NCERT Solutions - Era of One Party Dominance Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

1. Choose the correct option to fill in the
blanks.
(a) The First General Elections in 1952 involved simultaneous elections to
the Lok Sabha and………….
(The President of India/State Assemblies/Rajya Sabha/The Prime Minister)
(b) The party that won the second largest number of Lok Sabha seats in the first
elections was the …………
(Praja Socialist Party/Bharatiya Jana Sangh/Communist Party of India/Bharatiya Janata Party)
(c) One of the guiding principles of the ideology of the Swatantra Party was………
(Working class interest/protection of Princely States/Economy free from State control/Autonomy of States within the Union)
Answer: (a) State Assemblies
 (b) Communist Party of India
 (c) Economy free from state control.

2. Match the following

NCERT Solutions - Era of One Party Dominance Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Answer: (a)—(iv), (b)-(i), (c)-(w), (d)-(iii)

3. Four statements regarding one-party dominance are given below. Mark each of them as true or false:
(a) One-party dominance is rooted in the absence of strong alternative political parties
(b) One-party dominance occurs because of weak public opinion.
(c) One-party dominance is linked to the nation’s colonial past.
(d) One-party dominance reflects the absence of democratic ideals in a country.
Answer: (a) True, (b) False, (c) True, (d) False

4. If Bharatiya Jana Sangh of the Communist Party of India had formed the government after the first election, in which respects would the policies of the government have been different? Specify three differences each for both the parties.
Answer: 1. Bharatiya Jana Sangh:
 The policies of Bharatiya Jana Sangh were based on the principles as follows:
 (a) It replaced secular concept by the ideology of one country, one culture and one nation.
 (b) No cultural and educational rights as this party opposed the granting of concessions to religious and cultural minorities.
 (c) It focused on the reunity of India and Pakistan under the concept of Akhand Bharat.
 2. Communist Party of India:
 Communist Party of India would have been different on the principles as follows:
 (а) It worked for proportional representation in the govern-ment.
 (б) This party followed communist ideology in various policies.
 (c) It emphasised on a control over electronic mass media by an autonomous body or corporation.

5. In what sense was the Congress an ideological coalition? Mention the various ideological currents present within the Congress.
Answer: The Congress Party became a social and ideological coalition for it merged different social groups alongwith their identity holding different beliefs:
 1. It accommodated the revolutionary, conservative, pacifist, radical, extremist and moderates and the rights and the left with all other shades of the centre.
 2. Congress became a platform for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
 Ideological currents present within the Congress:
 (a) In pre-independence days, many organisations and parties with their own constitutions and organisational structures were allowed to exist within the Congress.
 (b) Some of these like “Congress Socialist Party” later seperated from the Congress and became on opposition party.

6. Did the prevalence of a ‘one-party dominant system’ affect adversely the democratic nature of Indian politics?
Answer: No, the prevalence of one party dominance system did not affect adversely the democratic nature of Indian politics because:
 1. The key role of Congress in the freedom struggle gave it a head start over others.
 2. The Congress accommodated diversified interests, religion, beliefs and aspirations to strengthen democracy.
 3. Despite being taken place of free and fair elections, Congress won elections in the same manner again and again.
 4. Congress party consisted of various factions inside itself, based on ideological considerations who never taught together or went out of Congress.
 5. Hence, on the basis of above mentioned criterion, it can be concluded that Congress strengthened ideals of democracy and held unity and integrity of the country.

7. Bring out three differences each between Socialist Parties and the Communist Party and between Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party.
Answer: 1. Differences between Socialist Parties and Communist Party:

NCERT Solutions - Era of One Party Dominance Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
NCERT Solutions - Era of One Party Dominance Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

2. Differences between Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party:

NCERT Solutions - Era of One Party Dominance Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

8. What would you consider as the main differences between Mexico and India under one party domination?
Answer: There was a difference between one party domination in India and Mexico. In Mexico, this was a one party system only not dominance because:
 1. In India, the Congress party dominated on behalf of popular consensus but Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) (in Spanish) ruled on behalf of perfect dictatorship.
 2. In India, free and fair elections took place, where the losing of election was also fair but it Mexico, elections were based on malpractices, dominated by PRI.

