NCERT Solutions - Regional Aspirations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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The document NCERT Solutions - Regional Aspirations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12).
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TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

1. Match the following:

NCERT Solutions - Regional Aspirations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Answer: (a)-(iii), (b)-(iv), (c)-(ii), (d)-(i).

2. Regional aspirations of the people of North-East get expressed in different ways. These include movements against outsiders, movement for greater autonomy and movement for separate . national existence. On the map of the North-East, using different shades for these three, show the States where these expressions are prominently found.
Answer: Tripura, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh (See the Map at the end of the Chapter).

3. What were the main provisions of the Punjab accord? In what way can they be the basis for further tensions between the Punjab and its neighbouring States?
Answer: Punjab Accord was an agreement signed between the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Harchand Singh Longowal, the then President of Akali Dal in 1985 to be known as ‘Rajiv Gandhi Longowal Accord’ also to create normalcy in Punjab:
 1. Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab.
 2. To appoint a separate commission to resolve border dispute between Punjab and Haryana.
 3. To set up a tribunal to settle down the sharing of Ravi-Beas river water among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
 4. To provide agreement for compen-sation to better treatment to those affected by militancy in Punjab.
 5. To withdraw the Armed forces special power Act ip Punjab.
 But, peace could not be established easily in Punjab and resulted as follows:
 (a) It led to many excesses by police and violation of human rights.
 (b) It fragmented the Akali Dal.
 (c) President’s rule was imposed and normal political process was suspended.
 (id) Hence, Political process could not be restored in this atmosphere. Even during elections in 1992, only 24% electors turned out to vote. Consequently above mentioned added to tension between Punjab and its neighbouring states.

4. Why did the Anandpur Sahib Resolution become controversial?
Answer: Anandpur Sahib Resolution was passed at the conference of Akali Dal at Anandpur Sahib in 1973:
 (а) To ascertain regional autonomy and to redefine centre-state relations.
 (b) Sikhs aspirations aimed at ‘bolbala’ (dominance) of Sikhs.
 (c) It could also be interpreted as a plea for separate sikh nation despite of federal spirit.
 But, it became controversial due to following reasons:
 1. Due to lack of popularity of Akali Dal resolution had a United appeal.
 2. Akali government was dismissed in 1980s it lost its importance.
 3. Akali Dal launched a movement on the distribution of water between Punjab and its neighbouring states.
 4. Movement went into the hands of extremist elements from moderate Akalis and converted into armed insurgency for which Anandpur Sahib Resolution considered responsible.

5. Explain the internal divisions of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and describe how these lead to multiple regional aspirations in that State.
Answer: Jammu and Kashmir comprised of three regions:
 1. Kashmir region is Kashmir valley consisting Kashmiri speaking and mostly Muslim with a Kashmiri speaking Hindu minority.
 2. Jammu region consists of Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and speakers of various languages, in the areas of foothills and plains.
 3. Ladakh region is equally divided between Buddhists and Muslims and maintains an little population area.
 These internal divisions led to multiple regional aspirations:
 1. One strand of separatist to demand a separate Kashmiri nation independent of India and Pakistan.
 2. Some other groups want Kashmir to be merged with Pakistan.
 3. Third strand wants a greater autonomy for people of state within Indian Union.
 4. The demand for intra-state autonomy
 is as strong as the demand for the state autonomy.
 In present scenario, most of the separatist in dialogue are trying to re-negotiate a relationship of state with India.

6. What are the various positions on the issue of regional autonomy for Kashmir? Which of these do you think are justifiable? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer: On the issue of regional autonomy for Kashmir, the following positions are states as:
 1. Kashmiris were promised to make accession on reference of people after situation created by tribal invasion, becomes normal. But it has not been fulfilled, hence, it generated the demand for “Plebiscite”.
 2. Sometimes, it was felt that special federal status guaranteed by Article 370 has been eroded practically which led the demand for restoration of autonomy or “Greater State Autonomy”.
 3. It is felt that democracy, which is practised in rest of India has not been similarly institutionalised in Jammu and Kashmir.
 We prefer the first position because ‘Plebiscite’ provides better opportunity to people of J & K to protect and sustain their regional autonomy in a very democratic manner.

