1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following statements is wrong?
(a) Cheap water transport has facilitated the jute mill industry along the Hugli.
(b) Sugar, cotton textiles and vegetable oils are footloose industries.
(c) The development of hydro-electricity and petroleum reduced, to a great extent, the importance of coal energy as a locational factor for industry.
(d) Port towns in India have attracted industries.
► (b) Sugar, cotton textiles and vegetable oils are footloose industries.
(ii) In which one of the following types of economy are the factors of production owned individually?
► (a) Capitalist
(iii) Which one of the following types of industries produces raw materials for other industries?
(a) Cottage Industries
(b) Small-scale Industries
(c) Basic Industries
(d) Footloose Industries
► (c) Basic Industries
(iv) Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched ?
(a) Automobile industry … Los Angeles
(b) Shipbuilding industry … Lusaka
(c) Aircraft industry … Florence
(d) Iron and Steel industry … Pittsburgh
► (d) Iron and Steel industry … Pittsburgh
2. Write a short note on the following in about 30 words.
(i) High-Tech industry
(iii) Footloose industries
(i) High technology is the latest generation of manufacturing activities which is best understood as the application of intensive research and development (R and D) efforts leading to the manufacture of products of an advanced scientific and engineering character. Highly skilled specialists greatly outnumber the actual production (blue collar) workers. Examples are robotics on the assembly line, computer -aided design (CAD) and manufacturing.
(ii) Manufacturing literally means ‘to make by hand’. However, now it includes goods ‘made by machines'. It is a process which involves transforming raw materials into finished goods of higher value for sale in local or distant markets.
(iii) Footloose industries are not dependent on any specific raw material, weight losing or otherwise. They largely depend on component parts which can be obtained anywhere. They produce in small quantity and also employ a small labour force. It can be located in a wide variety of places.
3. Answer the following in not more than 150 words.
(i) Differentiate between primary and secondary activities.
Primary activities involve extraction of raw materials from the earth's surface.
Secondary activities involve transforming of raw materials into finished goods.
Primary activities include hunting and gathering, pastoralism, fishing, forestry, mining and agriculture.
Secondary activities include manufacturing of various products like textiles, iron and steel, fertilizers, cement, etc.
They are almost the only source of food supply and raw materials for industries.
Secondary activities have their impact on health, education, transport and trade.
People engaged in primary activities are called red-collar workers.
People engaged in secondary activities are called blue-collar workers.
(ii) Discuss the major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries of the world.
Modern industrial activities involve the application of power, mass production of identical products and specialised labour in factory settings for the production of standardised commodities.
Some major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries are:
Modern manufacturing is characterised by:
(i) a complex machine technology
(ii) extreme specialisation and division of labour for producing more goods with less effort, and low costs
(iii) vast capital
(iv) large organisations
(v) executive bureaucracy.
(iii) Explain why high-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centres.
High-tech industries are the latest generation of manufacturing activities. It is the application of intensive research and development (R and D) efforts leading to the manufacture of products of an advanced scientific and engineering character. Professional (white collar) workers make up a large share of the total workforce. High qualified need better facilities such as institutions, hospitals, shopping malls, restaurants etc.
Neatly spaced, low, modern, dispersed, office-plant-lab buildings rather than massive assembly structures, factories and storage areas mark the high-tech industrial landscape. Planned business parks for high-tech start-ups have become part of regional and local development schemes.
Therefore, high-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centres.
(iv) Africa has immense natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent. Comment.
The continent of Africa is very rich in natural resources such as crude oil, copper, coal, manganese but they are still backward because: