TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
Q.1. Which among the following statements about the Cold War is wrong?
(а) It was a competition between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies.
(b) It was an ideological war between the superpowers.
(c) It triggered off an arms race.
(d) The US and USSR were engaged in direct wars.
Q.2. Which among the following statements does not reflect the objectives of NAM?
(a) Enabling newly decolonised countries to pursue independent policies.
(b) No to joining any military alliances.
(c) Following a policy of neutrality on global issues.
(d) Focus on elimination of global economic inequalities.
Q.3. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements that describe the features ol Tliitary alliances formed by the superpowers.
(a) Member countries of the alliance are to provide bases in their respective lands for superpowers.
(b) Member countries to support the superpower both in terms of ideology and military strategy.
(c) When a nation attacks any member country, it is considered as an attack on all the member countries.
(d) Superpowers assist all the member countries to develop their own nuclear weapons.
Ans. (a) True (b) True (c) True (d) False
Q.4. Here is a list of countries. Write against each of these blocs they belonged to during the Cold War.
(i) Poland: Eastern Alliance (Warsaw Pact)
(ii) France: Western Alliance (NATO)
(iii) Japan: Western Alliance (NATO)
(iv) Nigeria: NAM
(v) North Korea: Eastern Alliance (Warsaw Pact)
(vi) Sri Lanka: NAM
Q.5. The Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control. What were the reasons for both these development?
Ans. The Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control:
Q.6. Why did the superpowers have military alliances with smaller countries? Give three reasons.
Ans. Superpowers have military alliances with smaller states who were helpful for them in gaining access to:
Q.7. Sometimes it is said that the Cold War was a simple struggle for power and that ideology has nothing to do with it. Do you agree with this? Give one example to support your position.
Ans. Yes, the Cold War was a simple struggle for power and that ideology had nothing to do with it because:
Q.8. What was India’s foreign policy towards the US and USSR during the Cold War era? Do you think that this policy helped India’s interests?
Ans. India’s foreign policy towards the US and USSR was two fold:
Yes, this policy served India’s interests also:
Q.9. NAM was considered a ‘third option’ by third world countries. How did this option benefit their growth during the peak of the Cold War?
Ans. Non-alignment offered newly decolonised countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, a third option—not to join either alliance. A majority of NAM members was categorised as the Least Development Countries (LDCs), to be developed more economically not to remain dependent on richer countries. A new International Economic Order (NIEO) originated with this realisation. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) brought out a report in 1972 entitled towards a New Trade Policy for Development which proposed a reform of global trading system:
Q.10. What do you think about the statement that NAM has become irrelevant today? Give reasons to support your opinion.
What is the relevance of non-aligned movement after the end of Cold War?
Ans. By the mid 1970s, NAM had become an economic pressure group and by late 1980s, the NIEO initiative had faded due to stiff competition from developed countries who acted as a united group while non-aligned countries struggled to maintain their unity in face of this opposition. Non-alignment both as an international movement and as a core of India’s foreign policy lost some of its earlier relevance. Though non-alignment contained some core values and enduring ideas. It was based on a recognition that decolonised states shared a historical affiliation and can become powerful force if they come together, as very small and poor countries need not to become follower of any big powers instead they could pursue an independent foreign policy also.
In nutshell, it can be concluded that NAM has not lost its relevance. It has stood test of adverse circumstances. It has served an important purpose of protecting and preserving interests of third world countries.
MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED
Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]
Q.1. Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation also called Western Alliance?
Ans. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was an association of twelve states. All these states belonged to western Europe. Therefore, this association was also called Western Alliance.
Q.2. Name the two superpowers responsible for Cold War. When did the world become unipolar?
Ans. The US and USSR were responsible for Cold War. The world became unipolar in 1991 after disintegration of USSR.
Q.3. What does USSR stand for?
Ans. Union of Soviet Socialist Republic.
Q.4. When did NATO and WARSAW PACT come into existence?
Ans. NATO: April 1949
WARSAW PACT: 1955
Q.5. Mention the period of first and second World War.
Ans. First World War: 1914-1918
Second World: 1939-1945
Q.6. What is meant by cold War?
Ans. Cold War is a state of extreme unfriendliness existing between two superpowers especially with opposing political system which expresses itself not through fighting but through political pressures and threats.
Q.7. “Non-alignment does not imply neutrality or equidistance.” What does this statement mean?
Ans. Neutrality refers to a policy of staying out of war and not to help end a war. Non-aligned states including India worked to prevent wars and rivalries between others.
Q.8. What was deterrence relationship between superpowers?
Ans. Deterrence relationship refers that both sides have the capacity to retaliate against an attack and to cause so much destruction that neither can afford to initiate war.
Q.9. How did superpowers maintain arms- control?
Ans. Superpowers maintained arms control by signing significant agreements within a decade as Limited Test Ban Treaty, Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, Anti- Ballistic Missile Treaty and hold several rounds of arms limitation talks.
Q.10. What do you understand by Least Developed Countries?
Ans. Majority of NAM members were categorised as Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to be more developed economically and to lift their people out of poverty.
Q.11. What was the difference in the ideology of Western Alliances and that of Eastern Alliances?
