NCERT Solutions - International Organisations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

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Humanities/Arts : NCERT Solutions - International Organisations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document NCERT Solutions - International Organisations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12).
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TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

1. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the veto power:
(a) Only the permanent members of the Security Council possess the veto power.
(b) It’s a kind of negative power.
(c) The Secretary General uses this power when not satisfied with any decision.
(d) One veto can stall a Security Council resolution.
Answer: (a) Correct (b) Correct
 (c) Wrong (d) Correct
 (e) India (f) Maldives
 (g) India (h) Nepal

2. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the way the UN functions:
(a) All security and peace related issues are dealt within the Security Council.
(b) Humanitarian policies are implemented by the main organs and specialised agencies spread across the globe.
(c) Having consensus among five permanent members on security issues is vital for its implementation.
(d) The members of the General Assembly are automatically the members of all other principal organs and specialised agencies of the UN.
Answer: (a) Correct (b) Wrong
 (c) Correct (d) Wrong

3. Which among the following would give more weightage to India’s proposal for permanent membership in the Security Council?
(a) Nuclear capability
(b) It has been a member of the UN since its inception.
(c) It is located in Asia.
(d) India’s growing economic power and stable political system.
Answer: (d) India’s growing economic power and stable political system.

4. The UN agency concerned with the safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology is:
(a) The UN Committee on Disarmament
(b) International Atomic Energy Agency
(c) UN International Safeguard Committee
(d) None of the above.
Answer: (b) International Atomic Energy Agency

5. WTO is serving as the successor to which of the following organisations:
(a) General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs
(b) General Arrangement on Trade and Tariffs
(c) World Health Organisation
(d) UN Development Programme
Answer: (a) General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs

6. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The prime objective of UN is
(b) The highest functionary of the UN is called
(c) The UN Security Council has permanent and non permanent members.
(d) is the present UN Secretary General.
Answer: (a) to maintain peace and security
 (b) Secretariat
 (c) 5, 10
 (d) Ban-ki-Moon

7. Match the principal organs and agencies of the UN with their functions:
A. 1. Economic and Social Council
2. International Court of Justice
3. International Atomic Energy Agency
4. Security Council
5. UN High Commission for Refugees
6. World Trade Organisation
7. International Monetary Fund
8. General Assembly
9. World Health Organisation
10. Secretariat
B. (a) Oversees the global financial system.
(b) Reservation of international peace and security.
(c) Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries.
(d) Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology.
(e) Resolves disputes between and among member countries.
(f) Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies.
(g) Debates and discusses global issues.
(h) Administration and coordination of UN affairs.
(i) Providing good health for all.
(j) Facilitates free trade among member countries.
Answer: 1. Economic and Social Council—
 (c) Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member
 countries.
 2. International Court of Justice—
 (e) Resolves disputes between and among member countries.
 3. International Atomic Energy Agency—
 (d) Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology
 4. Security Council—
 (b) Reservation of international peace and security
 5. UN High Commission for Refugees—
 (f) Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies.
 6. World Trade Organisations—
 (j) Facilitates free trade among member countries.
 7. International Monetary Fund—
 (a) Overseas the global financial system.
 8. General Assembly—
 (g) Debates and discusses global issues.
 9. World Health Organisation—
 (j) Providing good health for all.
 10. Secretariat—
 (h) Administration and coordination of UN affairs.

8. What are the functions of Security Council?
Answer: Its main function is to maintain peace and security in the world and the other functions are as follows:
 1. The Security Council recommends methods to adjust disputes among nations.
 2. Security Council can take military action if required.
 3. Security Council elects the judges of International Court of Justice and appoints the Secretary General by recommending to the General Assembly.
 4. Security Council can apply economic sanction also to stop any aggression.
 5. The Security Council can investigate the disputes in case a friction arises.

9. As a citizen of India, how would you support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of Security Council? Justify your proposal.
Answer: As a citizen of India, we may support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of Security Council in the following manner:
 1. India is the most populous country in the world with one-fifth of world population.
 2. India is world’s largest democracy.
 3. India’s economic emergence on the World Stage.
 4. India is a regular financial contributor to the UN.
 5. India signifies a growing importance in world affairs in conduct of its foreign policy.
 6. India participated in all the initiatives of the UN.

10. Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN.
Answer: The following are the question marks in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN:
 1. How big an economic and military power may qualify to become UNSC membership?
 2. What level of budget contribution should be enabled?
 3. No guarantee to be effective as Council Member in respect for democracy and human rights.
 4. Why should the issue of equitable representation decided by geography? Why not by levels of economic development?
 5. Why not to give more seats to members of developing world?
 All the above mentioned criteria which were adopted bud not universally accepted. Hence, the difficulties were involved.

