Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences
1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.
(i) Which one of the following is the main reason for male migration in India?
3. Work and employment
Ans. (3) Work and employment
(ii) Which one of the following states receives maximum number of immigrants?
1. Uttar Pradesh
Ans. (1) Uttar Pradesh
(iii) Which one of the following streams is dominated by male migrants in India?
Ans. (3) Rural-urban
(iv) Which one of the following urban agglomeration has the highest share of in migrant population?
1. Mumbai UA
2. Delhi UA
3. Bangalore UA
4. Chennai UA
Ans. (1) Mumbai UA
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Differentiate between lifetime migrant and migrant by last residence.
Ans. When the place of birth of a person is different from the place of enumeration, the person is known as lifetime migrant. On the other hand, if the place of last residence is different from the place of enumeration he is known as migrant by place of last residence.
(ii) Identify the main reason for male/female selective migration.
Ans. Main reason of male migration is work and employment. 65% males migrate for economic reasons. Marriage is the main cause of migration among females. Only 2% females migrate for work and employment.
(iii) What is the impact of rural-urban migration on the age and sex structure of the place of origin and destination?
Ans. The impact of rural-urban migration on the age and sex structure of the place of origin and destination are-
1.Rural-urban migration is one of the important factor contributing to the population growth of cities.
2. Age and skill-selective out migration from the rural areas have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure.
3. However, high out-migration from Uttaranchal, Rajasthan, MP and Maharashtra have brought serious on age and sex composition in these states .Similar imbalance are also brought in the receipents states.
4. Migration affects the status of women directly.
3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Discuss the consequences of international migration in India.
Ans.Consequences of international migration:
I. Positive consequences:
1.The effects of skilled migration have been ambiguous. On the positive side, the success of India migrants overseas has been good for India’s reputation. In addition, this segment of the diaspora has woven a web of cross-national networks, thereby facilitating the flow of tacit information, commercial and business ideas, and technologies into India. It has also facilitated “home sourcing”, as exemplified by the rapid growth of India’s diamond cutting and polishing industry. The Indian diaspora has also had important trade enhancing and investment effects
2.The oil boom-induced Gulf migration in the early 1970s is when efforts at attracting inflows from Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) began. Since then financial remittance has emerged as an important part of India’s balance of payments. Remittances were virtually negligible in 1970, rose to 2.8 billion in 1980, stagnated during the 1980s and even dropped slightly to 2.4 billion in 1990. Since then they have climbed steeply to 11.1 billion in 1999 and over 50 billion — nearly 5 percent of GDP — in 2009.
Il. Negative consequences:
1. The loss of significant numbers of the highly skilled has undoubtedly had negative effects as well, perhaps most manifest in reducing the supply of professionals with the managerial and technical capabilities to run institutions and organizations, be they colleges or hospitals, statistical systems or research laboratories. A prime example of these adverse effects can be seen in India’s higher education system. When the IITs and IIMs, as well as new science and technology research institutes were set up in the 1950s and 1960s many of the key personnel in these institutions were trained abroad and returned to India, inspired by the heady days of “nation building.” But by the late 1960s, more and more of India’s best and brightest began to go abroad, never to return. The small number who did were sufficient to maintain the high standards of a small number of institutions, but not their expansion, and the number of graduates from these elite institutions remained virtually unchanged for four decades.
(ii) What are the socio-demographic consequences of migration?
Ans. Social Consequences: Migration act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girl’s education, etc. get diffused from urban to rural areas through them. Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations and widens up the mental horizon of the people at large. But it also has serious negative consequences such as anonimity, which creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals. Continued feeling of dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of antisocial activities like crime and drug abuse.
1. Migration may have profound effects on the size, structure and growth patterns of populations. Migration has effects on both the populations of the places that people leave and on the populations of those in which they settle. These effects vary with different types of migration and the length of migrants’ stays in places. The absence of large numbers of either men or women may have a limited impact on the sending society in the short term but if they are absent for longer periods of time their absence will have significant effects on population growth rates in the medium and longer terms
2.Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. Rural urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure. However, high out migration from Uttaranchal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra have brought serious imbalances in age and sex composition in these states.