Ans. The Western Alliance headed by the US represented ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the eastern alliance headed by Soviet Union committed to socialism and communism.
Q.12. What was India’s policy of Non-alignment?
Ans. India’s policy of Non-alignment was not a policy of ‘fleeing away’ instead India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften Cold War rivalries and prevented differences from escalating into a full scale war.
Q.13. Why did India not join either of the two camps during the Cold War?
Ans. India did not join either of the two camps during the Cold War because India played an active role in mediating between the two rival alliances for the sake of peace and stability. Their strength was based on unity of NAM members and their resolve to remain non-aligned despite the attempts and made by two superpowers to bring them into their alliances.
Q.14. How were the military alliances beneficial to smaller nations during the Cold War?
Ans. Smaller nations got the promise of protection, weapons and economic aid against their local and regional rivals. A state was supposed to remain tied to its protective superpowers to unite influence of other superpower and its allies.
Q.15. Name any two foreign leaders along with the countries they belonged to, who are recognised as the founders of NAM.
Ans. Yugoslavia’s Josip Broz Tito; Egypt’s leader Gamal Abdel Nasser.
Q.16. What was Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT)?
Ans. It was arms control treaty between superpowers. It banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water. It was signed by the US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5 August, 1963. It entered into force on 10 October, 1963.
Q.17. When and where the first NAM Summit was held?
Ans. The first NAM Summit was held in Belgrade in 1961 and it was attended by 25 member states.
Very Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks]
Q.1. What is meant by the Cuban Missile Crisis?
Ans. Cuba was an ally of the Soviet Union and received both diplomatic and financial aid from it. In 1962, Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba to convert it into a Russian base. This move fired the US. It ordered American warships to intercept any Soviet ships heading to Cuba as a way of warning the USSR of its seriousness. A clash seemed imminent in what came to be known as the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Q.2. What was the main objective of New International Economic Order?
Ans. The main objective of NIEO was to develop more to Least (Economic)
Developed countries of NAM and to lift them out of poverty by their sustainable development.
Q.3. Mention two military features of the Cold War.
(i) Cold War divided the world into two divisions namely Western and Eastern alliances as well as SEATO and CENTO.
(ii) Mad arms race had taken to manufacture atom bomb and nuclear weapons by Super Powers of the world.
Q.4. Explain Eastern and Western alliance during Cold war.
(i) Cold War gave birth to Eastern Alliance known as Warsaw Pact headed by Soviet Union in 1955 with the principal function to counter NATO’s forces.
(ii) Cold War created Western Alliance known as NATO in April 1949 by association of twelve states. Its policy was that an armed attack on any one of them would be regarded as an attack on all of them and everybody would be obliged to help each other.
Q.5. When did NATO come into existence? How many states joined it?
Ans. NATO came into existence in April 1949 and twelve sca+ joined it.
Q.6. Name any two arms control treaties signed between two superpowers in 1960s.
(i) Limited Test Ban Treaty (5 August, 1963)
(ii) Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (1 July, 1960)
Q.7. Name two leaders who played crucial role in Cuban Missile Crisis.
(i) Nikita Khrushchev—Leader of Soviet Union
(ii) John F. Kennedy—US President
Q.8. Explain any four objectives on Non- aligned Movement.
(i) NAM aimed at an end of colonisation and freedom to all nations.
(ii) NAM promoted and maintained international peace and security.
(iii) NAM aimed at removal of disparity among developed, poor and very small countries.
(iv) NAM aimed at promotion of New International Economic Order to encourage cooperation among nations.
Q.9. Mention any four important events which took place during Cuban Missile Crisis.
(i) In 1962, USSR installed Missiles in Cuba with intention to convert it into Russian base.
(ii) America became aware of it and as a warning ordered American warship to intercept Soviet ships moving to Cuba.
(iii) The US was feared of developing nuclear weapons on part of the USSR to challenge supremacy of the US.
(iv) The Cuban Crisis divided the world into two power blocs to expand their own spheres of influence in the world.
Q.10. Who was the key leader of NAM who tried to reduce the Cold War conflicts?
Ans. Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru was the key leader of NAM who played a crucial role in mediating between two Koreas. Nehru appealed for reduction of Cold War conflicts and the establishment of world peace and security through co-operative disarmament.
Q.11. Why were most of the countries categorised as Least Developed Countries?
(i) The economic development of these countries was very low.
(ii) They were dependent on richer countries for their sustainable development.
(iii) Their natural resources were being exploited by developed countries.
(iv) They could not participate in international economic institutions and they had a little say, if participated.
Short Answer Type Questions [4 Marks]
Q.1. Why did India distance itself from the two camps led by the U.S. and the Soviet Union? Explain.
Ans. The end of the Second World War was the beginning of the Cold War between the two superpowers of the world, namely the US and the USSR. These two superpowers were keen on expanding their spheres of influence in different parts of the world. Most countries of western Europe sided with the US and those of eastern Europe joined the USSR. But India kept a distance from these superpowers. It means, it became a member of the non-alignment-movement by not joining either alliance. Non-alignment was not a noble international cause which had little to do with India’s real interests. A non-aligned posture also served India’s interests very directly, in at least two ways.
