1. What were the features of the lives of the Bedouins in the early seventh century?
The Bedouins were Arab tribes . The main features of their lives are as follows:
• Their social organization was based on independent tribes.
• They were camel pastoralists and moved with their animals from oases to oases.
• Date palm and camel milk were their main diet.
• They indulged in looting , plundering and internal quarrels.
• They led a nomadic life.
2. What is meant by the term ‘Abbasid revolution’?
The term “ Abbasid Revolution” referred to the Dawa movement. This movement was initiated by Abu Muslim from Khurasan against the Umayyad dynasty . The Abbasid revolution put an end to the Umayyad dynasty . By overthrowing Umayyadies the Abbasid dynasty came into throne in 750 CE.
3. Give examples of the cosmopolitan character of the states set up by Arabs, Iranians and Turks.
Examples of cosmopolitan characters of the states set up by Arabs, Iranians and Turks:
(i) The vast Arab empire was inhabited by the people of multi cultural identities ,e.g.- the Muslims, the Christians and the Jews.
(ii) In Turkish empire, the Egyptian , Iranian, Syrian , Sudanian, cultural developed simultaneously.
(iii) The Iranian empire witnessed for the development of Muslims and Asian cultural.
4. What were the effects of the Crusades on Europe and Asia?
(i) The crusades left a deep impact on the aspects of Christian-Muslim relations.
(ii) Influence of crusades led to declination of mercantile which paved the way for the emergence of nation states.
(iii) The Muslims states adopted harsher attitude towards their Christian attitudes.
(iv) The crusades left a deep impact on the aspects of Christian-Muslim relations.
(v) The Muslim writers named their invasion (invasion of Christian) as Frankish invasion who quickly established their influences over these regions.
(vi) In the first crusade, soldiers from France and Italy captured Antioch in Syria and also claimed Jerusalem. Their victory marked by slaughter of Muslims and Jews.
Answer in Short Essay
5. How were Islamic architectural forms different from those of the Roman Empire?
• Roman Empire Architectural Forms: The Romans emperors were great builders . solidity and magnificence of conception are two important features of their architecture e.g- city of Rome.
(i)They introduced two architecture features, the arch and cupolas or domes.
(ii) Art of painting murals was highly developed so much so that some of their murals practically covered the whole wall.
(iii) Their buildings were multistoried with one row of arches standing over another, examples- Pompeys Theatre.
(iv) Inventors of concrete and could firmly cement, bricks and stones together ,examples- pantheon.
2.Islamic Architectural Forms:
(i) The Islamic art right forms Spain to central Asia showed some basic architectural features horseshoe arches, bulbous domes ,small minarets, twisted columns and open courtyard.
(ii ) Religious buildings – mosques, shrines and tomb were the greatest architectural symbols of this world.
(iii) Another features was decorative forms of writing e.g.- calligraphy and arabesque i.e geometric and vegetal designs, to decorate architecture, and manuscripts.
(iv) The places were modeled on romans and sasanian architectural features e.g.-palace at Baghdad. They were richly decorated with sculptures, mosaics and paintings.