What is behaviour? Give examples of overt and covert behaviour.
Behaviour is a response or a reaction of an individual or an activity in which the individual is engaged in. It is the result of a stimulus in the environment or an internal change. Behaviours may be simple or complex and overt or covert.
Examples of overt behaviour
i. (i) Blinking of eyes when a stone is hurled at a person
(ii) Withdrawing the hand immediately after touching a hot pan
Examples of covert behaviour
i. (i) The twitching of hand muscles while playing a game of chess.
(ii) Pounding of heart during an interview.
How can you distinguish scientific psychology from the popular notions about the discipline of psychology?
Scientific psychology can be distinguished from the popular notions about the discipline of psychology on the basis of the following characteristics:
Give a brief account of the evolution of psychology.
The evolution of psychology was an outcome of ancient philosophy. It later varied with the development of different approaches of psychological study. The formal beginning of modern psychology took place in 1879 with the establishment of an experimental laboratory in Leipzig by Wilhelm Wundt.
Therefore, the evolution of psychology passed through various stages and levels. Starting from the roots of philosophy, it took a new direction and included numerous theories of structuralism, functionalism, behaviourism, constructivism, etc. However, in contemporary era the discipline of psychology has grown into a scientific discipline, which deals with various processes underlying human experiences and behaviours.
What are the problems for which collaboration of psychologists with other disciplines can be fruitful? Take any two problems to explain.
(i) The problems for which collaboration of psychologists with other disciplines can be fruitful are as follows:
(ii) While dealing with a criminal case, it is important for a lawyer or a criminologist to understand the psychology of a witness or the criminal. It is also necessary to decide the degree of punishment valid for a crime. Thus, it is important for a lawyer or a criminologist to have the knowledge of psychology in order to regulate the legal system of a country.
(iii) It is important for an architect or an engineer to satisfy his/her customers by providing with mental and physical space in a building. Further, an engineer should also consider the human habits while construction. Thus, they need to have a psychological knowledge in order to understand the needs and demands of their customers.
(a) a psychologist and a psychiatrist
(b) a counsellor and a clinical psychologist.
(a). The difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist are mentioned below:
(b). The difference between a counsellor and clinical psychologist are mentioned below:
Describe some of the areas of everyday life where understanding of psychology can be put to practice.
Some of the areas of everyday life where understanding of psychology can be put into practice are as follows:
Therefore, the understanding of psychology enables a person to build stronger relationships at community level and improves the strength at individual level in order to meet daily challenges and obstacles.
How can knowledge of the field of environmental psychology be used to promote environment-friendly behaviour?
The knowledge of environmental psychology is helpful to promote environment friendly behaviour because:
In terms of helping solve an important social problem such as crime, which branch of psychology do you think is most suitable? Identify the field and discuss the concerns of the psychologists working in this field.
The branch of social psychology is most suitable for the purpose of solving social problems like crime.
It explores the thought process of people and their influence upon others and evaluates the impact of social environment upon the actions of an individual.
Social psychologists are concerned with topics like attitudes, conformity and obedience to authority, interpersonal attraction, helpful behaviour, prejudice, aggression, social motivation and inter-group relations.