Conservation of Animals and Plants - Solution of NCERT Exercise
Question: 1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called ……………..
(b) Species found only in a particular area is known as ……………..
(c) Migratory birds fly to far away places because of …………….changes.
Fig: Wildlife Sanctuary.
Question: 2. Differentiate between the following:
(a) Wildlife sanctuary and biosphere reserve
Answer: Both wildlife sanctuary and biosphere reserve are meant for protecting animals in their natural surroundings. Human interference is totally prevented in case of a wildlife sanctuary. On the other hand, tribal; living in nearby areas are allowed access to a biosphere reserve. Moreover, biosphere reserve is much larger in size compared to wildlife sanctuary.
(b) Zoo and wildlife sanctuary
Answer: A zoo is a place where animals are kept in captivity; with separate enclosures for carnivores and herbivores. Zoo is also a place where and endangered animal can be bred in captivity. A wildlife sanctuary is a place where animals live in their natural habitat and are not kept in captivity.
(c) Endangered and extinct species
Answer: A species which is in the danger of becoming extinct is called endangered species. A species which no longer exists on the earth is called extinct species.
Fig: Flora and fauna.
(d) Flora and fauna
Answer: The sum of plant species in a given area is called the flora of that area. The sum of animal species in a given area is called the fauna of that area.
Question: 3. Discuss the effects of deforestation on the following:
(a) Wild animals
Answer: The habitat of wild animals is drastically reduced. This creates scarcity of food and dwelling place for wild animals.
Answer: Green plants prepare their own food and all other organisms depend for their food on green plants. So, deforestation disturbs the food chain. Green plants also help in precipitation and deforestation reduces the amount of precipitation. Green plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen during photosynthesis and thus maintain the balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the environment. Deforestation disturbs this balance.
(c) Villages (Rural areas)
Answer: Deforestation leads to soil erosion and results in flash floods. This hampers agricultural activities and thus disturbs the people in rural areas.
(d) Cities (Urban areas)
Answer: Cities depend on rural areas and forests for many items; like food and timber. Deforestation can reduce the supply of necessary items to people in urban areas.
Answer: The whole earth is full of various ecosystems which together make the biosphere. Deforestation disturbs the balance in the biosphere. It disturbs climatic patterns.
(f) The next generation
Answer: The next generation would get an environment which would be in very bad shape; because of deforestation. Life would be very difficult for the next generation.
Question: 4. What will happen if:
(a) We go on cutting trees.
Answer: Deforestation will result in environmental degradation and desertification. It will also reduce groundwater reserve.
(b) The habitat of an animal is disturbed.
Answer: The animal would become extinct.
(c) The top layer of soil is exposed.
Answer: It will lead to loss of fertility of soil and finally to desertification.
Question: 5. Answer in brief:
(a) Why should we conserve biodiversity?
Answer: A rich biodiversity is necessary to protect our environment. That is why we need to conserve biodiversity.
(b) Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals. Why?
Answer: Due to growing human population, human interference is on the rise even in protected forests. Moreover, poaching is still rampant in many parts. This is the reason that even protected forests are not completely safe for wild animals.
(c) Some tribals depend on the jungle. How?
Answer: Tribal which lives near a jungle take many forest produce for their use. For example; they take firewood which is used as kitchen fuel. They hunt for some game animals. They utilize many plants as herbs and medicines. They also collect some forest produce which are used as raw materials for various industries.
(d) What are the causes and consequences of deforestation?
Answer: Causes of deforestation are as follows:
Consequences of deforestation are as follows:
(e) What is Red Data Book?
Answer: The Red Data Book is a list of endangered species. It is released by ICUN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). It was first released in 1963.
(f) What do you understand by the term migration?
Answer: Many animals travel to faraway places in search of food and breeding ground; when climatic changes take place in their natural habitat. Migration is usually an annual event. Birds are more famous as long distance migratory species. Many birds from Siberia come to India during winter months; in search of warm climate and food.
Question: 6. In order to meet the ever-increasing demand in factories and for shelter, trees are being continually cut. Is it justified to cut trees for such projects? Discuss and prepare a brief report.
Answer: According to a United Nations report, agriculture is the major cause of deforestation. Subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial agriculture is responsible for 32% of deforestation; logging is responsible for 14% of deforestation and fuel wood removals make up 5% of deforestation. This report shows that agriculture is responsible for 80% of deforestation. Logging which is done to supply wood for construction activities contributes 14% but this also a significant number.
Since human beings also need natural resources for their use so they have every right to exploit natural resources for their benefit. But being the most intelligent species on the earth, it is our responsibility to protect the earth. This can be done by proper planning for afforestation so that removed trees can be replaced with new trees.
Question: 7. How can you contribute to the maintenance of green wealth of your locality? Make a list of actions to be taken by you.
Answer: I can take following actions to contribute to the maintenance of green wealth in my locality:
Question: 8. Explain how deforestation leads to reduced rainfall.
Answer: Green plants lose water by way of transpiration. This contributes a lot towards atmospheric moisture. Thus, green plants have major contribution in precipitation. Due to this, deforestation leads to reduced rainfall.
Question: 9. Find out the information about the national parks in your state. Identify and show their location on the outline map of India.
Answer: Some major national parks have been shown in the following map of India. You can select the national parks which are in your native state and can fill the map accordingly.
Question: 10. Why should paper be saved? Prepare a list of ways by which you can save paper.
Answer: Paper is made from wood pulp; which means trees need to be cut for making paper. By saving paper, we can in fact save the forest. We can do following to save paper:
Question: 11. Complete the word puzzle:
1. Species on the verge of extinction.
2. A book, carrying information about endangered species.
5. Consequence of deforestation.
Answer: 1: ENDANGERED, 2: RED DATA BOOK, 5: DESERTS
1. Species which have vanished.
3. Species found only in a particular habitat.
4. Variety of plants, animals and microorganisms found in an area.
Answer: 1: EXTINCT, 3: ENDEMIC, 4: BIODIVERSITY