NCERT Textbook - इस जल प्रलय में Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 9

Created by: Trisha Vashisht

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook - इस जल प्रलय में Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


1- 'kj.k] vkM+ 2- og ”kehu tks tksrh&cksbZ u tkrh gks 3- Hk;adjrk
bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa
esjk xk¡o ,sls bykosQ esa gS tgk¡ gj lky if'pe] iwjc vkSj nf{k.k dh
dkslh] iukj] egkuank vkSj xaxk dh ck<+ ls ihfM+r izkf.k;ksa osQ lewg vkdj iukg
1
 ysrs
gSa] lkou&Hkknkss esa Vsªu dh f[kM+fd;ksa ls fo'kky vkSj likV ijrh
2
 ij xk;] cSy] HkSal]
cdjksa osQ g”kkjkssa >qaM&eqaM ns[kdj gh yksx ck<+ dh foHkhf"kdk
3
 dk vank”kk yxkrs gSaA
ijrh {ks=k esa tUe ysus osQ dkj.k vius xk¡o osQ vfèkdka'k yksxksa dh rjg eSa
Hkh rSjuk ugha tkurkA ¯drq nl o"kZ dh mez ls fiNys lky rdµCokW; LdkmV]
Lo;alsod] jktuhfrd dk;ZdrkZ vFkok fjyhI
+
kQooZQj dh gSfl;r ls ck<+&ihfM+r
{ks=kksa esa dke djrk jgk g¡w vkSj fy[kus dh ckr\ gkbZLowQy esa ck<+ ij ys[k
fy[kdj izFke iqjLdkj ikus ls ysdjµèkeZ;qx eas ^dFkk&n'kd* osQ varxZr ck<+ dh
iqjkuh dgkuh dks u, ikB osQ lkFk izLrqr dj pqdk g¡wA t; xaxk (1947)] Mk;u
dkslh (1948)] gfa;ksa dk iqy (1948) vkfn NqViqV fjiksrkZt osQ vykok
1
•
iQ.kh'ojukFk js.kq
•
Page 2


1- 'kj.k] vkM+ 2- og ”kehu tks tksrh&cksbZ u tkrh gks 3- Hk;adjrk
bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa
esjk xk¡o ,sls bykosQ esa gS tgk¡ gj lky if'pe] iwjc vkSj nf{k.k dh
dkslh] iukj] egkuank vkSj xaxk dh ck<+ ls ihfM+r izkf.k;ksa osQ lewg vkdj iukg
1
 ysrs
gSa] lkou&Hkknkss esa Vsªu dh f[kM+fd;ksa ls fo'kky vkSj likV ijrh
2
 ij xk;] cSy] HkSal]
cdjksa osQ g”kkjkssa >qaM&eqaM ns[kdj gh yksx ck<+ dh foHkhf"kdk
3
 dk vank”kk yxkrs gSaA
ijrh {ks=k esa tUe ysus osQ dkj.k vius xk¡o osQ vfèkdka'k yksxksa dh rjg eSa
Hkh rSjuk ugha tkurkA ¯drq nl o"kZ dh mez ls fiNys lky rdµCokW; LdkmV]
Lo;alsod] jktuhfrd dk;ZdrkZ vFkok fjyhI
+
kQooZQj dh gSfl;r ls ck<+&ihfM+r
{ks=kksa esa dke djrk jgk g¡w vkSj fy[kus dh ckr\ gkbZLowQy esa ck<+ ij ys[k
fy[kdj izFke iqjLdkj ikus ls ysdjµèkeZ;qx eas ^dFkk&n'kd* osQ varxZr ck<+ dh
iqjkuh dgkuh dks u, ikB osQ lkFk izLrqr dj pqdk g¡wA t; xaxk (1947)] Mk;u
dkslh (1948)] gfa;ksa dk iqy (1948) vkfn NqViqV fjiksrkZt osQ vykok
1
•
iQ.kh'ojukFk js.kq
•
2 Ñfrdk
esjs dbZ miU;klksa esa ck<+ dh
fouk'k&yhykvksa osQ vusd fp=k
vafdr gq, gSaA ¯drq] xk¡o esa
jgrs gq, ck<+ ls f?kjus] cgus]
Hkalus vkSj Hkksxus dk vuqHko
dHkh ugha gqvkA og rks iVuk
'kgj esa lu~ 1967 esa gh gqvk]
tc v_kjg ?kaVs dh vfojke
o`f"V osQ dkj.k iquiqu dk ikuh
jktsanzuxj] oaQdM+ckx rFkk vU;
fupys fgLlksa esa ?kql vk;k FkkA
vFkkZr ck<+ dks EkSaus Hkksxk gS] 'kgjh vkneh dh gSfl;r lsA blhfy, bl ckj tc
