NCERT Solutions - Rise of Popular Movements Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 12

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TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

1. Which of these statements are incorrect: The Chipko Movement
(а) was an environmental movement to prevent cutting down of trees.
(b) raised questions of ecological and economic exploitation.
(c) was a movement against alcoholism started by the women.
(d) demanded that local communities should have control over their natural resources.
Answer: (c) was a movement against alcoholism started by the women.

2. Some of the statements below are incorrect. Identify the incorrect statements and rewrite those with necessary correction.
(а) Social movements are hampering the functioning of India’s democracy.
(b) The main strength of social movements lies in their mass base across social sections.
(c) Social movements in India emerged because there were many issues that political parties did not address.
Answer:(a) Rewritten-Social movements involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems.
 (c) Rewritten-Social movements in India emerged to reduce the possibility of deep social conflict and disaffection of groups from democracy.

3. Identify the reasons which led to the Chipko Movement in U.P. in early 1970s. What was the impact of this movement?
Answer: 1. The Chipko movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand on refusal of permission to villages to fell ash trees for making agricultural tools and allotted the same land to
 sports manufacturers for commercial uses.
 2. The villagers protested against the practices of logging to be permitted by government.
 3. Villagers used a novel tactic to hug the trees to protect them from being cut down.
 Impact of movement:
 1. It soon spread across many parts of Uttarakhand and larger issues of ecological and economic exploitation were also raised.
 2. Government issued a ban on felling of tress in Himalayan region for fifteen years until green cover was fully restored.
 3. Active participation of women was also a very novel aspect of the movement.
 4. This movement was started with a single issue but became symbol of many such popular movements emerging in different parts of country during 1970s.

4. The Bharatiya Kisan Union is a leading organisation highlighting the plight of farmers. What were the issues addressed by it in the nineties and to what extent were they successful?
Answer: Bharatiya Kisan Union was one of the leading farmers’ movement to protest against the policies of process of liberalisation of Indian economy:
 Issues addressed by BKU:
 1. Higher government floor prices for sugarcane and wheat,
 2. Guaranteed supply of electricity at reasonable rates.
 3. To wave off repayments due on loan to farmers.
 4. To provide government pension to farmers.
 5. Abolition of restrictions on the inter¬state movement of farm produce. Highlighted the plight of farmers:
 1. BKUconductedrallies, demonstrations, and Jail Bharo agilations.
 2. These protests involved thousands 20 over lakhs farmers from western UPs adjoining regions.
 3. BKU operated as a pressure group in politics with its strength of sheer members.
 Extent of Success:
 1. BKU became the most successful social movements.
 2. It sustained for a longtime due to clannetworks among its members.
 3. These networks mobilised funds, resources and activities of BKU.
 4. An outcome of political bargaining powers by its members.
 5. BKU farmers dominated regional electoral politics also.

5. The anti-arrack movement in Andhra Pradesh drew the attention of the country to some serious issues. What were these issues?
Answer: 1. Anti-arrack movement was the movement of rural women in Andhra Pradesh to protest against alcoholism, mafias and government.
 2. This movement had its roots in “adult literacy drive” where women complained of increased consumption of locally brewed alcohol arrack by men in their families to effect on rural economy also.
 3. Women in Nellore came together in spontaneous local initiatives to protest against arrack and forced the closure of wine shop.
 And this movement spread slowly all over the state
 Issues relating to movements:
 1. The Anti-arrack movement aimed at prohibition on the sale of arrack.
 2. Its demand touched upon larger section of social, economic and political issues which had established a close nexus between crime and politics.
 3. Women openly discussed the issues of domestic violence like dowry, sexual violence etc.
 4. Anti-arrack movement provided a platform to discuss private issues of domestic violence.

