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NCERT Solutions - Political Theory: An Introduction Notes | Study Indian Polity for UPSC CSE - UPSC

Document Description: NCERT Solutions - Political Theory: An Introduction for UPSC 2022 is part of Indian Polity for UPSC CSE preparation. The notes and questions for NCERT Solutions - Political Theory: An Introduction have been prepared according to the UPSC exam syllabus. Information about NCERT Solutions - Political Theory: An Introduction covers topics like Some Important Extra Questions ,   and NCERT Solutions - Political Theory: An Introduction Example, for UPSC 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for NCERT Solutions - Political Theory: An Introduction.

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Some Important Extra Questions 
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Q1: Which of the following statements are true/false about Political theory?

(a) It discusses ideas that form the basis of political institutions.

(b) It explains the relationship between different religions.

(c) It explains the meanings of concepts like equality and freedom.

(d) It predicts the performance of political parties.


(a) True

(b) False

(c) True

(d) False

NCERT Solutions - Political Theory: An Introduction Notes | Study Indian Polity for UPSC CSE - UPSC

Q2: Politics is more than what politicians do. Do you agree with this statement? Give examples.

It is correct that politics is more than what politicians do. Politicians as a part of government are involved in politics but politics is not limited to their activities. Politics involves a number of various negotiations that go on in society through which collective decisions are made.

  1. Politics involves the actions of government and its relation to the aspirations of the people.
  2. Politics involves the struggle of people and its influence on decision-making. 
  3. People are engaged in political activity whenever they negotiate with each other and participate in collective activities that are designed to promote social development and resolve common problems.
  4. For example, residents of localities form associations to solve their common problems and raise these issues at a higher level.
  5. Students form unions in colleges and universities to debate and resolve issues that affect the majority of them.
  6. Thus, politics is involved in the sphere of life that is related to power, collective decision-making, and solving common problems.

Politics is more than what politicians doPolitics is more than what politicians do

Q3: Vigilant citizens are a must for the successful working of a democracy. Comment.


  1. Vigilant people are a must for the successful working of democracy as vigilance creates awareness about the rights of citizens and
  2. government policies that affect daily life.
  3. Awareness leads to discussion and debate on the issues that arise out of the implementation of policies.
  4. Citizens can, thus, force the government to implement new policies or modify the existing policies and programs of the country by building up and mobilizing their opinion.
  5. As democracy is about the government of the citizens, by the citizens, and for the citizens, the vigilance of the citizens accelerates the successful working of a democracy.


Q4: In what ways is the study of political theory useful for us? Identify four ways in which the political theory can be useful to us.

Answer: Political theory is useful for us as it helps in understanding the meaning of political concepts by looking at the way they are understood and used in ordinary language.

Political theories debate and examine the various meanings and opinions from different contexts in a systematic manner.

The four ways in which the political theory can be useful to us, are:

  1. It helps in understanding how constitutions are shaped in a certain manner, how governments and social lives are arranged in a certain systematic manner by studying and understanding the ideas and principles that are at their base.
  2. It shows the significance of various principles such as rule of law, separation of power, judicial review etc.
  3. Political theory helps bureaucrats, politicians, government officers, and advocates to interpret the laws and constitution. It also helps in understanding the problems of society and explore the ways to solve them.
  4. Political theory encourages individuals to examine their ideas and feelings about political things so that they can become moderate in their ideas and feelings.


Q5: Do you think that a good/ convincing argument can compel others to listen to you?

Answer: Yes, a good/ convincing argument can compel others to listen to one. Arguments prove the degree of reason of a proposition and the need to defend it. A good defense is a compelling factor in the audience listening to the speaker. The knowledge of political theory enables the individual to think systematically on issues like justice and freedom and polish his/her opinion. This helps the presentation of the argument in an informed manner. A wise opinion is convincing and is for the sake of common interests. Therefore, it makes others listen to and agree with the individual who argues in a convincing manner.


Q6: Do you think studying political theory is like studying mathematics? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer: Studying political theory is not like studying mathematics as mathematics deals with precise concepts and patterns while political theory studies human beings and their ideas in the context of power and decision-making. In mathematics, there are single definitions of terms. In political theory, on the other hand, the definitions of terms vary according to the context. This is because the opinion of people changes unlike objects and carries different meanings of a single term in different contexts. The concepts that are dealt by mathematics are constant and derived through formulae whereas the concepts of political theory are at variance and open to interpretation.

Some Important Extra Questions 

Q.1. The government as a part of politics can affect on daily life of humans both in a useful and a harmful way. How?

  • The government in a useful manner can frame foreign policy, educational policy and economic policy to benefit the people.
  • The government in a harmful manner can lead to violent protests in response to various conflicts which may hamper the daily life of people.

Q.2. ‘Human beings are unique’. Give any two arguments. 

  • Human beings possess reasons for any action and they have the ability to react upon actions also.
  • Human beings are capable to converse and debate and discuss issues.

Q.3. Mention the characteristics of a class struggle.

  • The conflicts arisen are the result of society divided into various classes.
  • The ownership of means of production originates the classes.
  • The common interest is mainly associated with classes that are economically dominant.
  • These classes keep fighting with each other in case of opposition with each other

Q.4. ‘Politics works as a pursuit of common good of people’. Justify the statement.

Politics implies to power to make laws and to enforce them for common good: 

  • Common good is both an objective and a procedure to be followed.
  • Common good has been evolved with the growth of democracy.
  • Common good may be associated with the concept of welfare state.
  • Developing nations reflect common good in the realization of objectives for a welfare’ state while developed nations believe to the common good to be the efforts of state.
    Politics as a pursuit of the common good:
  • Politics discovers a ‘common’ in all and promoter the spirit of ‘common hood’ among people.
  • Politics does not refer to class struggle but it is a class permeation.
  • The common good serves all the people living in a society in place of individuals’ interests only.
  • It begins with the establishment of social order and ends up in a state to serve all.

Q.5. What is a class?
A class may be defined as a larger group of people to be different from each other in the following manner:

  • by the place to be occupied in social production, i.e. master or slaves.
  • by their relations through the production activities, i.e. owners or non-owners.
  • by their role in social organization, i.e. active members or followers.
  • by the mode of acquiring a share of social wealth, i.e. entrepreneurs or wage earners.

Q.6. What are the differences between politics and political science?

  • Politics may have different ideas to be argued upon.
  • Politics is associated with the satisfaction of wants.
  • Politics is sometimes considered to be what politicians do. But it associates them with teams due to their false commitments, etc.
  • Politics promotes the interests of an individual by all means.

Political Science:

  • It is a scientific study of political ideas and principles.
  • Political Science shapes the government and public opinion in a well-mannered way.
  • Political science examines the defections, false commitment and false promises made by politicians.
  • Political Science examines the validity of concepts of equality, justice, freedom, democracy, secularism, etc.
  • The philosophers in political science can generate the new ideas to mould society.




The document NCERT Solutions - Political Theory: An Introduction Notes | Study Indian Polity for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Indian Polity for UPSC CSE.
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