NCERT Solutions - India’s External Relations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 12

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TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

1. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’ against each of these statements.
(a) Non-alignment allowed India to gain assistance both from USA and USSR.
(b) India’s relationship with her neighbours has been strained from the beginning.
(c) The cold war has affected the relationship between India and Pakistan.
(d) The treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1971 was the result of India’s closeness to USA.
Answer:  (a) True; (b) True; (c) True; (d) False.

2. Match the following:

NCERT Solutions - India’s External Relations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Answer: (a)—(ii), (b)-(iii), (c)-(iv), (d)-(i).

3. Why did Nehru regard conduct of foreign relations as an essential indicator of independence? State any two reasons with examples to support your reading.
Answer. 1. India decided to conduct its foreign relations with respect to sovereignty of other nations and maintain peace and security through mutual cooperation to be reflected in the Directive Principles of State Policy on Article 51 of constitution
 2. India always advocated the policy of Non-alignment, made efforts to reduce cold war tensions and contributed human resources to UN peace keeping operations.
 3. Hence, India took independent stand and got assistance from members of both the blocs.

4. “The conduct of foreign affairs is an outcome of a two-way interaction between domestic compulsions and prevailing international climate”. Take one example from India’s external relations in the 1960s to substantiate your answer.
Answer: The statement is justified to maximum extent to be proved during ‘Sino-Indian Conflict of 1962’ to dent India’s image at home and international level, India had to approach the Americans and the British for military assistance to tide over the issues. The Soviet Union remained neutral during the conflict:
 (i) All the occurrings, created a sense of national humiliation but strengthened a spirit of nationalism also on the other hand.
 (ii) Pt. Nehru was also criticised for his naive assessment of Chinese intentions and lack of military preparedness.
 (iii) Political mood of country began to change, when no-confidence motion against Nehru moved in and debated in Lok-Sabha.
 (iv) ‘Sino-Indian Conflict’ splitted the Communist Party of India in 1964s split fraction formed communist party of India (CPI-M).
 (v) Besides, the war with China alerted Indian leadership to volatile situation in the North east region.
 (vi) Apart from being isolated and extremely underdeveloped, this region posed the challenge of national integration in front of India.

5. Identify any two aspects of India’s foreign policy that you would like to retain and two that you would like to change, if you were to become a decision maker. Give reasons to support your position.
Answer: Two Aspects to be Supported:
 1. India always maintained her dignity and image of a peace loving country by taking initiatives to bring about equality and understanding among the nations i.e. India supported to end Korean War in 1953, French rule in China, US role in Vietnam.
 2. India’s initiatives for Non¬alignment are also appreciable for the maintenance of mutual understanding and security. During post cold war era also, NAM had become an effective tool to make the Security Council more effective and democratic.
 Two Aspects to be Changed:
 1. In the course of decade of 1962-72, India faced three wars and its peaceful image played a very limited role.
 2. Conflict with neighbouring countries like China and Pakistan derailed India’s concept of regional co¬operation under SAARC.
 Hence, India must adopt diplomatic and defensive postures in its foreign policy to maintain its independent entity.

6. Write short notes on the following:
(a) India’s nuclear policy
(b) Consensus in foreign policy matters
Answer: (a) India’s Nuclear Policy:
 1. India advocates no first use and reiterates India’s commitment to global verifiable on non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament loading to a nuclear weapon free world.
 2. Pt. Nehru always promoted ’ science and technology to build
 a modern India, i.e. initiated nuclear programme in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhoba.
 3. India was against nuclear weapons, hence pleaded many nuclear disarmament with superpowers.
 4. India always considered NPT as discriminatory and refused to sign on it.
 5. Even India’s first Nuclear Test in May 1974 was termed as a peaceful explosion and India argued to use nuclear power for peaceful purposes only.
 (6) Consensus in Foreign Policy Matters:
 1. Pt. Nehru played a crucial role in the architecture of setting National Agenda for foreign policy.
 2. Both as a Prime Minister and foreign minister he played profound influence in the formulation and implementation of India’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1964.
 3. When different parties came to power from time to time, foreign policy of India played a limited role in party politics.