6. Would you consider the anti-arrack movement as a women’s movement? Why?
Answer: Yes, we would consider the Anti¬arrack movement as a part of women’s movement to provide a platform for women to discuss private issues of domestic violence:
 1. This movement focused on issues of sexual violence against women either within family or outside.
 2. Women joined the campaign against dowry and demanded personal and property laws based on gender equality.
 3. These campaigns contributed a great deal in increasing social awareness as well as shifted from legal reforms to open social confrontations.
 4. Consequently, movement demanded equal representation to women in politics during the nineties. Hence 73rd and 74th amendments granted reservations to women in local level political offices.
 5. Thus, it can be concluded to be a part of women’s movement.

7. Why did the Narmada Bachao Aandolan oppose the dam projects in the Narmada Valley?
Answer: Narmada Bachao Aandolan was a collective local organisation’s movement to save river Narmada which opposed the construction of multi-purpose dam „ “The Narmada Sagar Project” and questioned the ongoing developmental projects in country:
 1. Narmada Bachao Aandolan linked its opposition to Sardar Sarovar Project with larger issues concerning the nature of ongoing developmental projects, efficiency of model of development that the country followed and about what constituted public interest in a democracy.
 2. It demanded that there should be a cost benefit analysis of the major developmental projects due to construction of dam submerged around 245 villages to require two and a half lakh population to be relocated.
 3. The movement demanded proper rehabilitation of all those to be effected from the construction of these projects.
 4. This movement also questioned the nature of decision making process to be in framing of mega scale development projects.
 5. Movement also insisted that local communities must have a say in such decision making alongwith an effective control over natural resources.
 6. Hence, NBA achieved a comprehensive National Rehabilitation Policy formed by government in 2003.

8. Do movements and protests in a country strengthen democracy? Justify your answer with examples.
Answer: Yes, to some extent movements and protests in country strengthen democracy to have mixed reactions both for and against:
 Arguments for:
 1. Anti-arrack movement, Chipko movement, NBA etc., rectified some problems to be seen as integral part of democratic politics.
 2. These movements ensured participation and representation from diverse groups to reduce possibility of deep social conflicts in democracy.
 3. These movements broadened the idea of participation in Indian democrac i. e., Anti-arrack movement and Dalit Panthers. Arguments against:
 1. Collective actions, rallies, strikes, disrupt the functioning of a democracy and create a delay in decision making.
 2. Routine functioning of democracy did not have enough space for the voices of these social groups.
 3. It is possible to ignore demand of these movements with the presentation to be represented by one section of society only.
 4. Political parties do not seem to be taking up issues of marginal social groups.
 5. The relationship between popular movements and political parties has grown weaker over the years creating a vacuum in politics.
 Hence, we may conclude that movements are not only about collective assertions or rallies or protest, but they also involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, demand and expectations.

9. What issues did the Dalit Panthers address?
Answer: Dalit Panthers was a militant organisation of Dalit Youth to be formed in 1972 in Maharashtra:
 1. These groups mainly fought against the perpetual caste based inequalities and material injustices that Dalits faced in spite of constitutional guarantees of equality and justice.
 2. Dalits faced collective atrocities over minor symbolic issues of caste pride. Hence, they demanded effective implementation of reservations and other such policies of social justice.

10. Read the passage and answer questions below:
…., nearly all ‘new social movements’ have emerged as corrective to new maladies – environmental degradation, violation of the status of women, destruction of tribal cultures and the undermining of human rights – none of which are in and by themselves transformative of the social order.
They are in that way quite different from revolutionar}1- ideologies of the past. But their weakness lies in their
being so heavily fragmented
…a large part of the space occupied by the new social movements seem to be suffering from … various characteristics which have prevented them from being relevant to the truly oppressed and the poor in the form of a solid unified movement of the people. They are too fragmented, reactive, ad hocish, providing no comprehensive framework of basic social change. Their being anti-this or that (anti-West, anti-capitalist, anti-development, etc.) does not make them any more coherent, any more relevant to oppressed and peripheralized communities.
-Rajni Kothari
(a) What is the difference between new social movements and revolutionary ideologies?
(b) What according to the author are the limitations of social movements?
(c) If social movements address specific issues, would you say that they are ‘fragmented’ or that they are more focused? Give reasons for you answer by giving examples.
Answer: (a) The difference is that like revolutionary ideologies none of new social movements are in and by themselves transformative of the social order but they emerged as corrective of new malodies.
 (b) According to author these movements are not any more coherent, relevant to oppressed and peripheralised communities. To some extent these are effected by party politics.
 (c) If social movements address specific issues, we would say that these are fragmented which provide no comprehensive framework of social change i.e., Anti-arrack movement, Dalit Panthers etc.


MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED

Very Short Answer Type Questions [ 1 Mark]

1. Mention the two main demands of Bharatiya Kisan Union in 1980s.
Answer: 1. Higher government floor price for sugarcane and wheat.
 2. Guaranteed supply of electricity at reasonable rates.

2. What was the most novel aspect of Chipko movement?
Answer: Women’s active participation in Chipko agitation was the novel aspect of Chipko movement.

3. What was Anti-arrack movement?
Answer: Anti-arrack movement was the movement of rural women from Andhra Pradesh to fight against alcoholism, mafias and government during this periods.

4. What was main objective of ‘Dalit Panthers’?
Answer:  Dalit Panthers aimed at the destroy of caste system and to build on organisation of all oppressed sections like landless poor peasants and urban industrial workers alongwith Dalits.

5. What is meant by non-party movement?
Answer: Non-party movements are started by voluntary organisations or group of people (Students/Workers) who did not get support of political parties and not contest elections also.

6. What are popular movements?
Answer: Popular movements are the movements organised by dalits and farmers under the banner of various social organisations to voice their demands.

7. What does the term ‘Dalit Panthers’ mean?
Answer: Dalit Panthers denotes to a militant organisation of Dalit Youth to be formed in 1972 in Maharashtra.

8. In the poem what does the term “Pilgrims of darkness” signify? To whom the poet has referred as the liberator?
Answer: It signifies Dalit Communities who had experienced brutal caste injustices. The poet refers to Dr. Ambedkar as their liberator as well as ‘Sun flower giving Fakir’.

9. Who wrote the poem on Dalit? What does the poem signify?
Answer: The Marathi poet Namdeo Dhsal wrote poem on Dalit during the decade of seventies which expresses the anguish that the Dalit masses continued to face even after twenty years of Independence.

10. WTiy did the cash crop market face on crisis?
Answer: Due to beginning of the process of “Liberalisation of Indian Economy” when agricultural sector came under threat and a debate between industry and agriculture has become one of the prominent issues in India’s model of development.

11. What strategies were used by Narmada Bachao Aandolan to put forward its demands?
Answer: 1. Mobilisation of support at international level.
 2. Appeals to judiciary.
 3. ‘Public rallies.
 4. Forms of Satyagraha to convince people.


Very Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks]

1. What was the main demand of Chipko movement?
Answer: 1. The villagers demanded that no forest exploiting contracts should be given to outsiders.
 2. Local communities should have effective control over natural resources like water, land and forests.
 3. They also demanded the government to provide low cost materials to small industries and ensure development of region without disturbing ecological
 – balance.
 4. This movement took up economic issues of landless forest workers and asked for guarantees of minimum wages.

2. Highlight any two main demands of Anti¬arrack movement.
Answer: 1. Prohibition on the sale of arrack.
 2. Provided a platform to discuss private issues of domestic violence.

3. Mention any two demands of Bharatiya Kisan Union.
Answer: 1. Higher government floor price for sugarcane and wheat.
 2. Guaranteed supply of electricity at reasonable rates.

4. How does party based movement differ from non-party movement?
Answer: Party based movements are those movements supported by political parties i.e. Trade Union Movement in Mumbai, Kolkata and Kanpur etc., whereas non-party movements have lost faith in existing democratic institutions and electoral politics to be merged of students and young political activists in mass-mobilisation.

