Page No: 55
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) What causes rainfall on the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu in the beginning of winters?
(a) South-West monsoon
(b) Temperate cyclones
(c) North-Eastern monsoon
(d) Local air circulation
► (c) North-Eastern monsoon
(ii) What is the proportion of area of India which receives annual rainfall less than 75 cm?
► (d) Three-fourth
(iii) Which one of the following is not a fact regarding South India?
(a) Diurnal range of temperature is less here.
(b) Annual range of temperature is less here.
(c) Temperatures here are high throughout the year.
(d) Extreme climatic conditions are found here.
► (d) Extreme climatic conditions are found here.
(iv) Which one of the following phenomenon happens when the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere?
(a) High pressure develops over North-western India due to low temperatures.
(b) Low pressure develops over North-western India due to high temperatures.
(c) No changes in temperature and pressure occur in north-western India.
(d) ‘Loo’ blows in the North-western India.
► (a) High pressure develops over North-western India due to low temperatures.
(v) In which of the following states in India do we find ‘As’ type of climate as per Koeppen’s classification?
(a) In Kerala and coastal Karnataka
(b) In Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(c) On Coromandel coast
(d) In Assam and Arunachal Pradesh
► (c) On Coromandel coast
Page No: 56
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) What are the three important factors which influence the mechanism of Indian weather?
The three important factors which influence the mechanism of Indian weather are:
(ii) What is the Inter-Tropical Convergene Zone?
The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a low pressure zone located at the equatorwhere trade winds converge, and so, it is a zone where air tends to ascend.
(iii) What is meant by ‘bursting of monsoon’? Name the place of India which gets the highest rainfall.
The sudden onset of the moisture-laden winds associated with violent thunder and lightening, is often termed as the “break” or “burst” of the monsoons.
Mawsynram in Meghalaya is the place of India which gets the highest rainfall.
(iv) Define ‘climatic region’? What are the bases of Koeppen’s classification?
A climatic region has a homogeneous climatic condition which is the result of a combination of factors. The bases of Koeppen’s classification are:
(v) Which type(s) of cyclones cause rainfall in north-western India during winter? Where do they originate?
Western cyclonic disturbances cause rainfall in north-western India during winter. They originate over the Mediterranean Sea.
3. Answer the following questions in not more than 125 words.
(i) Notwithstanding the broad climatic unity, the climate of India has many regional variations. Elaborate this statement giving suitable examples.
Due to the influence of monsoon, India as a whole has broad climatic unity. However, the climate of India has many regional variations expressed in the pattern of winds, temperature and rainfall, rhythm of seasons and the degree of wetness or dryness. There are various examples of this:
(ii) How many distinct seasons are found in India as per the Indian Meteorological Department? Discuss the weather conditions associated with any one season in detail.
The meteorological department recognise the following four seasons :
(i) the cold weather season
(ii) the hot weather season
(iii) the southwest monsoon season
(iv) the retreating monsoon season.
During the winters, the weather in India is pleasant. The pleasant weather conditions, however, at intervals, get disturbed by shallow cyclonic depressions originating over the east Mediterranean Sea and travelling eastwards.
Winter monsoons do not cause rainfall as they move from land to the sea. It is because they have little humidity and due to anti cyclonic circulation on land. So, most parts of India do not have
rainfall in the winter season. However, there are some exceptions, Rainfall occurs in northwestern India due to western disturbances. Central parts of India and northern parts of southern peninsula also get winter rainfall occasionally.