9. Take a political map of India (with State outlines) and mark:
(a) Two states where Congress was not in poiver at some point during 1952-67.
(b) Two states where the Congress remained in power through this period.
Answer. Map is attached and marked as:
 (a) 1. Kerala (Travancore-Cochin)
 2. Madras (Travancore-Cochin)
 (b) 1. Punjab or U.P.
 2. Rajasthan or West Bengal.

10. Read the following passage:
“Patel, the organisational man of the Congress, wanted to purge the Congress of other political groups and sought to make of it a cohesive and disciplined political party. He … sought to take the Congress away from its all-embracing character
and turn it into a close-knit party of disciplined cadres. Being a ‘ r list he looked more for discipline than for took too romantic a view of “eariging on the movement,” Patel’s idea of transforming the Congress into strictly political party with a single ideology and tight discipline showed an equal lack of understanding of the eclectic role that the Congress, as a government, was to be called upon to perform in the decades to follow.”—Rnjni Kotl c – 1
(а) Why does the author think that Congress should not have been a cohesive and disciplined party?
(b) Give some examples of the eclectic
role of the Congress party in the early years.
(c) Why does the author say that Gandhi’s view about Congress future was romantic?
Answer: (a) Because she wanted to take the Congress away from its all embracing character and turn it into a close knit party of disciplined caders.
 (b) These examples are in the form of social and ideological coalition of Congress:
 (i) It provided a platform for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to participate in national movement.
 (ii) Congress party represented a rainbow like social coalition representing diversity of India including various castes, religions and languages.
 (c) Because Gandhiji believed in hand- in-hand characteristic of national movement led by Congress which attracted various sections groups and society to form a social and ideological coalition in Congress.


MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED

Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]

1. Which political party laid emphasis on the idea of one party, one culture and one nation?
Answer: Bharatiya Jana Sangh.

2. Which political party of India had leaders like A.K. Gopalan, E.M.S. Namboodiripad, and S.A. Dange?
Answer: Communist Party of India.

3. Who was the founder of Bharatiya Jana Sangh?
Answer: Shyama Prasad Mukherjee in 1951.

4. In which year was the Election Commission of India set up and who was the first chief Election Commissioner of India?
Answer: 25 January 1950, Sukumar Sen.

5. Name the founder president of the Congress Socialist Party. What name was given to this party after 1948?
Answer: The founder president of the Congress Socialist Party was Acharya Narendra Dev and after 1955 it came to be known as Socialist Party.

6. Differentiate between one party dominance and one party system.
Answer: One party dominance refer to representation on behalf of popular consensus alongwith free and fair elections i.e. Congress in India whereas one party system refers representation based on malpractice, fraud etc. to ensure winning of a particular party.

7. When and why was the electronic voting machine used in India for the first time?
Answer: The electronic voting machine was used in India in 1990 for first time for more accuracy and fair dealing while counting as well as it helps to check Booth capturing and other malpractices.

8. How did socialist party origin?
Answer: The founder president of the Congress socialist party was Acharya Narendra Dev and after 1955 it came to be known as Socialist Party.

9. Define faction.
Answer: Faction are the groups formed inside the party i.e. coalitions made in Congress created various factions which were based on either ideological considerations or personal ambitions.

10. When and by whom PRI was founded?
Answer: The ‘Institutional Revolutionary Party’ (PRI) was founded in 1929 by Plutareo Elias Calles in Mexico which represented the legacy of Mexican Revolution.


Very Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks]

1. How did the dominance of Congress Party in the first three general elections help in establishing a democratic set-up in India?
Answer: The first general election was the first big test of democracy in a poor and illiterate country. Till then democracy had existed only in the prosperous countries. By that time many countries in Europe had not given voting rights to all women. In this context India’s experiment with universal adult franchise appeared very bold and risky. India’s general election of 1952 became a landmark in the history of democracy all over the world. It was no longer possible to argue that domocratic elections could not be held on conditions of poverty or lack of education. It proved that democracy could be practised anywhere in the world. The next two general elections strengthened democratic set-up in India.