Q.2. “The drop of bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the US was a political game.” Justify the statement.
Ans. The Second World War ended when the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 causing Japan to surrender. Moreover, this action was criticised on the ground that the US knew that Japan was about to surrender and dropping of bombs was not necessary. US action was intended to stop Soviet Union from making military and political gains in Asia and elsewhere and to show that the US was supreme.
Q.3. Explain the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Ans. In 1962, Soviet Union decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base as it provided USSR diplomatic and financial aid both. Hence, Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. The US became aware of it and ordered American warships to intercept to Soviet Union to remove missiles to avoid full scale nuclear war. A clash seemed imminent what came to be known as Cuban Missile Crisis.
Q.4. Name any two founders of Non-aligned Movement. The first NAM summit was the culmination of which three factors?
Ans. Two founders of Non-aligned Movement were:
The first NAM was held in Belgrade in 1961. This was the culmination of following three factors:
Q.5. What is the rationale of Non-aligned movement after the end of Cold War?
Which core values keep non-alignment relevant even after Cold War has ended?
Ans. Non-aligned Movement was based on a recognition that decolonised states shared a historical affiliation and can become powerful force if they come together. It meant that very small and poor countries need not become followers of any big power, instead they could pursue an independent foreign policy also. It was based on a resolve to democratise the international system to redress existing inequities also.
Q.6. “Non-alignment posture was in the interest of India”. How?
Ans. Non-alignment posture was in the interest of India because:
Q.7. How did deterrence relationship prevented war between two superpowers?
Passage Based Questions [5 Marks]
Q.1. Read carefully the passage given below and answer the following questions:
The Cold War was not simply a matter of power rivalries, military alliances and of balance of power. These were accompanied by a real ideological conflict as well, a difference over- the best and most appropriate way of organising political, economic and social life all over the world.
1. Why is a war like situation called Cold War?
2. Identify one military pact each signed by each of the two super powers to balance the power rivalries.
3. Differentiate between the ideologies represented by the rival blocs.
Q.2. Read the passage (NCERT Textbook, pages 2-3) given below carefully and answer the questions:
In April 1961… the Soviet Union were worried that the United States of America would invade communist ruled Cuba and overthrow the Cuban President Fidel Castro…. Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of Soviet Union, decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base. In 1962, placed nuclear missiles… Three weeks after the Soviet Union had placed the nuclear weapons in Cuba, the Americans became aware of it. They became reluctant to do anything that might lead to full scale war between the two countries… A clash seemed imminent in what came to be known as “Cuban Missile Crisis”. The prospects of this clash made the whole world nervous.
1. Why was the Soviet Union worried about America invading Cuba?
2. In response to the action taken by America, what did Nikita Khrushchev do?
3. Why were the two superpowers reluctant to start nuclear war?
Q.3. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
The Western alliance was formalised into an organisation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), which came into existence in April 1949. It was an association of twelve states which declared that armed attack on any one of them would be regarded as an attack on all of them. Each of these status would be obliged to help each other. The eastern alliance known as the Warsaw Pact was led by Soviet Union, created in 1955 and its principal function was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
1. What does NATO stand for?
2. What was NATO’s policy?
3. What was Warsaw Pact?
4. Mention the main function of Warsaw Pact.
Long Answer Type Questions [6 Marks]
Q.1. Describe any six factors responsible for the disintegration of USSR.
What is meant by New International Economic Order? Mention any four reforms of the global trading system proposed by UNCTAD in 1972.
Ans. Six factors responsible for the disintegration of USSR are—
The non-aligned countries were more than merely mediators during the’ Cold War. The challenge for most of the non-aligned countries — a majority of them were categorised as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) — was to be more developed economically and to lift their people out of poverty. Economic development was also vital for the independence of the new countries. Without sustained development, a country could not be truly free.
It would remain dependent on the richer countries including the colonial powers from which political freedom had been achieved. The idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) originated with this realisation. The UNCTAD brought out a report in 1972 entitled Towards a New Trade Policy for Development. The report proposed a reform of the global trading system so as to:
Q.2. What led to the emergence of bipolar world? What were the arenas of Cold War between the two power blocs?
Ans. Emergence of bipolar world:
Arenas of Cold War:
Q.3. How did Europe become main arena of conflict between the superpowers?
Q.4. “India’s policy of non-alignment was criticised on a number of counts.” Explain.
Ans. A non-aligned posture also served India’s interests very directly as well as India intervened in world affairs to soften cold war rivalries by reducing differences between the alliances and from escalating into a full scale war. Though India’s policy of non-alignment was criticised on a number of counts:
Q.5. Explain various arms control treaties.
Define the various treaties to control arms.
Map Based Questions [5 Marks]
On the political map of world locate and level the following by giving symbols to them
Q.1. Study the given map of the world in which six different countries have been marked 1,2,3,4,5,6. Identify these countries with their names and classify them as first, second, third world countries.
Q.2. Study the given map of the world in which six different countries have been marked 1,2,3,4,5,6. Identify these countries with their names and classify them as first, second, third world countries.