ck<+ dk ikuh izos'k djus yxk] iVuk dk if'peh bykdk NkrhHkj ikuh esa Mwc
x;k rks ge ?kj esa b±èku] vkyw] eksecÙkh] fn;klykbZ] flxjsV] ihus dk ikuh vkSj
dkaiks”k dh xksfy;k¡ tekdj cSB x, vkSj izrh{kk djus yxsA
lqcg lquk] jktHkou vkSj eq[;ea=kh&fuokl Iykfor
1
 gks x;k gSA nksigj esa
lwpuk feyh] xksy?kj ty ls f?kj x;k gS! (;ksa] lwpuk ck¡Xyk esa bl okD; ls
feyh Fkhµ^tkuks! xksy?kj Mwcs xsNs!*) vkSj ik¡p cts tc dkWI
+
kQh gkml tkus osQ
fy, (rFkk 'kgj dk gky ekywe djus) fudyk rks fjD'ksokys us g¡ldj
dgkµ¶vc dgk¡ tkb,xk\ dkWI
+
kQh gkml esa rks ^vcys* ikuh vk x;k gksxkA¸
¶pyks] ikuh oSQls ?kql x;k gS] ogh ns[kuk gSA¸ dgdj ge fjD'kk ij cSB
x,A lkFk esa u;h dfork osQ ,d fo'ks"kK&O;k[;krk&vkpk;Z&dfo fe=k Fks] tks
esjh vuojr
2
&vuxZy
3
&vux<+
4
 x|e; LoxrksfDr
5
 ls dHkh cksj ugha gksrs
(èkU; gSa!)A
1- ftl ij ck<+ dk ikuh p<+ vk;k gks] tks ty esa Mwc x;k gks 2- fujarj] yxkrkj 3- csrqdh]
fopkjghu] euekuh 4- csMkSy] Vs<+k&es<+k 5- vius vki esa oqQN cksyuk
•
Page 3


1- 'kj.k] vkM+ 2- og ”kehu tks tksrh&cksbZ u tkrh gks 3- Hk;adjrk
bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa
esjk xk¡o ,sls bykosQ esa gS tgk¡ gj lky if'pe] iwjc vkSj nf{k.k dh
dkslh] iukj] egkuank vkSj xaxk dh ck<+ ls ihfM+r izkf.k;ksa osQ lewg vkdj iukg
1
 ysrs
gSa] lkou&Hkknkss esa Vsªu dh f[kM+fd;ksa ls fo'kky vkSj likV ijrh
2
 ij xk;] cSy] HkSal]
cdjksa osQ g”kkjkssa >qaM&eqaM ns[kdj gh yksx ck<+ dh foHkhf"kdk
3
 dk vank”kk yxkrs gSaA
ijrh {ks=k esa tUe ysus osQ dkj.k vius xk¡o osQ vfèkdka'k yksxksa dh rjg eSa
Hkh rSjuk ugha tkurkA ¯drq nl o"kZ dh mez ls fiNys lky rdµCokW; LdkmV]
Lo;alsod] jktuhfrd dk;ZdrkZ vFkok fjyhI
+
kQooZQj dh gSfl;r ls ck<+&ihfM+r
{ks=kksa esa dke djrk jgk g¡w vkSj fy[kus dh ckr\ gkbZLowQy esa ck<+ ij ys[k
fy[kdj izFke iqjLdkj ikus ls ysdjµèkeZ;qx eas ^dFkk&n'kd* osQ varxZr ck<+ dh
iqjkuh dgkuh dks u, ikB osQ lkFk izLrqr dj pqdk g¡wA t; xaxk (1947)] Mk;u
dkslh (1948)] gfa;ksa dk iqy (1948) vkfn NqViqV fjiksrkZt osQ vykok
1
•
iQ.kh'ojukFk js.kq
•
2 Ñfrdk
esjs dbZ miU;klksa esa ck<+ dh
fouk'k&yhykvksa osQ vusd fp=k
vafdr gq, gSaA ¯drq] xk¡o esa
jgrs gq, ck<+ ls f?kjus] cgus]
Hkalus vkSj Hkksxus dk vuqHko
dHkh ugha gqvkA og rks iVuk
'kgj esa lu~ 1967 esa gh gqvk]
tc v_kjg ?kaVs dh vfojke
o`f"V osQ dkj.k iquiqu dk ikuh
jktsanzuxj] oaQdM+ckx rFkk vU;
fupys fgLlksa esa ?kql vk;k FkkA
vFkkZr ck<+ dks EkSaus Hkksxk gS] 'kgjh vkneh dh gSfl;r lsA blhfy, bl ckj tc
ck<+ dk ikuh izos'k djus yxk] iVuk dk if'peh bykdk NkrhHkj ikuh esa Mwc
x;k rks ge ?kj esa b±èku] vkyw] eksecÙkh] fn;klykbZ] flxjsV] ihus dk ikuh vkSj
dkaiks”k dh xksfy;k¡ tekdj cSB x, vkSj izrh{kk djus yxsA
lqcg lquk] jktHkou vkSj eq[;ea=kh&fuokl Iykfor
