1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following forms of settlement develops along either side of roads, rivers or canals?
► (b) linear
(ii) Which one of the following types of economic activities dominates in all rural settlement?
► (a) primary
(iii) In which of the following regions has the oldest well-documented urban settlement found?
(a) Huang He Valley
(b) Indus Valley
(c) Nile Valley
► (d) Mesopotamia
(iv) How many of the following cities in India have attained the million status at the beginning of 2006?
► (b) 42
(v) Sufficiency of which type of resources can help to create adequate social infrastructure catering to the needs of the large population in the developing countries?
► (c) natural
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) How would you define a settlement?
A human settlement is defined as a place inhabited more or less permanently. There may be some settlements which are temporary and are occupied for short periods, maybe a season.
(ii) Distinguish between site and situation.
Site means the actual piece of land on which the settlement is built.
Situation means the location of the village or town in relation to surrounding areas.
Site for settlement may be a hill top, a river bank or a coast of sea.
Situation may be studies in relation to the physical environment and cultural heritage.
Proper site for a settlement is generally determined by its access to water and other amenities for sustenance.
The mode of settlement in any particular region reflects human perception of natural environment.
(iii) What are the bases of classifying settlements?
Settlements can be classified on the basis of:
• Population Size
• Functions of the Settlement
• Occupation of the people
• Facilities in the Settlement
(iv) How would you justify the study of human settlements in human geography?
The study of settlement is essential and basic to human geography because the form of settlement in any particular region reflects the human relationship with the environment.
3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.
(i) What are rural and urban settlements? Mention their characteristics.
Rural settlements are most closely and directly related to land. They are dominated by primary activities such as agriculture, animal husbandary, fishing etc.
Characteristics of Rural Settlements:
• Most people are engaged in agriculture, fishing and other primary activities.
• These are smaller in size.
• These lack the modern facilities.
• The density of population is not very high.
• People participate in cultural activities.
Urban settlements are densely populated area in which people are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities mainly.
Characteristics of Urban Settlements:
• Most people are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities.
• These settlements are well planned.
• Urban settlements are large in size.
• The density of population is high.
• These areas have got complex culture because of mixing of other cultures in it.
• They have modern facilities of roads, electricity, water supply etc.
(ii) Discuss the problems associated with urban settlements in developing countries.
The various problems associated with urban settlements in developing countries are:
• People flock to cities to avail of employment opportunities and civic amenities. Since most cities in developing countries are unplanned, it creates severe congestion.
• Shortage of housing, vertical expansion and growth of slums are characteristic features of modern
cities of developing countries. In many cities an increasing proportion of the population lives in substandard housing, e.g. slums and squatter settlements.
• Cities in the developing countries suffer from several social ills. Insufficient financial resources
fail to create adequate social infrastructure catering to the basic needs of the huge population. The available educational and health facilities remain beyond the reach of the urban poor.
• The large urban population in developing countries not only uses but also disposes off a huge quantity of water and all types of waste materials.
• Many cities of the developing countries even find it extremely difficult to provide the minimum required quantity of potable water and water for domestic and industrial uses. An improper sewerage system creates unhealthy conditions.