1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following is not a plantation crop?
► (c) Wheat
(ii) In which one of the following countries co-operative farming was the most successful experiment?
(d) The Netherlands
► (b) Denmark
(iii) Growing of flowers is called:
(a) Truck farming
(b) Factory farming
(c) Mixed farming
► (d) Floriculture
(iv) Which one of the following types of cultivation was developed by European colonists?
(c) Mixed farming
► (d) Plantation
(v) In which one of the following regions is extensive commercial grain cultivationnot practised?
(a) American Canadian prairies
(b) European Steppes
(c) Pampas of Argentina
(d) Amazon Basin
► (d) Amazon Basin
(vi) In which of the following types of agriculture is the farming of citrus fruit very important?
(a) Market gardening
(b) Plantation agriculture
(c) Mediterranean agriculture
(d) Co-operative farming
► (c) Mediterranean agriculture
(vii) Which one type of agriculture amongst the following is also called ‘slash and burn agriculture’?
(a) Extensive subsistence agriculture
(b) Primitive subsistence agriculture
(c) Extensive commercial grain cultivation
(d) Mixed farming
► (b) Primitive subsistence agriculture
(viii) Which one of the following does not follow monoculture?
(a) Dairy farming
(b) Mixed farming
(c) Plantation agriculture
(d) Commercial grain farming
► (b) Mixed farming
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Future of shifting cultivation is bleak. Discuss.
One of the major problems of shifting cultivation is that the cycle of jhum becomes less and less due to loss of fertility in different parcels. Therefore, Future of shifting cultivation is bleak.
(ii) Market gardening is practised near urban areas. Why?
Market gardening is specialised in the cultivation of high value crops such as vegetables, fruits and flowers, solely for the urban markets. It is practised near urban areas because farms are small and are
located where there are good transportation links with the urban centre where high income
group of consumers is located.
(iii) Large scale dairy farming is the result of the development of transportation and refrigeration.
Dairy products require quick and suitable transportation as these items are perishable. The development of transportation and refrigeration have increased the duration of storage of various dairy products.
3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.
(i) Differentiate between Nomadic Herding and Commercial Livestock Rearing.
Commercial Livestock Rearing
Nomadic herding is a primitive subsistence activity.
Commercial livestock rearing is more organised and capital intensive.
Herders move from one place to another along with their livestock, depending on the amount and quality of pastures and water.
Commercial livestock ranching is essentially associated with western cultures and is practised on permanent ranches.
Each nomadic community occupies a well-identified territory as a matter of tradition.
These ranches cover large areas and are divided into a number of parcels, which are fenced to regulate the grazing
Herders rely on animals for food, clothing, shelter,
tools and transport.
Products such as meat, wool, hides and skin are processed and packed scientifically and exported to different world markets.
A wide variety of animals is kept in different regions.
The number of animals in a pasture is kept according to the carrying capacity of the pasture
(ii) Discuss the important characteristic features of plantation agriculture. Name a few important plantation crops from different countries.
Plantation agriculture as mentioned above was introduced by the Europeans in colonies situated in the tropics.
The important characteristics features of plantation agriculture are:
• Large estates or plantations
• Large capital investment
• Managerial and technical support
• Scientific methods of cultivation
• Single crop specialisation
• Cheap labour
• A good system of transportation which links the estates to the factories and markets for the export of the products.
Few important plantation crops from different countries are:
• Tea - India and Sri Lanka,
• Rubber - Malaysia
• Sugarcane and banana plantations - West Indies.