5. Which two issues were addressed by Dalit Panthers? 
Answer: Dalit Panthers was a militant organisation of Dalit Youth formed in 1972 in Maharashtra:
 1. These groups mainly fought against the perpetual caste based inequalities and material injustices that Dalits faced inspite of constitutional guarantees of equality and justice.
 2. Dalits faced collective atrocities over minor symbolic issues of caste pride. Hence, they demanded effective implementation of reservations and other such policies of social just.
 Ans. 1. The villagers demanded that no forest exploiting contracts should be given to outsiders.
 2. Local communities should have effective control over natural resources like water, land and forests.

7. Mention any two party based movement.
Answer: 1. Naxalite movements.
 2. Trade Union movement of Mumbai, Kolkata and Kanpur.

8. List any four activities conducted by Bharatiya Kisan Union to pressurize the state for accepting its demands.
Answer: 1. BKU conducted rallies, demonstrations and Jail Bharo agitations.
 2. These protests involved thousands so over lakhs farmers from western UP’s adjoining regions.
 3. BKU operated as a pressure group in politics with its strength of sheer members.

9. Which action of the government of India threatened the fish workers’ lives in a major way? Which organisation did they form at national level?
Answer: The government policies of economic liberalisation opened up India’s waters to large commercial vessels including multinational fishing companies which threatened the local fishworkers who came together on a national level platform in the form of organisation ‘National Fishworkers Forum’ needed by fishworkers from Kerala.

10. In what ways social movement raised various issues about the model of economic development of India at the time of independence?
Answer: 1. Chipko movement brought about the issues of ecological depletion.
 2. The BKU farmers organisation complained a neglect of agricultural sector.
 3. Dalits led mass struggle against social and material conditions.
 4. Anti-arrack movement focused on negative fallouts of what was considered development.


Short Answer Type Questions [4 Marks]

1. Assess any two positive aspects of the Chipko Movement.
Answer: (i) The Chipko Movement started in early 1973 in the state that is now Uttarakhand. The movement was unique in the sense that it presented a very unusual form of collective action in which men and women from a village of this state were engaged. These villagers protested against the practices of commercial logging that the government had permitted. They used a novel tactic for their protest— that of hugging the trees to prevent them from being cut down. The struggle soon spread across many parts of the Uttarakhand region.
 (ii) Women’s active participation in the Chipko agitation was a very novel aspect of the movement. The forest contractors of the region usually doubled up as suppliers of alcohol to men. Women held sustained agitations against the habit of alcoholism and broadened the agenda of the movement to cover other social issues. The movement achieved a victory when the government issued a ban on felling of trees in the Himalayan region for fifteen years, until the green cover was fully restored.

2. Where and when was the organisation ‘Dalit Panthers’ formed? Describe any three of its activities.
Answer: Dalit Panthers denotes to a militant organisation of Dalit Youth to be formed in 1972 in Maharasthra.
 Its activities can be summed up as follows:
 1. These groups mainly fought against the perpetual caste based inequalities and material injustices that Dalits faced in spite of constitutional guarantees of equality and justice.
 2. Dalits faced collective atrocities over minor symbolic issues of caste pride.
 3. They demanded effective implementation of reservations and other such policies of social justice.

3. What are popular movements? Explain any three issues related to women which brought social awareness amongst them.
Answer: Popular movements are the movements organised by dalits and farmers under the banner of various social organisations to voice their demands.
 Women in Nellore came together in spontaneous local initiatives to protest against arrack and forced the closure of wine shops.
 And this movement spread slowly all over the state.
 Issues relating to movements:
 1. The Anti-Arrack movement aimed at prohibition on the sale of arrack.
 2. Its demand touched upon larger section of social, economic and political issues which had established a close nexus between crime and politics.
 3. Women openly discussed the issue of domestic violence like dowry, sexual violence etc.
 4. Anti-Arrack movement provided a platform to discuss private issues of domestic violence.

4. What is the Right to Information Act? When was it passed in India?
Answer: The ‘Right to Information Act’ is a law to empower the people to find out happenings in government and act as a watchdog of democracy:
 1. It was passed in October 2005 by Government of India.
 2. This Act ensures its citizens all information about functioning of government machinery.
 3. This right has been expanded to cover various services provided by government i.e., if any purchased product is defective it can be -asked for replacement.
 4. This right gives political actors incentives to good things to help to control corruption.

5. What was Narmada Bachao Aandolan? What was criticism against it?
Answer: Narmada Bachao Aandolan linked its opposition to Sardar Sarovar Project with larger issues concerning the nature of ongoing development projects with the . dreams of cost benefit analysis due to construction of dams submerged around 245 villages to require two and a half lakh population to be relocated.
 Its criticism:
 1. The obstruction to the process of development.
 2. Denial to the access to water to many people.
 3. Hurdle to economic development.

6. “Movement are not only about collective assertions or only about rallies and protests but something else as well”. Justify.
Answer: Though movements are the result of collective assertions, still these are associated with a “Gradual process of coming together of people” with common intentions, common problem, demands and common expectations. These movements make people aware also by performing educative role towards expansions of democracy.


Passage Based Questions [5 Marks]

1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
Sardar Sarovar Project is a multipurpose mega-scale dam. Its advocates say that it would benefit huge areas of Gujarat and the three adjoining states in terms of availability of drinking water and water for irrigation, generation of electricity and increase in agricultural production. Many more subsidiary benefits like effective flood and drought control in the region were linked to the success of this dam. In the process of construction of the dam 245 villages from these States were expected to get submerged. It required relocation of around two and a half lakh people from these villages. Issues of relocation and proper rehabilitation of the project- affected people were first raised by local activist groups. It wrns around 1988-89 that the issues crystallised under the banner of the NBA – a loose collective of local voluntary organisations.
Questions
1. Why is Sardar Sarovar Project mentioned as multipurpose mega scale dam?
2. Why was it opposed by villagers?
3. Name the organisation which led the movement against this project.
4. What was the main demand of Local Activist Groups?
Answer:
 1. Because it fulfilled the various purposes together as to benefit huge areas of Gujarat and three adjoining states:
 1. Availability of drinking water
 2. Water for irrigation
 3. Generation of electricity
 4. Effective floods and drought control in the region.
 2. Because in the process of construction of dam about 245 villages from these states were expected to be submerged alongwith the population of two and a half lakh people.
 3. Local Activist Group under the banner of Narmada Bachao Andolan.
 4. To relocate and proper rehabilitation of project affected people.

2. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
Movements are not only about collective assertions or only about rallies and protests. They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands and similar expectations. But then movements are also about making people aware of their rights and the expectations that they can have from democratic institutions. Social movements in India have been involved in these educative tasks for a long time and have thus contributed to expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions.
Questions
1. What is the importance of popular movements in democracy?
2. How do popular movements help the
government?
3. What factors make the people come together in a particular movement?
Answer:
 1. Popular movements make people aware of their rights and expectations which can be drawn from democratic institutions.
 2. Popular movements let the government be aware of the similar demands, similar problems and expectations of
 people through an educative task for expansion of democracy rather than disrupting it.
 3. Similar problems, similar demands, and similar expectations of the same group/people.