7. The Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. Explain.
Answer: Because:
 1. It was against outsiders to maintain cultural integration of Assam.
 2. There was widespread poverty and unemployment in Assam, despite existence of natural resources like tea, coal and oil.
 3. It was felt that these were drained out of state without any commensurate benefit to the people.

8. All regional movements need not lead to separatist demands. Explain by giving examples from this chapter.
Answer: Because:
 1. Regional aspirations are part of democratic politics.
 2. Expression of regional issues is not an abnormal phenomenon.
 3. Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland have regional aspirations in United Kingdom.
 4. Regional movements are responded
 through democratic negotiations rather than suppression. –
 5. Its examples are in eighties, military erupted in Punjab, problems persisted in the North-East, students agitated in Assam and Kashmir valley was on the boil.
 6. The government of India settled down some negotiations with these regional aspirations to reduce tensions in many regions.
 7. Mizoram is an example of political settlement to resolve the problem of separation effectively.

9. Regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity with diversity. Do you agree? Give reasons.
Answer: Yes, we agree with the statement because India adopted a democratic approach on these regional aspirations in place of considering them as anti-national:
 1. India’s democratic politics allows people and groups to address the people on the basis of their regional identity, aspiration, and specific regional problems.
 2. India’s democratic politics focus on regional issues and problems to receive adequate attention and accommodation in the policy making process, i.e. regional aspirations of Assam, Punjab and North-East, Kashmir etc.
 3. Its examples are in eighties, military erupted in Punjab, problems persisted in the North-East, students agitated in Assam and Kashmir valley was on the boil.
 4. The government of India settled down some negotiations with these regional aspirations to reduce tensions in many regions.
 5. Mizoram is an example of political settlement to resolve the problem of separation effectively.
 It can be concluded that regional aspirations do not encourage separation but these respect diversity to retain unity in the nation.

10. Read the passage and answer the questions below:
One of Hazarika’s songs dwells
on the unity theme; the seven states of north-eastern India become seven sisters born of the same
mother ‘Meghalaya went own
way …., Arunachal too separated and Mizoram appeared in Assam’s gateway as a groom to marry another
daughter.’ The song ends with
a determination to keep the unity of the Assamese with other smaller nationalities that are left in the present-day Assam- ‘the Karbis and the Mising brothers and sisters are our dear ones.’
—Sanjib Baruah
(a) Which unity is the poet talking about?
(b) Why were some States of North¬East created separately out of the erstwhile State of Assam?
(c) Do you think that the same theme of unity could apply to all the regions of India? Why?
Answer: (a) The poet is talking about the Unity of Assamese.
 (b) Because these states face that Assamese government was imposing Assamese language on them. Hence, regional aspirations began.
 (c) Yes, same theme of unity could apply to all regions of India because Indian government deals with all these regional aspirations with respect to accommodate regional diversities.


MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED

Very Short Answer Type Questions [ 1 Mark]

1. Name the three social and political regions of the Northern most state of India.
Answer: Names of the three social and political regions of the Northern most state of India—
 (i) Jammu (ii) Kashmir (iii) Ladakh

2. Why were the seven small states created in North-East India?
Answer: Seven small states were created in North-East India because of demands for (i) autonomy (ii) movements for secession and
 (iii) opposition to outsiders.

3. Which students group led the anti foreigner movement in Assam?
Answer: All Assam Students’ Union in 1979 (AASU).

4. Who were the signatories of Punjab Accord of 1985?
Answer: The then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Harchand Singh Longowal, the then President of Akali Dal.

5. Jammu and Kashmir state comprised of which three social and political regions?
Answer: Kashmir, Jammu and Laddakh regions.

6. How did India meet with the challenge of diversity?
Answer: By redrawing the internal boundaries of the country, i.e. created Chhattisgarh Jharkhand and Uttarakhand etc.