2. Highlight any two features of ideology of Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
Answer: 1. Bharatiya Jana Sangh laid emphasis on ideology of one country, one culture and one nation.
 2. Bharatiya Jana Sangh called for reunity of India and Pakistan in Akhand Bharat.

3. Explain the major difference of ideology between that of Congress and the Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
Answer: The major difference of ideology between Congress and the Bharatiya Jana Sangh was that Bharatiya Jana Sangh emphasised on one party country. One culture, one nation i.e. a Hindu nation or Hindutva whereas Congress formed ideological and social coalitions accommodating social diversities.

4. State any two ideologies of the Swatantra Party.
Answer: Swatantra Party was founded by Senior Congress leader C. Rajgopalachari in August 1959:
 1. The party believed that prosperity could come only through individual freedom.
 2. This party was against land ceilings in agriculture and opposed to cooperative farming.

5. How has the method of voting changed from the first General Election of 1952 to the General Election of 2004?
Answer: 1. In the first General Election a box was placed inside each polling booth for each candidate with the election symbol of the candidate. Each voter was given a blank ballot paper to drop into the box, they wanted to vote for.
 2. After first two elections, this method was changed. Now ballot paper carried the names and symbols of candidates and the voter stamped against the name of candidate to vote for.
 3. In 2004, Electronic Voting Machine were introduced to press the button according to choice of the voter containing the name of candidate and symbol of political party.

6. When was Communist Party emerged?
Answer: The Communist Party emerged in 1920 in different parts of India. It took the inspiration from Bolshevik revolution in Russia. The important leaders of CPI were A.K. Gopalan, S.A. Dange, E.M.S. Namboodiripad, P.C. Joshi, Ajay Ghosh etc.

7. “India’s experiment with universal adult franchise appeared very bold and risky”. Justify the statement.
Answer: Because:
 1. Country’s vast size and electorates made these elections unusual.
 2. The year 1952, it was a big test for poor and illiterate country.
 3. Till then, democracy had been existed only in the prosperous countries mainly in Europe and North America where everyone was almost literate.

8. Mention the aims and goals of Socialist Party of India. Why the party could not prove itself as an effective alternative to the Congress?
Answer: Aims and goals of socialist party of India:
 1. The Socialist Party believed in the ideology of democratic socialism to be distinguished from Congress and Communists both.
 2. It criticised Congress for ignoring the workers and peasants.
 It became difficult for socialist party to prove itself as an effective alternative to Congress because Congress Party declared its goal to be the socialist pattern of society in 1955.

9. What were the reasons for dominance of one party system in India?
Answer: The dominance of Congress in India was due to following reasons:
 1. Congress was identified with the freedom struggle for building national unity and solidarity.
 2. Congress was associated with Mahatma Gandhi’s name.
 3. It had a broad based manifesto to include the various section of society.
 4. Congress bore a popular appeal of charismatic leader like Mahatma Gandhi, J.L. Nehru, Sardar Patel, Indira Gandhi etc.
 5. Congress focused on building role of the party.

10. How did India’s first general elections of 1952 become a landmark in the history of democracy all over the world?
Answer: Because:
 1. These elections were competitive among various parties.
 2. The participation of people was encouraging also.
 3. The results were declared in a very fair manner, even to be accepted by the losers in a fair manner.
 4. This experiment of India, proved the critics wrong also.


Short Answer Type Questions [4 Marks]

1. Describe the organisation of Congress Party as a social and ideological coalitions.
Or
“For a long time Congress Party had been a social and ideological coalition”. Justify the statement. 
Answer: 1. It accommodated the revolutionary conservative, extremist and moderates with all other shades of the centre.
 2. Congress became a platform for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in national movement.
 3. In pre-independence days, many organisations and parties were allowed to co-exist within the Congress.
 4. Some of these like ‘Congress Socialist Party’ later separated from the Congress and became an opposition party.