1
 gks x;k gSA nksigj esa
lwpuk feyh] xksy?kj ty ls f?kj x;k gS! (;ksa] lwpuk ck¡Xyk esa bl okD; ls
feyh Fkhµ^tkuks! xksy?kj Mwcs xsNs!*) vkSj ik¡p cts tc dkWI
+
kQh gkml tkus osQ
fy, (rFkk 'kgj dk gky ekywe djus) fudyk rks fjD'ksokys us g¡ldj
dgkµ¶vc dgk¡ tkb,xk\ dkWI
+
kQh gkml esa rks ^vcys* ikuh vk x;k gksxkA¸
¶pyks] ikuh oSQls ?kql x;k gS] ogh ns[kuk gSA¸ dgdj ge fjD'kk ij cSB
x,A lkFk esa u;h dfork osQ ,d fo'ks"kK&O;k[;krk&vkpk;Z&dfo fe=k Fks] tks
esjh vuojr
2
&vuxZy
3
&vux<+
4
 x|e; LoxrksfDr
5
 ls dHkh cksj ugha gksrs
(èkU; gSa!)A
1- ftl ij ck<+ dk ikuh p<+ vk;k gks] tks ty esa Mwc x;k gks 2- fujarj] yxkrkj 3- csrqdh]
fopkjghu] euekuh 4- csMkSy] Vs<+k&es<+k 5- vius vki esa oqQN cksyuk
•
bl ty izy; esa           3
eksVj] LowQVj] VªSDVj] eksVjlkbfdy] Vªd] VeVe] lkbfdy] fjD'kk ij vkSj
iSny yksx ikuh ns[kus tk jgs gSa] yksx ikuh ns[kdj ykSV jgs gSaA ns[kus okyksa
dh vk¡[kksa esa] ”kqcku ij ,d gh ftKklkµ¶ikuh dgk¡ rd vk x;k gS\¸ ns[kdj
ykSVrs gq, yksxksa dh ckrphrµ¶izsQtj jksM ij vk x;k! vk Xk;k D;k] ikj dj
x;kA Jho`Q".kkiqjh] ikVfyiq=k dkyksuh] cksfjax jksM\ baMfLVª;y ,fj;k dk dgha
irk ugha---vc Hk^kpkthZ jksM ij ikuh vk x;k gksxkA---NkrhHkj ikuh gSA ohesal
dkWyst osQ ikl ^Mqcko&ikuh* gSA---vk jgk gS!---vk x;k!!---?kql x;k---Mwc
x;k---Mwc x;k---cg x;k!¸
ge tc dkWI
+
kQh gkml osQ ikl igq¡ps] dkWI
+
kQh gkml can dj fn;k x;k FkkA
lM+d osQ ,d fdukjs ,d eksVh Mksjh dh 'kDy esa xs#vk&>kx&isQu esa my>k
ikuh rs”kh ls ljdrk vk jgk FkkA eSaus dgkµ¶vkpk;Z th] vkxs tkus dh ”k:jr
ughaA oks nsf[k,µvk jgk gS---e`R;q dk rjy nwr!¸
vkrad osQ ekjs esjs nksuksa gkFk cjcl tqM+ x, vkSj lHk; iz.kke&fuosnu esa esjs
eq¡g ls oqQN vLiqQV
1
 'kCn fudys (gk¡] eSa cgqr dk;j vkSj Mjiksd gw¡!)A
fjD'kkokyk cgknqj gS dgrk gSµ^pfy, u] FkksM+k vkSj vkxs!*
HkhM+ dk ,d vkneh cksykµ¶, fjD'kk] djsaV cgqr rs”k gSA vkxs er tkvksA¸
eSaus fjD'kkokys ls vuqu; Hkjs Loj esa dgkµ¶ykSVk ys HkS;kA vkxs c<+us dh
”k:jr ughaA¸
fjD'kk eksM+dj ge ^vIljk* flusek gkWy (flusek&'kks can!) osQ cxy ls
xkaèkh eSnku dh vksj pysA iSysl gksVy vkSj bafM;u ,;jykbal nÝ
+
rj osQ lkeus
ikuh Hkj jgk FkkA ikuh dh rs”k èkkjk ij yky&gjs ^fu;u* foKkiuksa dh ijNkb;k¡
lSdM+ksa jaxhu lk¡iksa dh l`f"V dj jgh FkhaA xkaèkh eSnku dh js¯yx osQ lgkjs g”kkjksa
yksx [kM+s ns[k jgs FksA n'kgjk osQ fnu jkeyhyk osQ ^jke* osQ jFk dh izrh{kk
esa ftrus yksx jgrs gSa] mlls de ugha Fks---xkaèkh eSnku osQ vkuan&mRlo]
lHkk&lEesyu vkSj [ksyowQn dh lkjh Le`fr;ksa ij èkhjs&èkhjs ,d xSfjd
2
 vkoj.k
1- vLi"V 2- xs#, jax dk
•
Page 4


1- 'kj.k] vkM+ 2- og ”kehu tks tksrh&cksbZ u tkrh gks 3- Hk;adjrk
bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa
esjk xk¡o ,sls bykosQ esa gS tgk¡ gj lky if'pe] iwjc vkSj nf{k.k dh
dkslh] iukj] egkuank vkSj xaxk dh ck<+ ls ihfM+r izkf.k;ksa osQ lewg vkdj iukg
1
 ysrs
gSa] lkou&Hkknkss esa Vsªu dh f[kM+fd;ksa ls fo'kky vkSj likV ijrh
2
 ij xk;] cSy] HkSal]
cdjksa osQ g”kkjkssa >qaM&eqaM ns[kdj gh yksx ck<+ dh foHkhf"kdk
3
 dk vank”kk yxkrs gSaA
ijrh {ks=k esa tUe ysus osQ dkj.k vius xk¡o osQ vfèkdka'k yksxksa dh rjg eSa
Hkh rSjuk ugha tkurkA ¯drq nl o"kZ dh mez ls fiNys lky rdµCokW; LdkmV]
Lo;alsod] jktuhfrd dk;ZdrkZ vFkok fjyhI
+
kQooZQj dh gSfl;r ls ck<+&ihfM+r
{ks=kksa esa dke djrk jgk g¡w vkSj fy[kus dh ckr\ gkbZLowQy esa ck<+ ij ys[k
fy[kdj izFke iqjLdkj ikus ls ysdjµèkeZ;qx eas ^dFkk&n'kd* osQ varxZr ck<+ dh
iqjkuh dgkuh dks u, ikB osQ lkFk izLrqr dj pqdk g¡wA t; xaxk (1947)] Mk;u
dkslh (1948)] gfa;ksa dk iqy (1948) vkfn NqViqV fjiksrkZt osQ vykok
1
•
iQ.kh'ojukFk js.kq
•
2 Ñfrdk
esjs dbZ miU;klksa esa ck<+ dh
fouk'k&yhykvksa osQ vusd fp=k
vafdr gq, gSaA ¯drq] xk¡o esa
jgrs gq, ck<+ ls f?kjus] cgus]
Hkalus vkSj Hkksxus dk vuqHko
dHkh ugha gqvkA og rks iVuk
'kgj esa lu~ 1967 esa gh gqvk]
tc v_kjg ?kaVs dh vfojke
o`f"V osQ dkj.k iquiqu dk ikuh
jktsanzuxj] oaQdM+ckx rFkk vU;
fupys fgLlksa esa ?kql vk;k FkkA
vFkkZr ck<+ dks EkSaus Hkksxk gS] 'kgjh vkneh dh gSfl;r lsA blhfy, bl ckj tc
ck<+ dk ikuh izos'k djus yxk] iVuk dk if'peh bykdk NkrhHkj ikuh esa Mwc
x;k rks ge ?kj esa b±èku] vkyw] eksecÙkh] fn;klykbZ] flxjsV] ihus dk ikuh vkSj
dkaiks”k dh xksfy;k¡ tekdj cSB x, vkSj izrh{kk djus yxsA
lqcg lquk] jktHkou vkSj eq[;ea=kh&fuokl Iykfor
1
 gks x;k gSA nksigj esa
lwpuk feyh] xksy?kj ty ls f?kj x;k gS! (;ksa] lwpuk ck¡Xyk esa bl okD; ls
feyh Fkhµ^tkuks! xksy?kj Mwcs xsNs!*) vkSj ik¡p cts tc dkWI
+
kQh gkml tkus osQ
fy, (rFkk 'kgj dk gky ekywe djus) fudyk rks fjD'ksokys us g¡ldj
dgkµ¶vc dgk¡ tkb,xk\ dkWI
+
kQh gkml esa rks ^vcys* ikuh vk x;k gksxkA¸
¶pyks] ikuh oSQls ?kql x;k gS] ogh ns[kuk gSA¸ dgdj ge fjD'kk ij cSB
x,A lkFk esa u;h dfork osQ ,d fo'ks"kK&O;k[;krk&vkpk;Z&dfo fe=k Fks] tks
esjh vuojr
2
&vuxZy
3
&vux<+
4
 x|e; LoxrksfDr
5
 ls dHkh cksj ugha gksrs
(èkU; gSa!)A
1- ftl ij ck<+ dk ikuh p<+ vk;k gks] tks ty esa Mwc x;k gks 2- fujarj] yxkrkj 3- csrqdh]
fopkjghu] euekuh 4- csMkSy] Vs<+k&es<+k 5- vius vki esa oqQN cksyuk
•
bl ty izy; esa           3
eksVj] LowQVj] VªSDVj] eksVjlkbfdy] Vªd] VeVe] lkbfdy] fjD'kk ij vkSj
iSny yksx ikuh ns[kus tk jgs gSa] yksx ikuh ns[kdj ykSV jgs gSaA ns[kus okyksa
dh vk¡[kksa esa] ”kqcku ij ,d gh ftKklkµ¶ikuh dgk¡ rd vk x;k gS\¸ ns[kdj
ykSVrs gq, yksxksa dh ckrphrµ¶izsQtj jksM ij vk x;k! vk Xk;k D;k] ikj dj
x;kA Jho`Q".kkiqjh] ikVfyiq=k dkyksuh] cksfjax jksM\ baMfLVª;y ,fj;k dk dgha