7. What is the significance of Article 370? Ans. Article 370 signifies special status of Kashmir:
Answer: 1. To give greater autonomy to J & K.
 2. To specify that state has its own constitution.
 3. All provisions of constitution are not applicable to state.

8. Which Prime Minister expressed regret over violence against Sikhs after Indira Gandhi’s death?
Answer: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2005 after twenty years in Parliament to regret over the killings of Sikhs.

9. When was first normal election held in Punjab after violence?
Answer: In 1997 in the post militancy era and alliance of Akali Dal and BJP scored victory.

10. What do you mean by Seven Sisters?
Answer. The ‘North-East region’ consisting of seven states is referred to as seven sisters.


Very Short Answer Type Questions [2 Mar ks]

1. What does the special status given to J & K under Article 370 mean?
Answer: Article 370 signifies special status of Kashmir:
 1. To give greater autonomy to J & K.
 2. To specify that state has its own constitution.
 3. All provisions of constitution are not applicable to state.

2. Highlight any two characteristics of Dravidian movement.
Answer: Dravidian movement was one of the first regional movements in Indian Politics
 with the ambition to create a Dravid nation:
 1. This movement used democratic means like public debates and the electoral platform to achieve its ends.
 2. Due to this strategy, movements acquired political power in the state and became influential at national level.
 3. Dravidian movement led to formation of‘Dravid Kazhagam’ (DK) under the leadership of Tamil Social reformer ‘E.V. Ramaswami Periyar’.

3. Mention the outcomes of Assam Accord of 1985.
Answer: ‘Assam Accord’ was signed between Rajiv Gandhi-led government and AASU leaders over the issue of ‘outsiders’ in 1985:
 1. The foreigners who migrated into Assam during and after Bangladesh war and since were to be identified and deported.
 2. The Asom G. ;,a Parishad came to power in 1985 with the promise of resolving the foreign national problems as well as to build a ‘Golden Assam’.

4. Which accord proved to be a turning point in the history of Mizoram? 
Answer: The accord between Rajiv Gandhi and Laldenga of 1986 granted full fledged statehood with special powers to Mizoram. Even MNF (Mizo National Front) agreed to give up secessionists struggle.

5. What was the role of Congress in the politics of Jammu and Kashmir?
Answer: Congress dominated the politics of J & K between 1953 to 1974 in the following manner:
 1. National Conference remained iconic power with the active support of Congress for sometime but later merged with the Congress.
 2. The Congress gained direct control over the government in state.
 3. The Congress party also made attempts to have an agreement between Sheikh Abdullah and Government of India.
 4. In 1974, Indira Gandhi reached an agreement with Sheikh Abdullah and he became the Chief Minister of State.

6. Which communities wanted separate states in the North East region?
Answer: Despite reorganisation of North-East in 1972, autonomy demand arose:
 1. Assam communities like Bodos, Karbis and Dimosas demanded separate states.
 2. They mobilised public opinion and popular movement and same area was claimed by more than one community.
 3. Federal set up satisfied their autonomy i.e. Karbis and Dimosas were granted autonomy under district councils while Bodos were granted autonomous council.

7. In what ways the issue of outsiders continues to be a live issue in Assam?
Answer: Assam Accord could not solve the problem of immigration:
 1. The issue of‘outsiders’ continues to be alive issue.
 2. In Tripura, the original inhabitants have been reduced to being a minority in North-East.
 3. The same feelings formed the hostility of local population to Chakma refugees in Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.


Short Answer Type Questions [4 Marks]

1. What was the main outcome of Rajiv Gandhi-Longowal accord in July 1985?
Answer: 1. Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab.
 2. A separate commission to be appointed to resolve border dispute between Punjab and Haryana.
 3. A tribunal to be set up to settle down the sharing of Ravi-Beas river water among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
 4. To withdraw the Armed forces special power Act in Punjab.