7.India’s foreign policy was built around the principles of peace and cooperation. But India fought three wars in a space of ten years between 1962 and 1971. Would you say that this was a failure of the foreign policy? Or
would you say that this was a result of international situation? Give reasons to support your answer.
Answer: No, this was not the failure of foreign policy but this was a result of international situation:
 1. The Chinese Invasion 1962:
 (a) Serious conflict arose when China annexed Tibet in 1950 and removed a historical buffer between two nation, and India did not oppose this openly.
 (b) India grew uneasy, when China began to suppress Tibetan Culture.
 (c) Another border dispute arose when China claimed Aksai Chin area and NEFA (much of the state in Arunachal Pradesh) within the Indian territory.
 (id) Despite long term correspondence and discussions, these issues have not been resolved even by top leaders of country.
 (e) Hence, India had to indulge in the conflict.

 

2. War with Pakistan:
 (a) A serious armed conflict between two countries began in 1965 with the initiative of Pakistan over Kashmir partition.
 (b) In 1966, the hostilities came to an end with the UN intervention and Tashkent Agreement signed between Indian Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan’s General Ayub Khan.
 (c) The 1965 War added to India’s already difficult economic situation.

 

3. Bangladesh War of 1971:
 (a) In 1970, Pakistan faced its biggest crisis in the way for a split verdict i.e. Zulficar Ali Bhutto’s Party emerged as winner in West Pakistan while Awami league led by “Sheikh Mujibur- Rehman” swept through East Pakistan.
 (b) The Bengali population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against discriminatory attitude of West Pakistan, which was not acceptable to West Pakistan rulers.
 (c) In 1971, Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib and unleashed a region of terror on East Pakistan. This started people’s struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan.
 (d) India had to bear 80 lakh refugees who fled from East Pakistan to take shelter. Hence, India had to extend moral and : material support to the freedom
 struggle in Bangladesh.
 (e) A full scale war between India and Pakistan in December 1971 broke out, when Pakistan attacked on Punjab and Rajasthan to be retaliated an attack from India.
 (f) Within ten days the Indian army surrounded Dhaka and Pakistan had to surrender with Bangladesh as a free country, India declared a unilateral ceasefire and Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in 1972.
 (g) Most people in India saw this moment as a glory of India and a clear sign of India’s growing military powers.

8. Does India’s foreign policy reflect her desire to be an important regional power? Argue your case with the Bangladesh war of 1971 as an example.
Answer: Bangladesh War 1971:
 (a) In 1970, Pakistan faced its biggest crisis in the way for a split verdict i. e. Zulficar Ali Bhutto’s Party emerged as winner in West Pakistan while Awami League led by ‘Sheikh Mujibur-Rehman’ swept through East Pakistan.
 (b) The Bengali population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against discriminatory attitude of west Pakistan which was not acceptable to west Pakistan rulers.
 (c) In 1971, Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib and unleashed a reign of terror on East Pakistan. This started people’s struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan.
 (d) India had to bear 80 lakh refugees who fled from East Pakistan to take shelter. Hence, India had to extend moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh.
 (e) A full scale war between India and Pakistan in December 1971 broke out, when Pakistan attacked on Punjab and Rajasthan to be retaliated an attack from India. if) Within ten days the Indian army surrounded Dhakan and Pakistan had to surrender with Bangladesh as a free country, India declared a unilateral ceasefire and Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in 1972.
 (f) Most people in India saw this moment as a glory of India and a dear sign of India’s growing military powers.
 On the above mentioned reference, we may conclude “Yes’. India’s foreign Policy reflects her desire to be an important regional power which was revealed during the Bangladesh war of 1971. Yes, India’s foreign policy reflects her desire to be an important regional power which was revealed during the Bangladesh war of 1971.

9. How does political leadership of a nation affect its foreign policy? Explain this with the help of examples from India’s foreign policy.
Answer: Foreign policy of any country is the mirror of national interests as in India:
 1. During non-congress government in 1977, Janata Party announced to follow non-alignment genuinely. This implied that the pro-Soviet tilt in foreign policy will be corrected. Since then, all governments took initiatives to restore better relations with China and entered into close ties with the US.
 2. In Post 1990 period the ruling parties were criticised for their pro-US foreign policy. During this period Russia had lost its global pre¬eminence despite it has been India’s good friend. Hence, India’s foreign policy shifted to a more pro-US strategy.
 3. Besides, the contemporary international situation is also more influenced by economic interests than military interests so made an impact on India’s foreign policy
 i. e. Indo-Pakistan relations have witnessed new developments.