irk ugha---vc Hk^kpkthZ jksM ij ikuh vk x;k gksxkA---NkrhHkj ikuh gSA ohesal
dkWyst osQ ikl ^Mqcko&ikuh* gSA---vk jgk gS!---vk x;k!!---?kql x;k---Mwc
x;k---Mwc x;k---cg x;k!¸
ge tc dkWI
+
kQh gkml osQ ikl igq¡ps] dkWI
+
kQh gkml can dj fn;k x;k FkkA
lM+d osQ ,d fdukjs ,d eksVh Mksjh dh 'kDy esa xs#vk&>kx&isQu esa my>k
ikuh rs”kh ls ljdrk vk jgk FkkA eSaus dgkµ¶vkpk;Z th] vkxs tkus dh ”k:jr
ughaA oks nsf[k,µvk jgk gS---e`R;q dk rjy nwr!¸
vkrad osQ ekjs esjs nksuksa gkFk cjcl tqM+ x, vkSj lHk; iz.kke&fuosnu esa esjs
eq¡g ls oqQN vLiqQV
1
 'kCn fudys (gk¡] eSa cgqr dk;j vkSj Mjiksd gw¡!)A
fjD'kkokyk cgknqj gS dgrk gSµ^pfy, u] FkksM+k vkSj vkxs!*
HkhM+ dk ,d vkneh cksykµ¶, fjD'kk] djsaV cgqr rs”k gSA vkxs er tkvksA¸
eSaus fjD'kkokys ls vuqu; Hkjs Loj esa dgkµ¶ykSVk ys HkS;kA vkxs c<+us dh
”k:jr ughaA¸
fjD'kk eksM+dj ge ^vIljk* flusek gkWy (flusek&'kks can!) osQ cxy ls
xkaèkh eSnku dh vksj pysA iSysl gksVy vkSj bafM;u ,;jykbal nÝ
+
rj osQ lkeus
ikuh Hkj jgk FkkA ikuh dh rs”k èkkjk ij yky&gjs ^fu;u* foKkiuksa dh ijNkb;k¡
lSdM+ksa jaxhu lk¡iksa dh l`f"V dj jgh FkhaA xkaèkh eSnku dh js¯yx osQ lgkjs g”kkjksa
yksx [kM+s ns[k jgs FksA n'kgjk osQ fnu jkeyhyk osQ ^jke* osQ jFk dh izrh{kk
esa ftrus yksx jgrs gSa] mlls de ugha Fks---xkaèkh eSnku osQ vkuan&mRlo]
lHkk&lEesyu vkSj [ksyowQn dh lkjh Le`fr;ksa ij èkhjs&èkhjs ,d xSfjd
2
 vkoj.k
1- vLi"V 2- xs#, jax dk
•
4 Ñfrdk
vkPNkfnr
1
 gks jgk FkkA gfj;kyh ij 'kuS%&'kuS% ikuh fiQjrs ns[kus dk vuqHko
loZFkk u;k FkkA blh chp ,d vèksM+] eqLVaM vkSj x¡okj ”kksj&”kksj ls cksy
mBkµ¶bZg! tc nkukiqj Mwc jgk Fkk rks iVfu;k¡ ckcw yksx myVdj ns[kus Hkh
ugha x,---vc cw>ks!¸
eSaus vius vkpk;Z&dfo fe=k ls dgkµ¶igpku yhft,A ;gh gS og ^vke
vkneh*] ftldh [kkst gj lkfgfR;d xksf"B;ksa esa gksrh jgrh gSA mlosQ oDrO;
esa ^nkukiqj* osQ cnys ^mÙkj fcgkj* vFkok dksbZ Hkh ck<+xzLr xzkeh.k {ks=k tksM+
nhft,---¸
'kke osQ lk<s+ lkr ct pqosQ vkSj vkdk'kok.kh osQ iVuk&osaQnz ls LFkkuh;
lekpkj izlkfjr gks jgk FkkA iku dh nqdkuksa osQ lkeus [kM+s yksx] pqipki] mRd.kZ
2
gksdj lqu jgs Fks---
¶---ikuh gekjs LVwfM;ks dh lhf<+;ksa rd igq¡p pqdk gS vkSj fdlh Hkh {k.k
LVwfM;ks esa izos'k dj ldrk gSA¸
lekpkj fny ngykus okyk FkkA dystk èkM+d mBkA fe=k osQ psgjs ij Hkh
vkrad dh dbZ js[kk,¡ mHkjhaA ¯drq ge rqjar gh lgt gks x,_ ;kuh psgjs ij ps"Vk
djosQ lgtrk ys vk,] D;ksafd gekjs pkjksa vksj dgha dksbZ ijs'kku u”kj ugha vk
jgk FkkA ikuh ns[kdj ykSVrs gq, yksx vke fnuksa dh rjg g¡l&cksy jgs Fks_ cfYd
vkt rfud vfèkd gh mRlkfgr FksA gk¡] nqdkuksa esa FkksM+h gM+cM+h FkhA uhps osQ
lkeku mQij fd, tk jgs FksA fjD'kk] VeVe] Vªd vkSj VsEiks ij lkeku ykns tk
jgs FksA [kjhn&fcØh can gks pqdh FkhA ikuokyksa dh fcØh vpkud c<+ xbZ FkhA