2. What was Goa problem? How was Goa liberated and how did it become part of Indian Union?
Answer. 1. Goa was under Portuguese alongwith Daman and Diu since 16th century.
 2. We expected freedom in 1947 but Portugal refused to withdraw but the people of Goa wanted to merge with motherland.
 3. People of Goa^suppressed from religious conversions and civil rights known as ‘Goa Problem’.
 4. In 1961, with in two days Goa, Daman and Diu were liberated from Portugal rule under ‘Operation Vijay’ by Government of India.
 5. Goa became part of India and in 1987, it attained the status of ‘State Position’.

3. Describe the outcome of Anandpur Sahib Resolution of 1973.
Answer: Anandpur Sahib Resolution was passed at the conference of Akali Dal at Anandpur Sahib in 1973:
 (a) To ascertain regional autonomy and to redefine centre-state relations.
 (b) Sikhs aspirations aimed at ‘bolbala’ of Sikhs.
 (c) It could also be interpreted as a plea for separate sikh nation despite federal spirit.
 But, it became controversial due to following reasons:
 1. Due to lack of popularity of Akali Dal resolution had a United appeal.
 2. Akali government was dismissed in 1980 and it lost its importance.
 3. Akali Dal launched a movement on the distribution of water between Punjab, and its neighbouring states.
 4. Movement went into the hands of extremist elements from moderate
 Akalis and converted into armed insurgency for which Anandpur Sahib Resolution considered responsible.

4. State one similarity and one difference between the crisis in Punjab and Assam during 1980s.
Answer: Similarity- It was regional aspirations given to prior importance and solving the crisis through democratic negotiations. Differences- In Punjab, Akali Dal started the movement for formation of ‘Punjabi Sabha’ wdiereas in Assam, the crisis was against the people who were seen as outsiders or migrants who were considered to be competitors to employment opportunities.

5. How was DMK entered in Indian Politics? 
Answer: DMK i.e. Dravid Munetra Kazhagam entered in Indian politics with three demands in 1953-54:
 1. To restore original name of Kallkudi railway station.
 2. The addition of Tamil Cultural History in &hool curriculum.
 3. To eliminate craft education scheme.

6. When did Independent India first use referendum procedure?
Answer: In 1967 in the case of Goa’s liberation:
 1. In January 1967, the central government held a special ‘Opinion Poll’ in Goa asking people to decide it they wanted to be a part of Maharashtra or remain separate.
 2. The majority was in favour of remaining outside of Maharashtra, thus Goa became a Union-territory.
 3. Goa was granted statehood in 1987.


Passage Based Questions [5 Marks]

1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer thequestions:
The Assam Movement from 1979 to 1985 is the best example of such movements against ‘outsiders’. The Assamese suspected that there were huge number of illegal Bengali Muslim settlers from Bangladesh. They felt that unless these foreign nationals are detected and deported they would reduce the indigenous Assamese into a minority. There were other economic issues too. There was widespread poverty and unemployment in Assam despite the existence of natural resources like oil, tea and coal. It was felt that these were drained out of the State without any commensurate benefit to the people.
Questions
1. Name the group that led movement against outsiders in 1979.
2. Why did Assamese seek the detection and deportation of outsiders?
3. What were the economic issues taken up as a part of movement?
Answer:
 1. All Assam Students’ Union (AASU).
 2. Because they feared that they would reduce the indigenous Assamese into a minority.
 3. (i) There was widespread poverty and
 unemployment in Assam despite existence of natural resources like oil, tea and coal.
 (ii) It was also felt these were drained out of state without any commensurate benefit to people.

2. Read the passage  given below carefully and answer thequestions:
The best way to respond to regional aspirations is through democratic negotiations rather than through suppression. Look at the situation in the eighties-militancy had erupted in Punjab: problems were persisting in the North-East: students in Assam were agitating; Kashmir valley was on the boil. Instead of treating these as simple law and order problems, the Government of India reached negotiated settlement with regional movements. This produced a reconciliation which reduced the tensions existing in many regions. The example of Mizoram shows how political settlement can resolve the problem of separatism effectively.
Questions
1. How are regional aspirations dangerous for the unity of country?
2. What is meant by democratic negotiations?
3. Who was leading agitation in Assam?
4. What steps were taken by government of India to respond regional aspirations?
Answer:
 1. It creates the problem of separatism in the country.
 2. Democratic negotiations respect the demand of regional aspirations in place of suppression.
 3. The students.
 4. (i) Reached negotiated settlement with
 regional movements.
 (ii) Produced a reconciliation to reduce the tensions existing in many regions.


