1. What was the effect on Britain’s industries of Britain’s involvement in wars from 1793 to 1815 ?
Britain was involved in wars with France during this i.e,1793 to 1815. The Britain's involvement in the war was greatly affected. Factories were shut down. Trade collapsed. That is why Britain was unable to get capital formation and reinvestment during war period.it had to use borrowed capital to fight rather than reinvestment. The prices of essential commodities were very high.so, this war affected British industries in many ways.
2. What were the relative advantages of canal and railway transportation?
The relative advantages of canal and railway transportation:
(i) It made the transportation easier and less costly.
(ii) It made easier both internal and external trade.
(iii) Rivers helped in transportation of bulky goods in interior parts of the country.
3. What were the interesting features of the ‘inventions’ of this period?
Some of the interesting features of the invention made by 'invention' during this period were:
(i) In 1709, Abraham daeby first time made process of smelting by using coal.
(ii) John key invented flying shuttle in 1733.The invention of flying shuttle speed up the production in textile industries.
(iii) In 1856 the technique of making steel by purifying iron was invented by Henry Bessemer.
(iv) Crompton invented Mule was a combination of both spinning jenny and water frame, which improved the quality of spinning.
(v) Duke of bridge water and James Brindly played a remarkable role in the construction of canals in England. It led to development of both rural and urban areas.
(vi) George Stephenson invented railway steam-engine known as father of railway.
4. Indicate how the supply of raw materials affected the nature of British industrialisation.
(i) The British got raw materials for the textile industries in India in form of cotton bales and began to export it for weaving clothes. It shifted the processing from homes to factories.
(ii) Initially spinning consumes a lot of time, but with the invention of technical knowledge the production began to increases. It increased the demand for raw material.
(iii) The political motives of imperialism. It further extended in the form of imperialism. It also led to the economic exploitation.
(iv) It boosted the Britishers industrial methods to gain more and more raw material forms colonial countries.
Answer in Short Essay
5. How were the lives of different classes of British women affected by the Industrial Revolution?
Women were supposed to observe strict discipline. They were also punished for violation of any discipline. Women of all classes began to work in factories. It helped them to getting financial independence and self-esteem. But their wages were low as compared to men for same working hours. Industrialization was a blessing in disguise. A number of food items became cheap and available in abundance. It increased the social status of women in particular.
6. Compare the effects of the coming of the railways in different countries in the world.
The coming of railways affected different countries across the world dramatically and boosted the process of industrialisation. Railways provide a lot of opportunities and also accelerated trade and commerce. Thus, it can be said that the coming of railways connected different countries of the world. Railways also helped in transportation of heavy goods easily at cheaper rates. It joined the different parts of countries and helped in picking of materials easily. The expansion of railways helped the imperialist countries a lot.