vklUu
3
 ladV ls dksbZ izk.kh vkrafdr ugha fn[k jgk FkkA
---ikuokys osQ vknedn vkbZus esa mrus yksxksa osQ chp gekjh gh lwjrsa
^eqgjZeh* u”kj vk jgh FkhaA eq>s yxk] vc ge ;gk¡ FkksM+h nsj Hkh Bgjsaxs rks ogk¡
[kM+s yksx fdlh Hkh {k.k BBkdj ge ij g¡l ldrs Fksµ¶”kjk bu cq”kfnyksa dk
1- <dk gqvk 2- lquus dks mRlqd 3- ikl vk;k gqvk
•
Page 5


1- 'kj.k] vkM+ 2- og ”kehu tks tksrh&cksbZ u tkrh gks 3- Hk;adjrk
bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa bl ty izy; esa
esjk xk¡o ,sls bykosQ esa gS tgk¡ gj lky if'pe] iwjc vkSj nf{k.k dh
dkslh] iukj] egkuank vkSj xaxk dh ck<+ ls ihfM+r izkf.k;ksa osQ lewg vkdj iukg
1
 ysrs
gSa] lkou&Hkknkss esa Vsªu dh f[kM+fd;ksa ls fo'kky vkSj likV ijrh
2
 ij xk;] cSy] HkSal]
cdjksa osQ g”kkjkssa >qaM&eqaM ns[kdj gh yksx ck<+ dh foHkhf"kdk
3
 dk vank”kk yxkrs gSaA
ijrh {ks=k esa tUe ysus osQ dkj.k vius xk¡o osQ vfèkdka'k yksxksa dh rjg eSa
Hkh rSjuk ugha tkurkA ¯drq nl o"kZ dh mez ls fiNys lky rdµCokW; LdkmV]
Lo;alsod] jktuhfrd dk;ZdrkZ vFkok fjyhI
+
kQooZQj dh gSfl;r ls ck<+&ihfM+r
{ks=kksa esa dke djrk jgk g¡w vkSj fy[kus dh ckr\ gkbZLowQy esa ck<+ ij ys[k
fy[kdj izFke iqjLdkj ikus ls ysdjµèkeZ;qx eas ^dFkk&n'kd* osQ varxZr ck<+ dh
iqjkuh dgkuh dks u, ikB osQ lkFk izLrqr dj pqdk g¡wA t; xaxk (1947)] Mk;u
dkslh (1948)] gfa;ksa dk iqy (1948) vkfn NqViqV fjiksrkZt osQ vykok
1
•
iQ.kh'ojukFk js.kq
•
2 Ñfrdk
esjs dbZ miU;klksa esa ck<+ dh
fouk'k&yhykvksa osQ vusd fp=k
vafdr gq, gSaA ¯drq] xk¡o esa
jgrs gq, ck<+ ls f?kjus] cgus]
Hkalus vkSj Hkksxus dk vuqHko
dHkh ugha gqvkA og rks iVuk
'kgj esa lu~ 1967 esa gh gqvk]
tc v_kjg ?kaVs dh vfojke
o`f"V osQ dkj.k iquiqu dk ikuh
jktsanzuxj] oaQdM+ckx rFkk vU;
fupys fgLlksa esa ?kql vk;k FkkA
vFkkZr ck<+ dks EkSaus Hkksxk gS] 'kgjh vkneh dh gSfl;r lsA blhfy, bl ckj tc
ck<+ dk ikuh izos'k djus yxk] iVuk dk if'peh bykdk NkrhHkj ikuh esa Mwc
x;k rks ge ?kj esa b±èku] vkyw] eksecÙkh] fn;klykbZ] flxjsV] ihus dk ikuh vkSj
dkaiks”k dh xksfy;k¡ tekdj cSB x, vkSj izrh{kk djus yxsA
lqcg lquk] jktHkou vkSj eq[;ea=kh&fuokl Iykfor
1
 gks x;k gSA nksigj esa
lwpuk feyh] xksy?kj ty ls f?kj x;k gS! (;ksa] lwpuk ck¡Xyk esa bl okD; ls
feyh Fkhµ^tkuks! xksy?kj Mwcs xsNs!*) vkSj ik¡p cts tc dkWI
+
kQh gkml tkus osQ
fy, (rFkk 'kgj dk gky ekywe djus) fudyk rks fjD'ksokys us g¡ldj
dgkµ¶vc dgk¡ tkb,xk\ dkWI
+
kQh gkml esa rks ^vcys* ikuh vk x;k gksxkA¸
¶pyks] ikuh oSQls ?kql x;k gS] ogh ns[kuk gSA¸ dgdj ge fjD'kk ij cSB
x,A lkFk esa u;h dfork osQ ,d fo'ks"kK&O;k[;krk&vkpk;Z&dfo fe=k Fks] tks
esjh vuojr
2
&vuxZy
3
&vux<+
4
 x|e; LoxrksfDr
5
 ls dHkh cksj ugha gksrs
(èkU; gSa!)A
1- ftl ij ck<+ dk ikuh p<+ vk;k gks] tks ty esa Mwc x;k gks 2- fujarj] yxkrkj 3- csrqdh]
fopkjghu] euekuh 4- csMkSy] Vs<+k&es<+k 5- vius vki esa oqQN cksyuk
•
bl ty izy; esa           3
eksVj] LowQVj] VªSDVj] eksVjlkbfdy] Vªd] VeVe] lkbfdy] fjD'kk ij vkSj
iSny yksx ikuh ns[kus tk jgs gSa] yksx ikuh ns[kdj ykSV jgs gSaA ns[kus okyksa
dh vk¡[kksa esa] ”kqcku ij ,d gh ftKklkµ¶ikuh dgk¡ rd vk x;k gS\¸ ns[kdj
ykSVrs gq, yksxksa dh ckrphrµ¶izsQtj jksM ij vk x;k! vk Xk;k D;k] ikj dj
x;kA Jho`Q".kkiqjh] ikVfyiq=k dkyksuh] cksfjax jksM\ baMfLVª;y ,fj;k dk dgha
irk ugha---vc Hk^kpkthZ jksM ij ikuh vk x;k gksxkA---NkrhHkj ikuh gSA ohesal
dkWyst osQ ikl ^Mqcko&ikuh* gSA---vk jgk gS!---vk x;k!!---?kql x;k---Mwc
x;k---Mwc x;k---cg x;k!¸
ge tc dkWI
+
kQh gkml osQ ikl igq¡ps] dkWI
+
kQh gkml can dj fn;k x;k FkkA
lM+d osQ ,d fdukjs ,d eksVh Mksjh dh 'kDy esa xs#vk&>kx&isQu esa my>k
ikuh rs”kh ls ljdrk vk jgk FkkA eSaus dgkµ¶vkpk;Z th] vkxs tkus dh ”k:jr
ughaA oks nsf[k,µvk jgk gS---e`R;q dk rjy nwr!¸
vkrad osQ ekjs esjs nksuksa gkFk cjcl tqM+ x, vkSj lHk; iz.kke&fuosnu esa esjs
eq¡g ls oqQN vLiqQV
1
 'kCn fudys (gk¡] eSa cgqr dk;j vkSj Mjiksd gw¡!)A
fjD'kkokyk cgknqj gS dgrk gSµ^pfy, u] FkksM+k vkSj vkxs!*
HkhM+ dk ,d vkneh cksykµ¶, fjD'kk] djsaV cgqr rs”k gSA vkxs er tkvksA¸
eSaus fjD'kkokys ls vuqu; Hkjs Loj esa dgkµ¶ykSVk ys HkS;kA vkxs c<+us dh
”k:jr ughaA¸
fjD'kk eksM+dj ge ^vIljk* flusek gkWy (flusek&'kks can!) osQ cxy ls
xkaèkh eSnku dh vksj pysA iSysl gksVy vkSj bafM;u ,;jykbal nÝ
+
rj osQ lkeus
ikuh Hkj jgk FkkA ikuh dh rs”k èkkjk ij yky&gjs ^fu;u* foKkiuksa dh ijNkb;k¡
lSdM+ksa jaxhu lk¡iksa dh l`f"V dj jgh FkhaA xkaèkh eSnku dh js¯yx osQ lgkjs g”kkjksa
yksx [kM+s ns[k jgs FksA n'kgjk osQ fnu jkeyhyk osQ ^jke* osQ jFk dh izrh{kk
esa ftrus yksx jgrs gSa] mlls de ugha Fks---xkaèkh eSnku osQ vkuan&mRlo]
lHkk&lEesyu vkSj [ksyowQn dh lkjh Le`fr;ksa ij èkhjs&èkhjs ,d xSfjd
2
 vkoj.k
1- vLi"V 2- xs#, jax dk
•
4 Ñfrdk
vkPNkfnr
1
 gks jgk FkkA gfj;kyh ij 'kuS%&'kuS% ikuh fiQjrs ns[kus dk vuqHko
loZFkk u;k FkkA blh chp ,d vèksM+] eqLVaM vkSj x¡okj ”kksj&”kksj ls cksy
mBkµ¶bZg! tc nkukiqj Mwc jgk Fkk rks iVfu;k¡ ckcw yksx myVdj ns[kus Hkh
ugha x,---vc cw>ks!¸
eSaus vius vkpk;Z&dfo fe=k ls dgkµ¶igpku yhft,A ;gh gS og ^vke
vkneh*] ftldh [kkst gj lkfgfR;d xksf"B;ksa esa gksrh jgrh gSA mlosQ oDrO;
esa ^nkukiqj* osQ cnys ^mÙkj fcgkj* vFkok dksbZ Hkh ck<+xzLr xzkeh.k {ks=k tksM+
nhft,---¸
'kke osQ lk<s+ lkr ct pqosQ vkSj vkdk'kok.kh osQ iVuk&osaQnz ls LFkkuh;
lekpkj izlkfjr gks jgk FkkA iku dh nqdkuksa osQ lkeus [kM+s yksx] pqipki] mRd.kZ
2
gksdj lqu jgs Fks---
¶---ikuh gekjs LVwfM;ks dh lhf<+;ksa rd igq¡p pqdk gS vkSj fdlh Hkh {k.k
LVwfM;ks esa izos'k dj ldrk gSA¸
