1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.
(i) Which one of the following towns is NOT located on a river bank?
Ans (2) Bhopal
(ii) Which one of the following is NOT the part of the definition of a town as per the
census (i) of India?
1. Population density of 400 persons per sq km.
2. Presence of municipality, corporation, etc.
3. More than 75% of the population engaged in primary sector.
4. Population size of more than 5,000 persons.
Ans. (3) More than 75% of the population engaged in primary sector.
(iii) In which one of the following environments does one expect the presence of
dispersed rural settlements?
1. Alluvial plains of Ganga
2. Arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan
3. Lower valleys of Himalayas
4. Forests and hills in north-east
Ans. (1) Alluvial plains of Ganga
(iv) Which one of the following group of cities have been arranged in the sequence of their ranks i.e. 1, 2, 3 and 4 in size?
1. Greater Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Chennai
2. Delhi, Greater Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata
3. Kolkata, Greater Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata
4. Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai
Ans. (4) Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) What are garrison towns? What is their function?
Ans. Garrison/ Cantonment towns are basically locations/places where army contingents are posted. It stations troops permanently. It protects and defend the place. It includes important settlements like training centre,offices and residence. For example, Ambala, Jalandhar, Mhow, Babina, Udhampur etc.
(ii) How can one identify an urban agglomeration?
Ans. An urban agglomeration can be identified on the basis of size, population, occupation and economic activities. This are generally compact and larger in size. It's total population (i.e.all the constituents put together) should not be less than 20,000 as per the previous Census. It consists of atleast a statutory town(all places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc.). It possesses the urban features in terms of infrastructure and amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system for disposal of waste, water etc., educational institutions, post offices, medical facilities, banks etc.and physically contagious with the core town of the urban agglomeration. The contagious areas made up of other urban as well as rural administrative units should have close mutual socio-economic links with the core town.
(iii) What are the main factors for the location of villages in desert regions?
Ans. The main factors for the location of villages in desert regions are-
(a) Water is most important for human survival and settlement particularly in the dry desert regions. Therefore, availability of water is the primary factor for location of villages in desert regions. In order to make optimum utilisation of water, villages are located in the form of clustered settlements.
(b) Access to other geographic area close by for resource availability where intra-day movement can occur.
(iv) What are metropolitan cities? How are they different from urban agglomerations?
Ans. Cities accommodating population size between one to five million are called metropolitan cities. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas,as well as satellite cities, towns and intervening rural areas that are socio-economically tied to the urban core, typically measured by committing patterns.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt,is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and it's less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure and housing. A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs,cities,towns,exurbs,suburbs,counties, districts,states and even nation's like the euro districts.
An urban agglomeration is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and it's adjoining outgrowths or two or more physically continuous towns together with or without outgrowths of such towns. An urban Agglomeration must consider of at least a statuory town and it's population should not be less than 20,000.
An Urban Agglomeration would be constituted:
(i)a city or town with one or more contiguous outgrowths;
(ii) two or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths; and
(iii) a city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths all of which form a continuous spread.
3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Discuss the features of different types of rural settlements. What are the factors responsible for the settlement patterns in different physical environments?
Ans. There are four different types of rural settlements-
(i) Compact settlements: If the number of villages equals the number of hamlets in an area unit, the settlement is designated as compact. In such villages all the dwellings are concentrated in one central site. The inhabitants of the village live together and enjoy the benefits of community life. Such settlements range from a cluster of about 30 to 100 of dwellings of different forms, sizes and functions . Their size varies from 500 to 2500 persons in sparsely populated parts like Rajasthan to more than 10,000 in the Ganga plains.
Such settlements are found throughout the plateau region of Malwa, in the Narmada valley, Nimar Upland, large parts of Rajasthan, paddy lands in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Vindhyan Plateau and several other cultivated parts of India.
(ii) Semi compact settlements: If the number of villages equals more than half of the Hamlet's, it is semi compact settlement. These are found both in plains and plateaus depending upon the environmental conditions prevailing there. The dwellings in such settlements are not very closely knitted and are huddled together at one common site. It covers more area than the compact settlements ; the hamlets occupy new sites near the periphery of the village boundary. Such settlements are widespread in the Gujarat plain and some parts of Rajasthan
(iii) Hamleted settlements: If the number of villages is equal to half of hamlet number, it is a hamlet settlement. The hamlets are spread over the area with intervening fields and the main or central settlement is either absent or has febble influence upon others. Often the original site is not easily distinguishable and the morphological diversity is rarely noticed. Such settlements are found in West Bengal, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and coastal plains.
(iv) Dispersed settlements: If the number of villages is less than half the number of hamlets, the settlement is regarded as dispersed. The inhabitants of dispersed settlements live in isolated dwellings scattered in the cultivated fields. Individualism, sentiments of living freely, custom of marriage relations are conducive to such settlements. Many areas of Meghalaya, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Kerela have this type of settlement. The factors responsible for the settlement patterns in different physical environments are
(a) Water: Water is considered the exilir of life. Humans are largely dependent on water for life, thus, the supply of water has been a strong factor that determines the location of settlements. People are willing to face other adverse conditions in order to fulfill their need for water, for example,on islands and low-lying swampy areas. Water also forms a kind of natural defence to these settlements. Such sites are mainly along riverbanks. However, in water scarce areas, water resources deserts, springs and wells serve as the main source of water. Water supply is main factor because water is used for drinking, cooking and washing; rivers and lakes can be used to irrigate farmland, water-bodies also have fish which can be caught for diet and navigable rivers and lakes can be used for transportation.
(b) Topography and climate: Topography refers to the shape and elevation of the land. It includes features like mountains ,hills, plains, valleys and deserts. The topography of an area was important for early human settlement. Farmers preferred to settle in flat, open areas such as plains and valleys. Large, flat spaces gave farmers room to grow crops. Also, the rich soil in coastal plains and river valleys are excellent for growing crops.
Mountains were less friendly to human settlement. Steep mountains were hard to cross. Their jagged peaks ,cold temperatures and rocky land made farming difficult. Desert also discouraged settlement. They were hot and dry. They contained very little water for farming. Sandstorms occured when strong winds carried dense clouds of sand that could block out the sun. The intense heat, lack of water and sandstorm made travel and living in the desert difficult.
(ii) Can one imagine the presence of only one-function town? Why do the cities become multi functional?
Ans. It is difficult to imagine the presence of only one-function town. It is very much possible that one particular function becomes dominating in a town. But other functions will be existent in some degree. For example, Banaras is a cultural town but at the same time it is extremely popular for its silk saree and Banaras Hindu University. There are also administrative offices of local governments. Similarly, New Delhi is an administrative town but it has many industries, historical monuments and educational importance.
Cities becomes multi functional because one function acts as a promoter of other functions. If a town is religious and cultural then certainly it will attract tourists and may become a tourist town. The functions change due to their dynamic nature. Even specialised cities, as they grow into metropolis become multifunctional wherein industry, business, administration, transport etc.become important. The functions get so intertwined that the city cannot be categorised in a particular functional class.