Explain the concept of motivation.
The concept of motivation focuses on the explanation of the causes of behaviour. The term motivation has been derived from the Latin word 'movere', which refers to the movement of activity. The everyday behaviour is explained in terms of motives. For instance, earning money is the motive behind going to work. Though there can be other reasons too. Similarly, the motive behind attending school/college is getting good education or acquiring a degree so that one can get a good job. Motivation also makes prediction about behaviour, and thus it is one of the determinants of behaviour.
What are the biological bases of hunger and thirst needs?
How do the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power influence the behaviour of adolescents? Explain with examples.
The needs for achievement, affiliation and power influence the behaviour of adolescents as they shape the motives that result from
their interaction with environment.
What is the basic idea behind Maslow's hierarchy of needs? Explain with suitable examples.
The basic idea behind Maslow's hierarchy of needs is the portrayal of human behaviour by arranging the various needs in a hierarchy in terms of their importance for the sustenance of an individual. They are arranged in an ascending order with the fundamental needs at the base and self-actualisation at the top. The hierarchy of needs are as follows:
Does physiological arousal precede or follow an emotional experience? Explain.
Physiological arousal follows an emotional experience. This is because the physiological changes accompany emotions that are experienced as a result of neurophysiologic activations. For example, appearance in an examination without preparing, results in emotional distress due to fear of failure and the student gets anxious. The emotional experience leads to physiological changes as eventually the student gets nervous and experiences sweating.
Is it important to consciously interpret and label emotions in order to explain them? Discuss giving suitable examples.
Yes, it is important to consciously interpret and label emotions in order to explain them as the expression of emotions varies from culture to culture. There are some basic emotions that are common to all cultures and yet there are other emotions that are culture specific. The identification and experience of emotions also vary across cultures and display rules exist to modify the intensity of expression of emotions. For example, the Tahitian language has 46 labels for anger that may be used in different contexts. The North Americans can produce up to 40 different facial expressions for anger while the Japanese have 10 labels for various facial expressions of happiness and 8 levels to express anger. While some emotions like love, anger, grief and wonder are deemed to be universal and present across Indian, Chinese and Western cultures, other emotions like surprise, contempt and shame are not considered as basic to everyone and the degree of their presence varies individually as well as culturally.
Therefore, it is important to interpret and label emotions in order to understand and explain them.
How does culture influence the expression of emotions?
Culture influences the expression of emotions by shaping the gestures that vary among different societies. Facial expressions are the most common form of expressing emotions. While interaction, the Latin Americans and Southern Europeans direct their gaze to the interactant, Asians, on the other hand, prefer a peripheral gaze. Gesture and proximal movement are shaped to convey emotions non-verbally and are variable from culture to culture. For example, a handclap in China is an expression of worry or disappointment, whereas, anger is expressed by laughter. Silence is also seen as culturally bound. In India, silence is sometimes used to express deep emotions while it may convey embarrassment in Western countries.
Why is it important to manage negative emotions? Suggest ways to manage negative emotions.
It is important to manage negative emotions because negative emotions act as an obstruction towards viewing things clearly and taking rational decisions. For instance, anxious individuals find it difficult to concentrate or to make decisions even for small matters. Negative emotions also affect the psychological and physical health of an individual and may result in decreased ability to think or concentrate, and loss of interest in personal or social activities. Thus, managing emotions effectively is integral to effective social functioning.
The ways to suggest negative emotions are:
(i) Enhancing self-awareness and being creative.
(ii) Appraising the situation objectively, without bias or preconceptions.
(iii) Self monitoring by constant evaluation of accomplishments and various experiences.
(iv) Engaging in self modelling by evaluating one's best performance and using them as inspiration.
(v) Perceptual reorganisation and cognitive restructuring.
(vi) Developing and nurturing good relations and having empathy for others
(vii) Participating in community service.