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Q.1. Explain at least three different reasons why groups may be marginalised.
Ans. Three reasons of marginalizing the groups are as follows:
(i) Firstly, these groups are socially and economically backwards.
(ii) Secondly, these groups have no power to oppose the discrimination.
(iii) Third and main point is that these groups are not well-educated.
Q.2. Why was Dadu forced to leave his village in Orissa?
Ans. Dadu was forced to leave his village in Orissa because he was told by forest officials and contractors that the forest was not theirs. These officials and contractors cut down a large part of it. Then they beat and threatened Dadu till eventually he was forced to sell and abandon the land of his forefathers. They had the support of the authorities.
Q.3. List five products that you use at home that come from the forest.
Q.4. By whom were the following demands being made on forest land?
Ans. The demands mentioned above were made by the British government in India.
This would affect the establishment of the tribal people. They would be displaced to some other places where they would not get work easily.
Q.5. In your opinion, why is it important that Adivasis should have a say in how their forests and forest lands are used?
Q.6. Why do we need safeguards for minorities?
Ans. Safeguards are needed for minorities:
Q.7. Read the following content carefully.
I live in a Muslim-dominated area. Some days back during Ramzan there was some disturbance that started taking a communal outlook. My brother and I had gone for an Iftar party in the neighbourhood and were dressed in traditional clothes, that is sherwani and salwar kameez respectively. On returning home, my brother and I were asked to change our clothes to jeans and T-shirt.
Now when everything is fine I wonder what was the reason that we were asked to change our clothes and why I didn’t find it odd. Were our clothes giving away our identity and is that identity linked to all kinds of fears and discrimination?
Ainee A. Farooqi
This is an essay written by a child around your age. What do you think she is trying to convey?
Ans. People in society are very keen to hide their identity in order to avoid any tension. Some typical dresses signify some particular communities. Such dresses become their identity. At the time of communal tension, people try to avoid such dresses so that they cannot be targeted by the opposing group.
Q.1. Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‘marginalisation’.
Ans. A social process of being confined to lower social standing is marginalisation. It involves people being denied their fundamental rights that results in lowering their social and economical status. It is a situation when a particular social group is forced to live on the fringes rather than in the mainstream. A marginalised section of the society does not get proper opportunity of socio-economic development.
Q.2. List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised.
Ans. Adivasis are being increasingly marginalised for the following two reasons:
Q.3. Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important.
Ans. The safeguards to protect minority communities are necessary, because the majority community may culturally dominate the minority communities and the minority communities might become marginalised.
Q.4. Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term minority?
Q.5. You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the following statement. ‘Muslims are a marginalised community’. Using the data provided in this chapter, list two reasons that you would give.
Ans. As per the data provided in the chapter, the literacy rate of muslim population in India is only 59%, which is the lowest compared to 65% among Hindus, 70% among Sikhs, 73% among Buddhists, 80% among Christians, and 94% among Jains.
Also, only 3% of muslims represent the esteemed Indian Administrative Service Cadre. The above stats support that Muslims are a marginalised community in India.
Q.6. Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day Parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, ‘Look at these tribals. They look so exotic. And they seem to be dancing all the time.’ List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.
Ans. Three things about the lives of Adivasis in India:
(i) They love to wear colourful dresses.
(ii) They are very close to forests.
(iii) They have their own languages, Santhali is one of them.
Q.7. In the storyboard you read about how Helan hopes to make a movie on the Adivasi story. Can you help her by developing a short story on Adivasi?
Ans. Adivasis live in close association with forests. They earn their livelihood through forests. They love to live in their traditional style. unaware of the developments of the present world. They usually resist changes or new ideas. Their life is very simple and they want very limited things. Since they are very close to nature, they enjoy a very healthy life. Dancing is an important part of their life. They love to dance collectively on festive occasions.
But new developments disturbed their life. They got displaced as a result of which they lost their access to forests. This created the problem of livelihood among them. They ultimately migrated to cities where they got engaged in local industries or at building or construction sites to earn low wages. In cities, they are bound to live a very hard life.
Q.8. Would you agree with the statement that economic and social marginalisation are interlinked? Why?
Ans. Yes, I do agree with the statement because economic condition of a man affects his social status. His social recognition is assessed by his economic base.
Social marginalisation and economic marginalisation are interlinked. Social marginalisation forces a social group out of the mainstream, resulting in lack of opportunities for skill development and education. This means that the people from marginalized sections will not have proper access to quality healthcare, which in turn means that a child from the marginalized section does not develop into a financially stable adult, who otherwise is capable enough to ensure a better income. Thus, the individual who is left behind in socio-economic development, also become economically marginalised.