Class 10 Exam  >  Class 10 Notes  >  Social Studies (SST) Class 10  >  NCERT Solutions: Manufacturing Industries

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 - Manufacturing Industries

Page No 79

Q1: Multiple choice questions
(i) Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium
(b) Cement
(c) Jute
(d) Steel
Ans: (a) Aluminium

AluminiumAluminium

(ii) Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer, etc?
(a) Steel
(b) Electronic
(c) Aluminium
(d) Information Technology
Ans: (b) Electronic
Q2: Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words.
(i) What is manufacturing?
(ii) What are basic industries? Give an example.
Ans: 
(i) Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing. For example, paper is manufactured from wood.
(ii) Basic industries are those industries which supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g., iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminium smelting industries.
Q3: Write the answers to the following questions in 120 words.
(i) How do industries pollute the environment?
Ans: Industries pollute the environment in four ways as given below:
(a) Air pollution: 

  • It is caused by sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
  • Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories.
  • Toxic gas leaks can be hazardous as has happened in Bhopal Gas Tragedy.

(b) Water pollution: 

  • The industrial effluents are discharged into rivers and pollute the water.
  • The major industries responsible for this are paper, pulp, chemical, textile, dyeing and petroleum refineries and tanneries.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 - Manufacturing Industries

(c) Thermal pollution: 

  • Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into the rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Dumping of wastes renders soil useless.

(d) Noise pollution: 

  • Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and other equipment make a lot of noise which have bad effects on human beings.
  • It can cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects.

Industries Pollute the EnvironmentIndustries Pollute the Environment

(ii) Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry?

Ans: Steps to minimise environmental degradation: 

•Minimising use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.

Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.

  1. Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding, flocculation, and sedimentation.
  2. Secondary treatment by biological process.
  3. Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical, and physical processes. This involves recycling of wastewater.

Overdrawing of groundwater reserves should be regulated legally.

Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smokestacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers, and inertial separators.
Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
Machinery and equipment can be used, and generators should be fitted with silencers.
Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise

The document NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 - Manufacturing Industries is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 - Manufacturing Industries

1. What are the different types of manufacturing industries?
Ans. There are several types of manufacturing industries, including chemical, automobile, textile, food processing, and electronics industries. These industries involve the production of various goods through different manufacturing processes.
2. How does the manufacturing industry contribute to economic growth?
Ans. The manufacturing industry plays a crucial role in economic growth by providing employment opportunities, generating revenue, and contributing to the country's GDP. It stimulates other sectors, such as transportation, logistics, and services, leading to overall economic development.
3. What are the challenges faced by the manufacturing industry?
Ans. The manufacturing industry faces various challenges, including high competition, technological advancements, fluctuating raw material prices, maintaining quality standards, meeting environmental regulations, and skilled labor shortage. These challenges require constant adaptation and innovation to stay competitive.
4. How does globalization impact the manufacturing industry?
Ans. Globalization has both positive and negative impacts on the manufacturing industry. On the positive side, it opens up new markets and opportunities for expansion. However, it also increases competition from international competitors and may lead to the outsourcing of manufacturing jobs to countries with lower labor costs.
5. What is the role of government policies in the manufacturing industry?
Ans. Government policies play a significant role in shaping the manufacturing industry. They can provide incentives, subsidies, and tax benefits to promote manufacturing, invest in infrastructure development, formulate trade policies, and regulate environmental standards. These policies aim to create a favorable business environment and encourage growth in the manufacturing sector.
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