2. How was one party dominance of India different from the other examples of one party dominance in the world?
Or
Examine the comparative analysis of nature of Congress dominance.
Answer: India is not the only country to have dominance of one party but we have some other examples also for the same. But the dominance of one party in India does not compromise democratic spirit of constitution whereas other nations have compromised it:
 1. In countries like China, Cuba and Syria are permitted to be ruled by one party only by the constitutional provisions.
 2. Myanmar, Belarus, Egypt also experience one party system due to legal and military measurer.
 3. In India, Congress dominates on behalf of free and fair elections based on democracy where the losing of other party is also fair.

3. “In India, hero-worship, plays a part in its politics unequalled in magnitude by the part it plays in the politics of any other country But in politics, hero-worship is a sure road to degradation and eventual dictatorship”.Babasaheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Analyse the statement.
 Ans: The above mentioned statement speaks of accommodating diversities by the leader of India which was a challenging path to democracy. Our leaders wanted to represent politics as a way of solution of problems in place of making politics a problem.

4. Examine the dominance of Congress in the first three General Elections.
Answer: I. In the first election Congress won 364/489 seats as per expectations.
 2. The Communist Party next to Congress won only 16 seats.
 3. Congress scored higher in state elections also except Travancore- Cochin (Kerala), Madras and Orissa.
 4. Hence, country ruled at national and state level both by declaring Pt. J.L. Nehru as the first Prime Minister of India.
 5. In second and third elections also, Congress maintained the same position in Loksabha by winning of three fourth seats in the years 1957 and 1962 respectively.


Passage Based Questions [5 Marks]

1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
This coalition-like character of the Congress gave it an unusual strength. Firstly, a coalition accommodates all those who join it. Therefore, it has to avoid any extreme position and strike a balance on almost all issues. Compromise and inclusiveness are the hallmarks of a coalition. This strategy put the opposition in a difficulty. Anything that the opposition wanted to say, would also find a place in the programme and ideology of the Congress. Secondly, in a party that has the nature of a coalition, there is a greater tolerance of internal differences and ambitions of various groups and leaders are accommodated. The Congress did both these things during the freedom struggle and
continued doing this even after Independence. That is why, even if a group was not happy with the position of the party or with its share of power, it would remain inside the party and fight the other groups rather than leaving the party and becoming an ‘opposition’.

Questions
1. What do you mean by a faction?
2. How did coalition-like character affect the nature of Congress Party?
3. How did Congress avoided to increase number of ‘opposition’?
Answer:
 1. Factions are the groups formed inside the party based on either ideological considerations or on personal ambitions and rivalries.
 2. Coalition-like character of Congress accommodated all social diversities and maintained a balance on almost all issues. Even a proper space for the programmes and ideology of opposite parties was also given. In such a way Congress showed greater tolerance towards internal differences.
 3. Alongwith its coalition-like character, Congress did not let the groups to leave the party to become an opposition.

2. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
The socialists believed in the ideology of democratic socialism which distinguished them both from the Congress as well as from the Communists. They criticised the Congress for favouring capitalists and landlords and for ignoring the workers and the peasants. But the socialists faced a dilemma when in 1955 the Congress declared its goal to be the socialist pattern of society. Thus it became difficult for the socialists to present themselves as an effective alternative to the Congress. Some of them, led by Rammanohar Lohia, increased their distance from and criticism of the Congress party. Some others like Asoka Mehta advocated a limited cooperation with the Congress.

Questions
1. Mention the ideology of Socialists.
2. Name some leaders of the Socialist Party.
3. Why did it become difficult for socialists to present themselves as an effective alternative to the Congress?
Answer:
 1. Socialists believed in the ideology of democratic socialism to be distinguished from Congress as well as from Communists.
 2. Ram Manohar Lohia, Ashok Mehta and Acharya Narendra Dev, Jayaprakash Narayan etc.
 3. Because in 1955, Congress declared its goal to be the socialist pattern of society.


Long Answer Type Questions [6 Marks]

1. Describe the various steps taken to hold the first general elections in India. How far these elections were successful?
Answer: The first general elections had to be postponed twice and finally held from October 1951 to February 1952:
 1. These elections were referred to as 1952 elections because most parts of country voted in January 1952.
 2. It took six months for campaigning, polling and counting to be completed.
 3. Elections were competitive because there were on an average more than four candidates for each seat.
 4. The level of participation was en-couraging to vote out in the election.
 5. The results were declared and accepted as fair even by losers to prove critics wrong.
 These elections were successful:
 1. The losing of the parties was also accepted as fair.
 2. These elections became a landmark in the history of democracy.
 3. It was no longer possible to argue that democratic elections could not be held in conditions of poverty or lack of education. Instead, it can be practised anywhere in the world.