10. Read the Passage:
“Broadly, non-alignment means not tying yourself off with military blocs…
It means trying to view things, as far as possible, not from the military point of view, though that has to come in sometimes, but independently, and trying to maintain friendly relations with all countries”.
—-Jawaharlal Nehru
(a) Why does Nehru want to keep off military blocs?
(b) Do you think that the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty violated the principle of non-alignment? Give reasons for your answer,
(c) If there were no military blocs, do you think non-alignment would have been unnecessary?
Answer: (a) Nehru wanted to keep off military blocs to maintain friendly and peaceful relation with all nations of world as well as to maintain India’s uniqueness at international stage.
 (b) No, the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty did not violate non-alignment because it was not to maintain military relations but to maintain diplomatic friendly relations. .
 (c) NAM emphasises on disarmament, decolonisation and terrorism except staying away from military blocs.


MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED

Very Short Answer Type Questions [ 1 Mark]

1. What is foreign policy?
Answer: Foreign policy of a nation reflects ^systematic statements of national interests alongwith the interplay of domestic and external factors.

2. I n which context India started participating in the world affairs as an independent nation state?
Answer: Due to:
 1. British government left the legacy of many international disputes.
 2. Priority to the poverty alleviation.
 3. Pressures created by the partition.

3. Why did India not sign Nuclear Non-proliferation treaty?
Answer: Because India considered the NPT as discriminatory policy to argue it to be used for peaceful purposes only.

4. What was Bandung conference?
Answer: Bandung conference was held in 1955 in Indonesia as an Afro-Asian conference to lead an establishment of NAM and to mark the engagement of India with African and Asian nations.

5. Mention the Article of Indian constitution to promote international peace and security.
Answer: Article 51 to lay down some Directive Principles of State Policy.

6. Which step was the beginning of Indo¬china’s strong relationship?
Answer: Panchsheel, the five principles of peaceful co-existance signed in 1954.


Very Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks]

1. How did the Sino-Indian conflict affect the opposition also?
Answer: The Sino-Indian conflicts affected the opposition as well. This and the growing rift between China and the Soviet Union created irreconcilable differences within the Communist Party of India (CPI). The pro-USSR faction remained within the CPI and moved towards closer ties with the Congress. The other faction was for sometime closer to China and was against any ties with the Congress. The party split in 1964 and the leaders of the later faction formed the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI-M). In the wake of the China War, many leaders of CPI(M) were arrested for being pro¬China.

2. Which two differences between India and China led to an army conflict in 1962?
Answer: (i) Serious conflict arose when China annexed Tibet in 1950 and removed a historical buffer between two nation and India did not oppose this openly. (ii) Another border dispute arose when China claimed Aksai Chin Area and NEFA (much of the state in Arunachal Pradesh) within the . Indian territory.

3. Highlight the contribution made by Pt. J.L. Nehru to the foreign policy of India.
Answer: (i) India’s initiatives for non-alignment for maintenance of mutual understanding and security.
 (ii) India always maintained her dignity and image of peace loving country by taking initiatives to bring about equality and understanding among nations i.e. to end Korean war in 1953, French rule in China etc.

4. Mention any two/four Directive Principles of State Policy for the promotion of international peace and security.
Answer: The Article 51 of Indian Constitution deals with the “Directive Principles of State Policy” on “Promotion of International Peace and Security”:
 (i) Promote international peace and security.
 (ii) Maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
 (iii) Foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.
 (iv) Encourage settlement of international dispute by arbitration.

5. Highlight any two/four major objectives of Prime Minister Nehru’s Foreign Policy.
Answer:1. The first objective was to follow NAM, not to join either the military blocs formed by USA and Soviet Union.
 2. To promote rapid economic development and maintain cordial relations with other nations.
 3. To prefect the territorial integrity.
 4. To preserve sovereignty of India and also respecting others sovereignty.

6. What was Afra-Asian Unity?
Answer: Bandung conference was held in 1955 in Indonesia as an Afro-Asian conference to lead an establishment of NAM to mark the engagement of India with African and Asian nations known as Afro-Asian Unity.

7. Why did India oppose the international treaties on Nuclear non-proliferation?
Answer: Because of discriminatory nature:
 1. India felt that these treaties prove the monopoly of five nuclear weapon- powers only and applicable to only the non-nuclear powers.
 2. India opposed the indefinite extension of the NPT in 1995 and refused to sign even CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty).

