1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following statements does not describe geography?
(a) an integrative discipline
(b) study of the inter-relationship between humans and environment
(c) subjected to dualism
(d) not relevant in the present time due to the development of technology.
Answer: (d) not relevant in the present time due to the development of technology.
(ii) Which one of the following is not a source of geographical information?
(a) traveller’s accounts
(b) old maps
(c) samples of rock materials from the moon
(d) ancient epics
Answer: (c) samples of rock materials from the moon
(iii) Which one of the following is the most important factor in the interaction
between people and environment?
(a) human intelligence
(b) people’s perception
(d) human brotherhood
Answer: (c) technology
(iv) Which one of the following is not an approach in human geography?
(a) Areal differentiation
(b) Spatial organisation
(c) Quantitative revolution
(d) Exploration and description
Answer: (c) Quantitative revolution
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Define human geography.
Human geography studies the inter-relationship between the physical environment and sociocultural environment created by human beings through mutual interaction with each other.
(ii) Name some sub-fields of human geography.
Some sub-fields of human geography are:
• Behavioural Geography
• Geography of social well-being
• Geography of Leisure
• Cultural Geography
• Gender Geography
• Historical Geography
• Electoral Geography
• Military Geography
• Geography of Resources
• Geography of Agriculture, etc.
(iii) How is human geography related to other social sciences?
Human geography attempts to explain the relationship between all elements of human life and the space they occur over. Thus, human geography assumes a highly inter-disciplinary nature. It develops close interface with other sister disciplines in social sciences in order to understand and explain human elements on the surface of the earth.
3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.
(i) Explain naturalisation of humans.
Human beings interact with their physical environment with the help of technology. Technology indicates the level of cultural development of society.
• In the early stages of their interaction with their natural environment humans were greatly influenced by it. They adapted to the dictates of Nature. This is so because the level of technology was very low and the stage of human social development was also primitive.
• This type of interaction between primitive human society and strong forces of nature was termed as environmental determinism. At that stage of very low technological development we can imagine the presence of a naturalised human, who listened to Nature, was afraid of its fury and worshipped it.
• Nature is a powerful force, worshipped, revered and conserved in all cases.
• There is direct dependence of human beings on nature for resources which sustain them. The physical environment for such societies becomes the “Mother Nature”.
(ii) Write a note on the scope of human geography.
Human geography is the study of the changing relationship between the unresting man and the unstable earth.
• The process of adaptation, adjustment with and modification of the environment started with the
appearance of human beings over the surface of the earth in different ecological niches. Thus, if we imagine the beginning of human geography with the interaction of environment and human beings, it has its roots deep in history.
• Thus, the concerns of human geography have a long temporal continuum though the approaches to articulate them have changed over time. This dynamism in approaches and thrusts shows the vibrant nature of the discipline.
• Human geography attempts to explain the relationship between all elements of human life and the space they occur over. Thus, human geography assumes a highly inter-disciplinary nature.