What do you understand by the term development? Would all sections of society benefit from such a definition of development?
Development is a process that ensures good quality of life to all the people in terms of happiness, harmony and satisfaction of essential needs. It is related to improvement, progress and aspirations of people. This definition of development would benefit all the sections of society as it shows the basic need approach. It allows more people to make meaningful choices and the pre-condition for this is the fulfilment of basic needs like food, education, health and shelter.
The previous concepts of development that were based on only economic growth have not been beneficial for poor people and environment and have resulted in a wide gap between rich and poor and imbalanced ecology. Therefore, a definition that aims towards improving the quality of people's life would justify the essence of development.
Discuss some of the social and ecological costs of the kind of development which has been pursued in most countries.
Social costs of development
Ecological costs of development
What are some of the new claims for rights which the process of development has generated?
The new claims for rights that have been generated by the process of development are as follows:
What would be the advantages of democracy over other forms of government for ensuring that decisions regarding
development are made to promote the common good?
The advantages of democracy over other forms of government for ensuring common good as the aims of development are as
In your view how successful have popular struggles been in making the state responsive to the social and environmental costs of development? Discuss with examples.
Popular struggles like the Narmada Bachao Andolan and the Chipko movement have played a major role in making the state responsive to the social and environmental costs of development.
The Narmada Bachao Aandolan has stopped the government for the time being from raising the height of Sardar Sarovar dam on River Narmada. This project was harmful for the environment and social life of the people. A large forest was submerged during the construction and many people were displaced. The activists have also been trying to persuade the government to offer more meaningful rehabilitation packages to the displaced people.
The Chipko Movement against deforestation was successful in Uttrakhand. The people hugged the trees and stopped the contractors from cutting them down. This was basically an environmental movement but the livelihood of the local people also depended on these forests. Thus, it created awareness all over the country about the actions of the government and forced the state to become more responsive