2. Why was Congress considered as a social and ideological coalition in independence days? Explain.
Answer: The Congress Party became a social and ideological coalition for it merged different social groups alongwith their identity holding different beliefs:
 1. It accommodated the revolutionary, conservative, pacifist, radical, extremist and moderates and the right and the left with all other shades of the centre.
 2. Congress became a platform for numerous groups, interacts and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
 Ideological currents present within the Congress:
 (а) In pre-independence days, many organisations and parties with their own constitutions and organisational structures were allowed to exist within the Congress.
 (b) Some of these like ‘Congress Socialist Party”, later separated from the Congress and became an opposition party.

3. How was the one party dominance in India different from the one party system in Mexico? In your opinion which of the two political systems is better and why?
Answer: There was a difference between one party domination in India and Mexico. In Mexico, this was a one party system only not dominance because:
 1. In India, the Congress Party dominated on behalf of popular consensus but Institutional Revolu-tionary Party (PRI) (in Spanish) ruled on behalf of perfect dictatorship.
 2. In India, free and fair elections took place, where the losing of election was also fair but in Mexico, elections were based on malpractices, dominated by PRI.
 In our opinion one party dominance¬like India is better because this sort of dominance:
 1. Accommodates social diversities.
 2. Encourage large number of parti-cipation.
 3. Ensures democratic spirit as well as maintains the same.
 4. Bear respect even for opposition.

4. How did opposition parties emerge in India? What was their importance?
Answer: Some of the diverse opposition parties had come into existence before the
 first general elections in 1952 as non-Congress parties which succeeded to gain only a taken of representation in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies. These parties maintained a democratic character of the system:
 1. These offered a criticism based on principles to keep ruling party under check.
 2. These parties groomed the leaders also to play a crucial role in shaping the country.
 3. In the early years, these was a lot of respect between leaders of Congress and opposition parties i.e. interim government included even opposition leaders like Dr. Ambedkar, Jayaprakash Narayan, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee into the cabinet.


Picture/Map Based Questions [5 Marks]

A. Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:

NCERT Solutions - Era of One Party Dominance Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Questions
1. What does the cartoon represent?
2. What does the term ‘Tug of war’ refer to?
3. Who has been shown on the branches of tree?
Answer:
 1. Cartoon represents dominance of Congress which is being tug by opposition parties to throw Congress out of power.
 2. ‘Tug of war’ refer to pulling out the Congress by criticism and mentioning its weaknesses in an honest and justified manner.
 3. Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru alongwith his colleagues in the cabinet.

Bl. In the outline political map of India given below, five States have been marked as A, B, C, D and E. With the help of the information given below, identify them and write their correct names in your answer book along with the serial number of the information used and the related alphabet in the map.
NCERT Solutions - Era of One Party Dominance Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Questions
(i) The State to which C. Rajagopalachari, the first Indian Governor-General of India, belonged.
(ii) The State where the first non-Congress Government was formed by E.M.S. Namboodiripad.
(iii) The State to which Rafi Ahmed Kidwai, the Union Minister for Food and Agriculture (1952-54) belonged.
(iv) The State which faced the most acute food crisis in 1965-1967.
(v) The State which led the country to White Revolution through Dairy Cooperative Movement.
Answer:
 A — (iv) Bihar B — (iii) Uttar Pradesh C — (v) Gujarat D — (i) Tamil Nadu C — (a) Kerala

2. On a political outline map of India locate and label the following and symbolise them as indicated:
NCERT Solutions - Era of One Party Dominance Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Questions
1. Two states where Congress was not in power at some point during 1952-67.
2. Two states where the Congress remained in power through this period.
Answer:
 1. (i) Jammu & Kashmir (ii) Kerala
 2. (i) Uttar Pradesh (ii) Maharashtra

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