NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
Q.1. Choose the right answer to the following questions:
I. The greatest amount of fresh water on the Earth is found in ............. .
(a) the oceans
(b) ice caps and glaciers
(d) surface water
II. Groundwater is .................... .
(a) not usable because it is dirty
(b) another name for watershed
(c) too far beneath the Earth’s surface to be used
(d) another name for an aquifer
III. Surface water ..................... .
(a) is used to produce electricity
(b) can be easily contaminated
(c) can be used for recreation
(d) all of the above
Ans. I. (b) ice caps and glaciers
II. (d) another name for aquifer
III. (d) all of the above
Q.2. How does drought affect our lives?
Ans. Droughts create acute shortage of water, food, fodder, crop failure and employment, thus affecting lives of people in drought-affected areas.
Q.3. List ways to conserve water in day to day use.
Ans. On a day to day basis, water can be conserved by promoting communitybased rainwater harvesting and watershed programmes. Some traditional methods of water conservation include guhls in the western and central Himalayas, bamboo pipes in Meghalaya, aharpyne irrigation system in Bihar, Kunds in Thar Desert and surangam in Malabar area.
Q.4. What actions will help us to mitigate drought, individually as well as collectively?
Ans. Since droughts give ample time to prepare before they come, we can try to mitigate the ill-effects. We can reduce the intensity and impact of droughts through collective and individual actions. In the long term, effects of drought can be controlled by promoting community-based rainwater harvesting, watershed programmes. We should increase forest cover, sow drought-resistant
crops like paddy, and encourage seed insurance schemes. Students can also contribute by conserving water, promoting rainwater harvesting and planting trees.
Q.5. What do you understand by rainwater harvesting?
Ans. Rainwater harvesting is a method of water conservation in which rain water is stored in appropriate storage places for times of scarcity of water.