Long Answer Type Questions [6 Marks]

1. Suppose you are an important leader of the Farmers’ agitation. The government authorities ask you to present any three demands on behalf of the farmers. On priority basis, which three demands will you make? Support your demands with appropriate arguments.
Answer: Farmers’ agitation is not new in our country. It has been in existence time to time for particular goals. We know that the Indian farmers have been the worst sufferers in the country. They are the backbone of the country in development, yet they are not given much attention. Governments come and go, but the tragedy of our farmers remain the same. Being the leader of the farmers’ agitation I have several demands in my mind for the benefit of the poor farmers but here I would mention only three demands on their behalf:
 (i) Proper banking facilities so that farmers should not depend on the village moneylenders who give them money at a very high rate. Most of the time the poor farmers fall into debt trap which make their life a hell.
 (ii) Proper irrigation facilities in case there is poor/weak monsoon.
 (ii) Insurance of crops will save farmers from committing suicide. The unexpected rain in the months of March and April this year devastated the standing crops in the field. The nature’s fury aggravated the miseries of the farmers some of whom could not bear and committed suicide.

2. What was Narmada Bachao Aandolan? What were its main issues? What democratic strategies did it use to put forward its demands?
Answer: 1. Narmada Bachao Aandolan linked its opposition to Sardar Sarovar project with larger issues concerning the nature of ongoing developmental projects, efficacy of model of development that the country followed and what constituted public interest in a democracy.
 2. It demanded that there should be a cost benefit analysis of the major developmental projects due to construction of dam submerged around 245 villages to require two a half lakh population to be relocated.
 3. The movement demanded proper rehabilitation of all those to be affected from the construction of these projects.
 4. This movement also questioned the nature of decision making process to be in forming of mega scale development projects.
 5. Movement also insisted that local communities must have a say in such decision making alongwith an effective control over natural resources.
 6. Hence, NBA achieved a compreh ensive National Rehabilitation Policy formed by government in 2003.
 Democratic strategies used by it:
 1. Mobilisation of support at inter-national level.
 2. Appeals to judiciary.
 3. Public rallies
 4. Forms of Satyagraha

3. What is meant by Chipko movement? When did it start and where? What is the significance of this movement?
Answer: 1. The Chipko movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand on refusal of permission to villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural tools, and allotted the same land to sports manufacturers for commercial uses.
 2. The villagers protested against the practices of logging to be permitted by the government.
 3. Villagers used a novel tactic to hug the trees to protect them from being cut down.
 Impact of movement:
 1. It soon spread across many parts of Uttarakhand and larger issues of ecological and economic exploitation were also raised.
 2. Government issued a ban on felling of trees in Himalayan region for fifteen years until green cover was fully restored.
 3. Active participation of women was also a very novel aspect of the movement.
 4. This movement was started with a single issue but became symbol of many such popular movements emerging in different parts of country during 1970s.

4. Mention any three social movements of India. Explain their main objectives.
Answer: 1. The Chipko Movement:
 (a) It raised the issues of ecological and economic exploitation.
 (b) Active participation of women was a novel aspect of the movement.
 (c) The villagers protested against the practices of logging to be permitted by the government.
 2. Anti-Arrack movement:
 (a) This movement focused on issues of sexual violence against women either within family or outside.
 (b) Women joined the campaign against dowry and demanded personal and property laws based on gender equality.
 (c) These campaigns contributed a great deal in increasing social awareness as well as shifted from legal reforms to open social confrontations.
 3. Narmada Bachao Aandolan:
 (a) Narmada Bachao Aandolan linked its opposition to Sardar Sarovar Project with larger issues concerning the nature of ongoing developmental projects.
 (b) It demanded cost benefit analysis of major developmental projects to relocate the people suffered from construction of dams.
 (c) This movement also questioned the nature of decision making process to be in framing of mega scale development projects.


Picture/Map Based Questions [5 Marks]

1. On a political outline map of India locate and label the following and symbolise them as indicated.
NCERT Solutions - Rise of Popular Movements Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Questions
1 .The state where Anti-Arrack movement started in October 1992.
2. The state where Dalit Panthers Organisation was active.
3. The state related with Chipko movement.
4. The states associated with Narmada Bachao Aandolan.
Answer:
 1. Andhra Pradesh
 2. Maharashtra
 3. Uttarakhand
 4. (a) Gujarat (b) Madhya Pradesh

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