Page No: 122
Q 1. Describe two features of early feudal society in France.
Two features of early feudal society:
(i) The lord enjoyed special status. His order was supreme. Nobody could deny his order.(ii) It was based on the lord peasants relationship. The peasants offered labour in the service of the service of their lord.
(iii) Early society was divided into three orders .These order were the priests, nobles and the peasants. In reality the nobility played a very dominating role in the society.
Q 2. How did long-term changes in population levels affect economy and society in Europe?
Long term changes in population levels affected the economy and society:
(i) A number or towns came into being. They also became the centre of trade and commerce. Society became more advanced and civilized.
(ii) This change brought about new changes in agricultural production. Production reached at its peak. Good quality of goods was also produced .It increased the life expectancy rate.
Q 3. Why did knights become a distinct group, and when did they decline?
Local wars became the common feature of the European society during the 9th century. There was also a shortage of trained cavalry for these wars. The adroit horsemen were the need of the hour to win these localized wars among the nobles feudal. Taking the advantage of this situation, the knights became a distinct group precisely for the achieving this aim. The fall of feudal power paved the way for the way for the decline of knight during the 15th century.
Q 4. What was the function of medieval monasteries?
The places where few religious figures preferred to live during middle age Europe were as monasteries. The function of the medieval monasteries was:
(i) The monasteries also inspired the people to donate.
(ii) They also inspired the people to serve the sick.
(iii)They encourage to develop art and architecture.
(iv) The people living in monasteries inspired the people to lead a simple life.
Q 5. Imagine and describe a day in the life of a craftsman in a medieval French town.
Students are advised to answer this question with the help of their teacher. Following guidelines are given to complete this task.
(a) Trading guilds controlled and supervised their activities and took great care of their needs.
(b) Craftsmen worked under the supervision of guilds. They were skilled persons.
Q 6. Compare the conditions of life for a French serf and a Roman slave.
They cultivated land that mainly belonged to the lord. Most of the produce from these lands were to given to the lord. The lord could decide their fate. As a whole their life was full of misery. They also had to work that belonged to the lord and most of the wages. They could not leave the estate without the prior permission of their master/lord and could not marry their child according to their wishes. They also had to work that belonged exclusively to the land and were given no wages.
Roman slaves were regarded as a form of property. They were treated as object or commodity which could be bought and sold in market. They have no right and identity of their own. They were forced to do work several hours. They were forced to produce more children, so that when they grew up, they could also made slaves.