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IN-TEXT QUESTIONS SOLVED
Q.1. State one reason why you think reservations play an important role in providing social justice to Dalits and Adivasis?
Ans. Reservations create special opportunities for Dalits and Adivasis to come up in the mainstream of the society.
Q.2. Complete the following table:
3. In your opinion does the force put on Rathnam to perform the ritual violates his Fundamental Rights?
Ans. Yes, it certainly violates his Fundamental Rights.
4. Why do you think that Dalit families were afraid of angering the powerful castes?
Ans. Dalit families were scared that they would be perished if they dared to anger the powerful castes.
5. List two different provisions in the 1989 Act.
Ans. Two different provisions in the 1989 Act were:
(i) To occupy land that was taken from Dalits and Adivasis
(ii) No further forced displacement.
6. What do you understand by manual scavenging?
Ans. Manual scavenging refers to the practice of removing human and animal waste or excreta using brooms, tin plates and baskets from dry latrines and carrying it on the head to the disposal grounds at some distance.
7. Re-read the list of Fundamental Rights provided on page 14 of the textbook
and list two rights that the practice of manual scavenging violates?
Ans. Two rights that the practice of manual scavenging violates are: (i) Right to Equality (ii) Right against exploitation.
8. Why did the Safai Karamchari Andolan File a PIL in 2003? What did they complain about in their petition?
Ans. The Safai Karamchari Andolan filed a PIL in 2003 in order to get the manual scavenging banned. In their petition they complained that manual scavenging still existed and it continued in government undertakings like the railways. They sought enforcement of their Fundamental Rights.
9. What did the Supreme Court do on hearing their case in 2005?
Ans. On hearing their case in 2005, the Supreme Court directed every department/ministry of the union government and state governments to verify the facts within six months. If manual scavenging was found to exist, then the government department has to actively take up a time–bound programme for their liberation and rehabilitation.
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
1. List two Fundamental Rights in the Constitution that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they be treated with dignity and as equals. Re-read the Fundamental Rights listed on page 14 of the textbook to help you answer this question.
Ans. Two Fundamental Rights are:
(i) Right to Equality
(ii) Right against Exploitation
2. Re-read the story on Rathnam as well as the provisions of the 1989 Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act. Now list one reason why you think he used this law to file a complaint.
Ans. This law provides protection to Dalits and Adivasis. Therefore, Rathnam sought the support of this law.
3. Why do Adivasi activists, including C.K. Janu, believe that Adivasis can also use this 1989 Act to fight against dispossession? Is there anything specific in the provisions of the Act that allows her to believe this?
Ans. The Act guarantees Adivasis not to be dispossessed from their traditional homelands. The land belonging to Adivasis cannot be sold to or bought by non-tribal people. In cases where this has happened, the Constitution guarantees the right of tribal people to re-possess their land.