Long Answer Type Questions [6 Marks]

1. Describe the secessionist movement of Mizos. How as per the provisions of constitution, was it resolved on accommodation of diversities?
Answer: 1. After independence, the Mizo hills was made an autonomous district within Assam.
 2. Some Mizos believed that they were never a part of British India and not to belong to Indian Union.
 3. The movement of secession gained popular support after Assam government failed to respond
 adequately to great famine of 1959 in Mizo hills.
 4. It led to formation of Mizo National Front (MNF) under leadership of Laldenga.
 5. In 1966, the MNF started an armed campaign for independence.
 6. The MNF fought gurilla war, got support from Pakistan government and secured shelter in then East Pakistan.
 7. At the end oftwo decades ofinsurgency, Mizoram under leadership of Laldenga started negotiations with Indian government.
 8. 1986, a peace-agreement was signed between Rajiv Gandhi and Laldenga which granted statehood to Mizoram with special powers and MNF agreed to give up secessionist struggle.
 9. Today, Mizoram is one of the most peaceful places in the region alongwith big strides in literacy and development.

2. “Regional aspirations, regional inbalances and regionalism are a hindrance in the way of national unity of India”. Do you agree with the statement?
Answer: Because:
 1. Regional aspirations are part of democratic politics.
 2. Expression of regional issues is not an abnormal phenomenon.
 3. Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland have regional aspirations in United Kingdom.
 4. Regional movements are responded through democratic negotiations rather than suppression.
 5. Its examples are in eighties, militancy erupted in Punjab, problems persisted in the North-East, students agitated in Assam and Kashmir Valley was on the boil.
 6. The government of India settled down some negotiations with these
 regional aspirations to reduce tensions in many regions.
 7. Mizoram is an example of political settlement to resolve the problem of separation effectively.

3. What were the main provisions of Punjab Accord of 1985? How has peace been restored on seewar lines in Punjab?
Answer: Punjab Accord was an agreement signed between the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Harchand Singh Longowal, the then President of Akali Dal in 1985 to be known as ‘Rajiv Gandhi Longowal Accord’ also to create normalcy in Punjab:
 1. Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab.
 2. To appoint a separate commission to resolve border dispute between Punjab and Haryana.
 3. A tribunal to be set up to settle down sharing of Ravi-Beas river water among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
 4. To withdraw the Armed forces special power Act in Punjab.
 5. To provide agreement for compensation to better treatment to those affected by militancy in Punjab.
 But, peace could not be established easily in Punjab and resulted:
 (a) It led to many excesses by police and violation of human rights.
 (b) If fragmented the Akali Dal.
 (c) President’s rule was imposed and normal Political process was suspended.
 (d) Hence, Political process could not be restored in this atmosphere. Even during elections in 1992, only 24% electors turned out to vote.
 Consequently above mentioned added to tension between Punjab and its neighbouring states.


Picture/Map Based Questions [5 Marks]

1.On a political outline map of India locate and label the following and symbolise them as indicated:
NCERT Solutions - Regional Aspirations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Questions
1. The 22nd State of India due to its merger.
2. The state out of which the states of Meghalaya, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh were created.
3. Article 370 has a special significance for this state of India.
4. The state whose leader signed an agreement with Rajiv Gandhi.
5. An important state whose leader was Lai Denga.
6. Two states which were not part of state of Assam at the time of India’s Independence.
7. The state associated with Golden Temple and ‘Operation Blue Star’.
Answer:
 1. Sikkim 2. Assam
 3. Jammu and Kashmir
 4. Punjab
 5. Mizoram
 6. (a) Manipur (b) Tripura
 7. Punjab

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