11. Though the UN has failed in preventing wars and related miseries, nations prefer its continuation. What makes the UN an indispensable organisation?
Answer: 1. Interdependence and globalisation is not possible without the international organisations such as the UN.
 2. To enforce cooperation on the issues of poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation, crime rate etc.
 3. To provide financial assistance to developing countries to stabilise economy all over the world,, the UN and its specialised agencies are always required.
 4. The UN works as a forum to solve any international dispute among nations and sort out the best possible way.
 5. Hence, though the UN has failed in preventing related wars and miseries, despite the nations require its continuation due to above mentioned reasons to promote international peace and understanding.

12. “Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council”. Do you agree with this statement? Give arguments for or against this position.
Answer: Yes, we agree with the statement because Security Council plays a crucial role in functioning of the UN. In today’s scenario power equations have been changed with the disintegration of USSR and many new countries are entering into the UN:
 1. The UN charter has given a privileged position to permanent members to bring stability all over the world. This position remains the same and no one is allowed to enter.
 2. Except permanent members enjoy veto power to be placed in a valuable position.
 3. Permanent members category is from industrialised developed country which should be balanced by enhancing representation from developing countries to become either permanent or non-permanent members.
 4. Hence, Security Council should reform and improve its working to make the UN more effective i.e., inclusion of member states should be judged on the basis of contribution to peace keeping initiatives.


MORE QUESTIONS

Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]

1. Who is present Secretary General of the United Nations?
Answer: Ban-Ki-Moon from South Korea.

2. Name any two member states of the European Union who are permanent members of the UN Security Council.
Answer: Britain and France

3. What is the main objective of the United Nations?
Answer: To prevent international conflict and to facilitate cooperation among states.

4. Mention any two agencies of the United Nations.
Answer: 1. International Monetary Fund.
 2. World Health Organisation.
 Ans. Amnesty International is an NGO, which was established to campaign for protection of human rights all over the world. Its objective is to promote respect for all the human beings and human rights in the universal declaration of Human Rights.

5. How many member countries have got veto power in the UN Security Council and why?
Answer: Five permanent member countries i.e France, Russia, UK, the US, China got veto power because they have been emerged as industrialised developed countries to stall any decision.

6. Mention any two advantages of having international organisation in the world?
Answer: 1. To help countries in the matters of conflicts and differences.
 2. To make the countries cooperate and create better living conditions for humanity.

7. State any two objectives of the UN.
Answer: 1. To maintain international peace and security.
 2. To facilitate cooperation among member countries by avoiding conflicts and war.

8. State any two objectives of Human Rights watch.
Answer: 1. To draw global media’s attention to human rights abuses.
 2. To help in building international coalitions like the campaigns to ban land-mines, to stop the use of child soldier, and to establish international criminal court.

9. What reforms in the UN are required?
Answer: Following reforms are required in the UN:
 1. Reform of the organisation’s structures and processes.
 2. A review of the issues that fall within the jurisdiction of the organisation.
 3. Reforms are required due to certain limitations to the UN i.e. only five members on permanent basis in the UN Security Council and their veto power, dominance of few powerful countries etc.

10. Discuss the resolution adopted by General Assembly in 1992 over the reform of the UN Security Council.
Answer: In 1992, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution, which reflected three main complaints:
 1. The UN Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities.
 2. Its decisions reflect only western values and interests and are dominated by a few7 powers.
 3. It lacks equitable representation. Considering above mentioned demands for restructuring of the UN on 01 January 1997, the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan initiated an enquiry into how the UN should be reformed.

11. What is the veto power? Should it be modified?
Answer: The veto power is a negative vote to stall any decision by five permanent members of UN Security Council. Sometimes the moves have been made to modify this but it is presumed to have a danger to lose interest by great powers, and without their support and involvement such organisation would become ineffective.


Short Answer Type Questions [4 Marks]

1. Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the U.N.
Answer: In 1992, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution which reflected three main complaints—
 • The Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities.
 • Its decisions reflect only Western values and interests and are dominated by a few powers.
 • It lacks equitable representation. In view of these growing demands for the restructuring of the UN, on 1 January, 1997, the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan initiated an inquiry into how the UN should be reformed. How for instance, should new Security Council members be chosen?
 1. India’s nuclear weapon capabilities
 2. If India is included, some emerging powers (Brazil, Germany, Japan, South Africa) will also be accommodated.
 3. France and the US advocate that Africa and South America must be represented for they do not have any representation in the present structure.

2. What steps should be taken to make the UN more relevant in the changing context?
Answer: (a) Creation of Peace Building Commission.
 (b) Acceptance of responsibility of international community in case of failures of national governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
 (c) Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
 (d) An agreement to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.


Passage Based Questions [5 Marks]

1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions:
Countries have conflicteand differences with each other. That does not necessarily mean they must go to war to deal with their antagonisms. They can instead discuss contentious issues and find peaceful solutions, indeed, even though this is rarely noticed most conflicts and differences are resolved without going to war. The role of an international organisation is not a super-state with authority over its members. It is created by and responds to states. It comes into being when states agree to its creation. Once created, it can help member states resolve their problems peacefully.