8. In the Post Cold War Era what is the nature of India’s foreign policy in terms of shifting alliances in world politics?
Answer: In the Post Cold War Era India’s foreign policy had shifted to more pro-US stance with the disintegration of USSR:
 1. At present India’s foreign policy rather more emphasizes on economic interests in place of military.
 2. Every Indo-Pak relations have also witnessed many new developments.
 3. Efforts are being made to restore normal relations with other countries through cultural exchange.

9. Arrange the following events in the correct chronological sequence from the earlier to the latest:
(a) First nuclear test conducted by India.
(b) Twenty year treaty of peace and relationship between India and Soviet Union.
(c) The Tashkent Agreement.
(d) The Panchsheel declaration.
Answer: (a) Panchsheel-1954
 (b) Tashkent Agreement-1966
 (c) Twenty year treaty-1971
 (d) First nuclear test-1974


Short Answer Type Questions [4 Marks]

1. Explain India’s Nuclear Policy.
Or
Explain any four important features of India’s Nuclear Policy.
Answer: India’s Nuclear Policy:
 1. India advocates no first use and reiterates India’s commitment to global verifiable on non-discriminatoiy nuclear disarmament loading to a nuclear weapon free world.
 2. Pt. Nehru always promoted science and technology so build a modern India i.e. initiated nuclear programme in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhaba.
 3. India was against nuclear weapons, hence pleaded many nuclear disarmament with superpowers.
 4. India always considered NPT as discriminatory and refused to sign on it.
 5. Even India’s first Nuclear Test in May 1974 was termed as a peaceful explosion and India argued to use nuclear power for peaceful purposes only.

2. Describe any four issues of conflict between India and China .
Answer: Issues of Conflict between India and China:
 (a) Serious conflict arose when China annexed Tibet in 1950 and removed a historical buffer between two nation and India did not oppose this openly.
 (b) India grew uneasy, when China began to suppress Tibetan culture.
 (c) Another border dispute arose when China claimed Aksai Chin Area and NEFA (much of the state in Arunachal Pradesh) within the Indian territory.
 (d) Despite long term correspondence and discussions, these issues have not been resolved even by top leaders of country.
 (e) Hence, India had to indulge in the conflict.

3. Describe any two major issues of conflict between India and Pakistan leading to war of 1971.
Answer: Issues of conflict between India and Pakistan leading to War in 1971:
 1. A serious armed struggle arose between India and Pakistan in December 1971 when Pakistan attacked on Punjab and Rajasthan. In turn India had to retaliated a war against Pakistan.
 2. India had to bear 80 lakh refugees who fled from East Pakistan to take shelter in India. Hence, India had to extend moral and material support to freedom struggle in Bangladesh against Pakistan.

4. What was Tibet issue? How did it cause tension between India and China? Explain. 
Answer: 1. From the very beginning of independence time to time, China has claimed its administrative control over Tibet.
 2. In 1950, China took over control of Tibet. Large sections of Tibetan population opposed this takeover.
 3. In 1958, there was an armed uprising in Tibet against China’s occupation. India supported the cause of Tibetan which was bitterly objected by China. Even India has granted asylum to Dalai Lama and a large number of Tibetans.

5. Access any four principles of India’s foreign policy.
Answer: India’s foreign policy is based on principles of Panchsheel, which is derived from two words ‘Panch’ means five and ‘Sheel’ means a ‘Code of Conduct’ for peaceful co-existence.
 1. Panchsheel
 2. Non-alignment (NAM)
 3. Mutual benefits and equality
 4. Mutual non-aggression
 5. Non-intervention in each others international affairs
 6. To maintain international peace and understanding


Passage Based Questions [5 Marks]

1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
What does independence consist of? It consists fundamentally and basically of foreign relations. That is the test of independence. All else is local autonomy. Once foreign relations go out of your hands into the charge of somebody else,
to that extent and in that measure you are not independent.
—Jawaharlal Nehru
Questions
1. What does the extract signify?
2. What is not an independence as per Pt. J.L. Nehru?
3. What did India do to maintain its Sovereignty?
Answer:
 1. The above extract signifies the non-alignment policy of India.
 2. When foreign relations go out of the hands of a country into the charge of somebody else, to that extent, one is not independent.
 3. When India achieved its freedom and started forming its foreign policy, it followed non-alignment policy to pursue its national interests within international context.


Picture/Map Based Questions [5 Marks]

A. Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
NCERT Solutions - India’s External Relations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Question.
1. What message does this cartoon convey?
2. Which year is being shown here?
Answer:
 1. This cartoon conveys message on Indo-China tensions to be resolved.
 2. 1962, Chinese invasion.

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