lekpkj fny ngykus okyk FkkA dystk èkM+d mBkA fe=k osQ psgjs ij Hkh
vkrad dh dbZ js[kk,¡ mHkjhaA ¯drq ge rqjar gh lgt gks x,_ ;kuh psgjs ij ps"Vk
djosQ lgtrk ys vk,] D;ksafd gekjs pkjksa vksj dgha dksbZ ijs'kku u”kj ugha vk
jgk FkkA ikuh ns[kdj ykSVrs gq, yksx vke fnuksa dh rjg g¡l&cksy jgs Fks_ cfYd
vkt rfud vfèkd gh mRlkfgr FksA gk¡] nqdkuksa esa FkksM+h gM+cM+h FkhA uhps osQ
lkeku mQij fd, tk jgs FksA fjD'kk] VeVe] Vªd vkSj VsEiks ij lkeku ykns tk
jgs FksA [kjhn&fcØh can gks pqdh FkhA ikuokyksa dh fcØh vpkud c<+ xbZ FkhA
vklUu
3
 ladV ls dksbZ izk.kh vkrafdr ugha fn[k jgk FkkA
---ikuokys osQ vknedn vkbZus esa mrus yksxksa osQ chp gekjh gh lwjrsa
^eqgjZeh* u”kj vk jgh FkhaA eq>s yxk] vc ge ;gk¡ FkksM+h nsj Hkh Bgjsaxs rks ogk¡
[kM+s yksx fdlh Hkh {k.k BBkdj ge ij g¡l ldrs Fksµ¶”kjk bu cq”kfnyksa dk
1- <dk gqvk 2- lquus dks mRlqd 3- ikl vk;k gqvk
•
bl ty izy; esa           5
gqfy;k ns[kks!¸ D;ksafd ogk¡ ,slh gh ckrsa pkjksa vksj ls mNkyh tk jgh Fkhaµ¶,d
ckj Mwc gh tk,!---èkuq"dksfV
1
 dh rjg iVuk ykirk u gks tk, dgha!---lc iki
èkqy tk,xk---pyks] xksy?kj osQ eq¡Ms ij rk'k dh xah ysdj cSB tk,¡---fcLdkseku
fcfYaMx dh Nr ij D;ksa ugha\---HkbZ] ;gh ekowQy ekSdk gSA bude VSDlokyksa dks
,su blh ekSosQ ij dkys dkjckfj;ksa osQ ?kj ij Nkik ekjuk pkfg,A vklkeh
ck&eky---¸
jktsanzuxj pkSjkgs ij ^eSx”khu dkWuZj* dh vkf[kjh lhf<+;ksa ij i=k&if=kdk,¡
iwoZor~ fcNh gqbZ FkhaA lkspk] ,d lIrkg dh [kqjkd ,d gh lkFk ys yw¡A D;k&D;k
ys yw¡\---gsMyh ps”k] ;k ,d gh lIrkg esa izsaQp @ teZu fl[kk nsus okyh fdrkcsa
vFkok ^;ksx* fl[kkus okyh dksbZ lfp=k fdrkc\ eq>s bl rjg fdrkcksa dks
myVrs&iyVrs ns[kdj nqdku dk ukStoku ekfyd o`Q".kk irk ugha D;ksa eqldjkus
yxkA fdrkcksa dks NksM+ dbZ ¯gnh&ck¡Xyk vkSj vaxzs”kh flus if=kdk,¡ ysdj ykSVkA
fe=k ls fonk gksrs gq, dgkµ¶irk ugha] dy ge fdrus ikuh esa jgsaA---cgjgky]
tks de ikuh esa jgsxkA og ”;knk ikuh esa i¡Qls fe=k dh lqfèk ysxkA¸
Ý
+
ySV esa igq¡pk gh Fkk fd ^tulaioZQ* dh xkM+h Hkh ykmMLihdj ls ?kks"k.kk
djrh gq, jktsanzuxj igq¡p pqdh FkhA gekjs ^xksyacj* osQ ikl dksbZ Hkh vkok”k] pkjksa
cM+s CykWdksa dh bekjrksa ls Vdjkdj e¡Mjkrh gqbZ] pkj ckj izfrèofur gksrh gSA
flusek vFkok ykWVjh dh izpkjxkM+h ;gk¡ igq¡prs ghµ^Hkkb;ks* iqdkjdj ,d {k.k
osQ fy, pqi gks tkrh gSA iqdkj e¡Mjkrh gqbZ izfrèofur gksrh gSµHkkb;ks---
Hkkb;ks---Hkkb;ks---! ,d vyeLr toku fjD'kkpkyd gS tks vdlj jkr osQ lUukVs
esa lokjh igq¡pkdj ykSVrs le; bl xksyacj osQ ikl vyki mBrk gSµ^lqu esjs caèkq
js&,&u---lqu eksjs ferok&ok&ok&;---*
xksyacj osQ ikl tulaioZQ dh xkM+h ls ,syku fd;k tkus yxkµ¶Hkkb;ks! ,slh
laHkkouk gS---fd ck<+ dk ikuh---jkf=k osQ djhc ckjg cts rd---yksgkuhiqj]
1- ,d LFkku dk uke
•
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