What are the goals of scientific enquiry?
The goals of scientific enquiry are as follows:
Describe the various steps involved in conducting a scientific enquiry.
The various steps involved in conducting a scientific enquiry can be described as follows:
(i) Conceptualisation of problem - It is important in a scientific enquiry to narrow down the focus and understand the specific problem. It is done by reviewing past research, personal experience and observations. This is further followed by preparing a hypothesis or a tentative solution of the problem.
(ii) Data collection - The second step involves the preparation of a blueprint of the entire study. It consists of four aspects namely, identifying the participants in the study, methods of data collection, tools to be used in research and procedure for data collection.
(iii) Drawing conclusions - The data are analysed through statistical procedures and represented graphically in the form of pie-chart, bardiagram, etc. It helps to verify the hypothesis and draw conclusions by putting them into an appropriate context.
(iv) Revising research conclusions - The existing hypothesis is finally confirmed on the basis of revision of data else, a new hypothesis is stated and tested by new data. The research may also be revised by other researchers, hence making it a continuous process.
Explain the nature of psychological data.
The nature of psychological data can be explained through the following points:
How do experimental and control groups differ? Explain with the help of an example.
Experimental groups differ from control groups as independent variable manipulation occurs in an experimental group whereas it is absent in a control group. For example, in a study conducted by Latane and Darley, there were two experimental groups and one control group. The participants in the study were sent to three types of rooms.
Room 1 in which the participant was alone formed the control group. Room 2 and 3, in which two persons were present with the participant formed experimental groups.
The independent variable, in this study, was the absence or presence of other persons sitting in the room. The remaining factors in the experiment were the same for both kinds of groups. In experimental groups, two persons were present with the real participant while in the control group, participant was alone. Therefore, it can be said that the manipulated variable is absent in control group.
A researcher is studying the relationship between speed of cycling and the presence of people. Formulate a relevant hypothesis and identify the independent and dependent variables.
Relationship between the speed of cycling and the presence of people
Hypothesis - As the speed of cycling increases people tend to move away fast.
Field experiment - Two market places
A boy is asked to ride a bicycle with different speedsin the market.
Market 1 - It is observed that when the boy passes through the market street with high speed on the bicycle, people surrounding him will get away quickly in order to protect themselves from getting hit by the cycle.
Market 2 - It is observed that when the boy passes through the market street with normal speed on the bicycle people around him will get away normally and slowly to give him the way as compared to the people of market 1.
Conclusion - When the speed of the cycle is high people move away from it quickly and when the speed of cycle is normal people will move away slowly in comparison.
Revision of research conclusion - The conclusion has matched the hypothesis. Therefore, the hypothesis is correct.
Independent variable - Speed of cycle
Dependent variable - Movement of people
Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of experimental method as a method of enquiry.
The strengths and weaknesses of experimental method as a method of enquiry are:
Dr. Krishnan is going to observe and record children's play behaviour at a nursery school without attempting to influence or control the behaviour. Which method of research is involved? Explain the process and discuss its merits and demerits.
Dr. Krishnan will use non-participant observation methodto observe and record children's play behaviour at a nursery school without attempting to influence or control the behaviour. She will sit in the corner of the play school and will observe the behaviour of children, their interaction with other children and teachers, how they play and react to winning and losing. The children will not be aware that they are being observed. Later, she will record her observations in a file. She will analyse and conclude it and then try to match her conclusion with the hypothesis.
Merits of non-participant observation method
The researcher observes the people and their behaviour in a naturalistic situation as it occurs.
Demerits of non-participant observation method
This method is time taking, labour intensive and vulnerable to the researcher's bias. The observations are influenced by the personal values and interpretations of the observer.
Give two examples of the situations where survey method can be used. What are the limitations of this method?
The two examples where a survey method can be used are as follows:
(i) To find out the attitudes of people on polio eradication programme.
(ii) To record information about the members of a particular population.
The limitations of survey method are as follows:
Differentiate between an interview and a questionnaire.
The difference between an interview and a questionnaire are:
Explain the characteristics of a standardised test.
The characteristics of standardised test are as follows:
Describe the limitations of psychological enquiry.
The limitations of psychological enquiry are as follows:
What are the ethical guidelines that a psychologist needs to follow while conducting a psychological enquiry?
The following are the ethical guidelines that a psychologist needs to follow while conducting a psychological enquiry:
Henceforth, it is necessary for the researcher to ensure certain ethics and principles in order to respect an individual's privacy and protect him/her from any harm caused by the research.