1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following is suitable for Koeppen’s “A” type of climate?
(a) High rainfall in all the months
(b) Mean monthly temperature of the coldest month more than freezing point
(c) Mean monthly temperature of all the months more than 18o C
(d) Average temperature for all the months below 10° C
► (a) High rainfall in all the months
(ii) Koeppen’s system of classification of climates can be termed as :
► (d) Empirical
(iii) Most of the Indian Peninsula will be grouped according to Koeppen’s system
► (d) “Am”
(iv) Which one of the following years is supposed to have recorded the warmest
temperature the world over?
► (b) 1998
(v) Which one of the following groups of four climates represents humid conditions?
► (b) A—C—D—E
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Which two climatic variables are used by Koeppen for classification of the climate?
Temperature and precipitation are two climatic variables are used by Koeppen for classification of the climate.
(ii) How is the “genetic” system of classification different from the “empirical one”?
Empirical classification is based on observed data, particularly on temperature and precipitation. Genetic classification attempts to organise climates according to their causes.
(iii) Which types of climates have very low range of temperature?
Tropical Humid Climates have very low range of temperature. It exist between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
(iv) What type of climatic conditions would prevail if the sun spots increase?
When the number of sunspots increase, cooler and wetter weather and greater storminess occur.
3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Make a comparison of the climatic conditions between the “A” and “B” types of climate.
(ii) What type of vegetation would you find in the “C” and “A” type(s) of climate?
Vegetation in "A" type of climate: The sun being overhead throughout the year and gigh rainfall make the condition appropriate for the growth of plants. It supports rainforests. Tropical evergreen forests with dense canopy cover and large biodiversity are found in Tropical Wet Climate. Deciduous forest and tree-shredded grasslands occur in Tropical Wet and Dry Climate.
Vegetation in "C" type of climate: Warm temperate climates extend from 30° - 50° of latitude mainly on the eastern and western margins of continents. These climates generally have warm summers with mild winters. It is same as tropical forest. The forests have trees, shrubs and bushes. Broadleaf trees provide a continuous and dense canopy in summer and shed their leaves in winter. The shorter trees and shrubs of different heights and grow rapidly in summer and warm spring. Ferns, mosses and other plants which grow quickly in spring but disappear in winter.
(iii) What do you understand by the term “Greenhouse Gases”? Make a list of greenhouse gases.
A greenhouse is made up of glass. The glass which is transparent to incoming short wave solar
radiation is opaque to outgoing long wave radiation. The glass, therefore, allows in more radiation and prevents the long wave radiation going outside the glass house, causing the temperature inside
the glasshouse structure warmer than outside. Due to the presence of greenhouse gases, the atmosphere is behaving like a greenhouse. The atmosphere also transmits the incoming solar
radiation but absorbs the vast majority of long wave radiation emitted upwards by the earth’s surface. The gases that absorb long wave radiation are called greenhouse gases. The processes that warm the atmosphere are often collectively referred to as the greenhouse effect.
The primary Greenhouse Gases are:
• Carbon dioxide (CO2)
• Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
• Methane (CH4)
• Nitrous oxide (N2O)
• Ozone (O3).
Some other gases such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) easily react with GHGs and affect their concentration in the atmosphere.