Questions
1. Is this necessary to engage into wars during conflicts among countries?
2. Is an international organisation a super state?
3. What is the significance of international organisation?
Answer:
 1. No, instead countries can discuss contentious issues to find peaceful solutions.
 2. No, it is created by and responds to states and comes into being when study agrees to its creation.
 3. To help member states to resolve problems peacefully without going to war.

2. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions:
By 2006, the UN had 192 member states. These included almost all independent states. In the UN General Assembly, all members have one vote each. In the UN Security Council, there are five permanent members. These are the US, UK, Russia, France, China. These states were selected as permanent members as they were most powerful immediately after the Second World War and because they constituted the victors in the war.

Questions
1. How many member states were there in the UN 2006?
2. Name five permanent members of UN Security Council.
3. Why these states were selected as permanent?
Answer:
 1. There were 192 member states in the UN by 2006.
 2. The UK, US, China, Russia and France are the permanent members.
 3. Because they were most powerful immediately after the Second World War and constituted the victors in the war.


Long Answer Type Questions [6 Marks]

1. Describe any six criteria for the new membership of Security Council as suggested after 1997.
Answer: A new member, as suggested after 1997, should be
 (i ) A major economic power
 (ii) A major military power.
 (iii) A substantial contributor to the UN budget.
 (iv) A big nation in terms of its populations.
 (v) A nation that respects democracy and human rights
 (vi) A country that would make the Council more representative of the world’s diversity in terms of geography, economic system, and culture.

2. Examine the role played by India in the implementation of UN policies and programmes.
Answer: 1. India believes that a strengthened and revitalised UN is desirable in the changing world.
 2. India also supports an enhanced role for the UN in promoting development and cooperation among states.
 3. India believes that the development
 should be central to the UN’s agenda as it is a vital precondition for the maintenance of international peace and security.
 4. India debates more representation in Security Council may enjoy greater support in world community.
 5. India has major concern about restructuring of UN Security Council.
 6. India supports the role of developing countries should be represented in Security Council in decision making.

3. How far did the UN perform its role successor fully in maintaining peace in the world? Explain.
Answer: 1. Interdependence and globalisation is not possible without the international organisations such as the UN.
 2. To enhance cooperation on the issues of poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation, crime rate etc.
 3. To provide financial assistance to developing countries to stabilise economy all over the world, the UN and its specialized agencies are always required.
 4. The UN works as a forum to solve any international dispute among nations and sort out the best possible.
 5. Hence, though the UN has failed in preventing any related wars and miseries, despite the nations require its continuation due to above mentioned reasons to promote international peace and understanding.

4. Suggest any six steps since 2005 to make the United Nations more relevant in the changing context.
Answer: In September 2005, the UN celebrated its 60th anniversary and leaders decided to make it more relevant in the changing context by following steps:
 1. Creation of Peace Building Commission.
 2. Acceptance of the responsibility of the international community in case of failures of national governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
 3. Establishment of a Human Rights Council (Operational Since 19 June 2006).
 4. Agreements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
 5. Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
 6. Creation of a Democracy Fund.
 7. An agreement to wind up the Trusteeship Council.

5. Can the UN serve as a balance against the US dominance?
Answer: No, the UN can not serve against the US dominance in a comfort zone because:
 1. The US has been the only superpower after 1991 and may ignore international organisations economically and militarily.
 2. Its veto power can stop any move damaging its interests.
 3. The US enjoys a considerable degree of say in the selection of the UN Secretary General.
 Besides the above mentioned grounds, the UN is playing an effective role to argument against the US attitudes and policies and makes compromises and concessions even or the part of the US. The EU performs as an important bloc in International Economic Organisations such as WTO but SAARC has initiated SAFTA only to cooperate economically among its member states.


Picture/Map Based Questions[5 Marks]

Al. Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:NCERT Solutions - International Organisations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Questions
1. What does the cartoon represent?
2. Who is the person being commented in the cartoon?
3. What message does the cartoon convey?
Answer:
 1. It represents role of the UN on attack on Lebanan by Israeli forces.
 2. The UN Secretary General.
 3. It conveys message on relevance of the UN as immediate follow-up was not there by Israeli forces despite passing a resolution from the UN.

2. Study the picture  given below and answer the questions that follow:
NCERT Solutions - International Organisations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Questions
1. What does the cartoon represent?
2. What type of crisis does the cartoon show?
3. What message does the cartoon convey?
Answer:
 1. A humanitarian crisis in Darfur, Sudan.
 2. Starvation, genocide, horror etc.
 3. ‘A Big Helping of Words’ only because during these crises, the international organisations performed debates, speeches on these but no actual aid or support was reached to peoples.

B. On a political outline map of the world locate and label the following and symbolise them as indicated:   NCERT Solutions - International Organisations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Questions
1. Five permanent members of UN Security Council and symbolise them as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
2. Locate and label peace keeping operations.
Answer:
 1. 1. France 2. Russia
 3. The UK
 4. The US
 5. China
 2. (A) Cyprus 1964
 (B) Lebanon 1978
 (C) Israel 1974
 (D) Sudan 2005
 (E) East Timor 2006

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