 
against power sharing. Identify those which are in favour of power 
sharing and select the answer using the codes given below? Power 
Page 5


What are the different forms of power sharing in modern 
democracies? Give an example of each of these. 
Answer 
Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies: 
Horizontal division of power: It is the sharing of power among the 
different organs of government. The division of government into the 
executive, the legislature and the judiciary is an example of horizontal 
division of power. In such a power sharing arrangement, different 
organs of government, placed at the same level, exercise different 
powers. This separation of powers ensures that no organ exercises 
unlimited power. Each organ checks the others, thereby putting in 
place a system of checks and balances. The division of power between 
the Council of Ministers headed by the Indian Prime Minister, the 
Parliament of India and the Indian Supreme Court is an example of 
this kind of power sharing. 
Vertical division of power: It is the sharing of power among 
governments at different levels — a general government for the entire 
country and governments at the provincial or regional level. For 
example, in India, the Constitution defines the way power is to be 
shared between the Central or Union government and the various 
State governments. There are certain matters on which only the 
Central government can take decisions, while there are others on 
which only an individual state government has an exclusive right for 
decision making. 
Division of power among social groups: Power can also be shared 
among different groups which differ socially. The system of 
'community government' in Belgium is an example of this type of 
power division. This government is elected by people belonging to one 
language community (Dutch, French and German-speaking), and has 
the power to take decisions regarding cultural, educational and 
languagerelated issues. The system of reserved constituencies in India 
is another example. 
Division of power between political parties, pressure groups and 
movements:Political parties are the organisations which aim to 
control power by contesting elections. In a democracy, citizens have 
the freedom to choose among the various contenders for power (the 
different political parties or the different alliances comprising political 
parties). Such a freedom of choice entails competition among the 
different parties, which in turn ensures that power does not remain in 
one hand, and is shared among different political parties representing 
different ideologies and social groups. 
Pressure groups and movements also share governmental power, 
either through participation in governmental committees or by 
influencing the decision-making process.  
What are the different forms of power sharing in modern 
democracies? Give an example of each of these. 
Answer 
Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies: 
Horizontal division of power: It is the sharing of power among the 
different organs of government. The division of government into the 
executive, the legislature and the judiciary is an example of horizontal 
division of power. In such a power sharing arrangement, different 
organs of government, placed at the same level, exercise different 
powers. This separation of powers ensures that no organ exercises 
unlimited power. Each organ checks the others, thereby putting in 
place a system of checks and balances. The division of power between 
the Council of Ministers headed by the Indian Prime Minister, the 
Parliament of India and the Indian Supreme Court is an example of 
this kind of power sharing. 
Vertical division of power: It is the sharing of power among 
governments at different levels — a general government for the entire 
country and governments at the provincial or regional level. For 
example, in India, the Constitution defines the way power is to be 
shared between the Central or Union government and the various 
State governments. There are certain matters on which only the 
Central government can take decisions, while there are others on 
which only an individual state government has an exclusive right for 
decision making. 
Division of power among social groups: Power can also be shared 
among different groups which differ socially. The system of 
'community government' in Belgium is an example of this type of 
power division. This government is elected by people belonging to one 
language community (Dutch, French and German-speaking), and has 
the power to take decisions regarding cultural, educational and 
language related issues. The system of reserved constituencies in 
India is another example. 
Division of power between political parties, pressure groups and 
movements: Political parties are the organisations which aim to 
control power by contesting elections. In a democracy, citizens have 
the freedom to choose among the various contenders for power (the 
different political parties or the different alliances comprising political 
parties). Such a freedom of choice entails competition among the 
different parties, which in turn ensures that power does not remain in 
one hand, and is shared among different political parties representing 
different ideologies and social groups. 
Pressure groups and movements also share governmental power, 
either through participation in governmental committees or by 
influencing the decision-making process. 
Question 2: State one prudential reason and one moral reason for 
power sharing with an example from the Indian context.  
Answer:  
A prudential reason for power sharing is that it leads to an avoidance 
of conflict between social groups. Since social conflict often leads to 
violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to 
ensure the stability of political order. In India, seats have been 
reserved in legislatures for the socially weaker sections keeping in 
mind this prudential reason for power sharing. 
A moral reason for power sharing is that it upholds the spirit of 
democracy. In a truly democratic setup, the citizens too have a stake in 
governance. In India, the citizens can come together to debate and 
criticise the policies and decisions of the government. This in turn 
puts pressure on the government to rethink its policies and reconsider 
its decisions. This active political participation is in keeping with the 
moral reason for power sharing. 
Question 4: The Mayor of Merchtem, a town near Brussels in Belgium, 
has defended a ban on speaking French in the town’s schools. He said 
that the ban would help all non-Dutch speakers integrate in this 
Flemish town. Do you think that this measure is in keeping with the 
spirit of Belgium’s power sharing arrangements? Give your reasons in 
about 50 words.  
Answer:  
This measure is not in keeping with Belgium’s power sharing 
arrangements. The arrangements seek to maintain peace between the 
French and Dutch-speaking communities. By banning French, the 
mayor will cause civil unrest. Both the languages should be made 
acceptable in the town’s schools. This bilingual education system will 
be a better way to integrate the people of the town. 
Question 5: Read the following passage and pick out any one of the 
prudential reasons for power sharing offered in this. "We need to give 
more power to the panchayats to realise the dream of Mahatma 
Gandhi and the hopes of the makers of our Constitution. Panchayati 
Raj establishes true democracy. It restores power to the only place 
where power belongs in a democracy - in the hands of the people. 
Given power to panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and 
increase administrative efficiency. When people participate in the 
planning and implementation of developmental schemes, they would 
naturally exercise greater control over these schemes. This would 
eliminate the corrupt middlemen. Thus, Panchayati Raj will 
strengthen the foundations of our democracy." 
Answer:  
"When people participate in the planning and implementation of 
developmental schemes, they would naturally exercise greater control 
over these schemes. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen." 
Question 6: Different arguments are usually put forth in favour of and 
against power sharing. Identify those which are in favour of power 
sharing and select the answer using the codes given below? Power 
sharing: A. reduces conflict among different communities B. decreases 
the possibility of arbitrariness C. delays decision making process D. 
accommodates diversities E. increases instability and divisiveness F. 
promotes people’s participation in government G. undermines the 
unity of a country 
 
Question 7: Consider the following statements about power sharing 
arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka.  
?. In Belgium, the Dutch-speaking majority people tried to impose 
their domination on the minority French-speaking community.  
B. In Sri Lanka, the policies of the government sought to ensure the 
dominance of the Sinhala-speaking majority.  
C. The Tamils in Sri Lanka demanded a federal arrangement of power 
sharing to protect their culture, language and equality of opportunity 
in education and jobs.  
D. The transformation of Belgium from unitary government to a 
federal one prevented a possible division of the country on linguistic 
lines. Which of the statements given above are correct? 
 (a) A, B, C and D (b) A, B and D (c) C and D (d) B, C and D  
Answer:  
(d) B, C and D 
 
Question 8: Match list I (forms of power sharing) with List II (forms of 
government) and select the correct answer using the codes given 
below in the lists: 
  
 
 
 
 
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