NCERT Textbook - दुःख का अधिकार Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 9

Created by: Trisha Vashisht

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook - दुःख का अधिकार Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


;'kiky
(1903 - 1976)
;'kiky dk tUe fiQjks”kiqj Nkouh esa lu~ 1903 esa gqvkA bUgksaus vkjafHkd f'k{kk LFkkuh; LowQy
esa vkSj mPp f'k{kk ykgkSj esa ikbZA ;'kiky fo|kFkhZ dky ls gh Økafrdkjh xfrfofèk;ksa esa tqV
x, FksA vej 'kghn Hkxrflag vkfn osQ lkFk feydj bUgksaus Hkkjrh; Lora=krk vkanksyu esa Hkkx
fy;kA
;'kiky dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSa % ns'knzksgh] ikVhZ dkejsM] nknk dkejsM] >wBk lp rFkk esjh]
rsjh] mldh ckr (lHkh miU;kl)] Kkunku] roZQ dk rwI
+
kQku] fiatM+s dh mM+ku] iwQyks dk oqQrkZ]
mÙkjkfèkdkjh (lHkh dgkuh laxzg) vkSj flagkoyksdu (vkRedFkk)A
^esjh] rsjh] mldh ckr* ij ;'kiky dks lkfgR; vdkneh iqjLdkj feykA ;'kiky dh
dgkfu;ksa esa dFkk jl loZ=k feyrk gSA oxZ&la?k"kZ] euksfo'ys"k.k vkSj iSuk O;aX; budh dgkfu;ksa
dh fo'ks"krk,¡ gSaA
;'kiky ;g ekurs jgs fd lekt dks mUur cukus dk ,d gh jkLrk gSµ lkekftd lekurk
osQ lkFk&lkFk vkfFkZd lekurkA ;'kiky us viuh jpukvksa esa fganh osQ vykok mnwZ vkSj vaxzs”kh
osQ 'kCnksa dk Hkh csfgpd iz;ksx fd;k gSA
izLrqr dgkuh ns'k esa iSQys vaèkfo'oklksa vkSj m¡Qp&uhp osQ Hksn&Hkko dks csudkc djrs gq,
;g crkrh gS fd nq%[k dh vuqHkwfr lHkh dks leku :i ls gksrh gSA dgkuh èkuh yksxksa dh
vekuoh;rk vkSj xjhcksa dh etcwjh dks Hkh iwjh xgjkbZ ls mtkxj djrh gSA ;g lgh gS fd nq%[k
lHkh dks rksM+rk gS] nq%[k esa ekre eukuk gj dksbZ pkgrk gS] nq%[k osQ {k.k ls lkeuk gksus ij
lc vo'k gks tkrs gSa] ij bl ns'k esa ,sls Hkh vHkkxs yksx gSa ftUgsa u rks nq%[k eukus dk vfèkdkj
gS] u vodk'k!
Page 2


;'kiky
(1903 - 1976)
;'kiky dk tUe fiQjks”kiqj Nkouh esa lu~ 1903 esa gqvkA bUgksaus vkjafHkd f'k{kk LFkkuh; LowQy
esa vkSj mPp f'k{kk ykgkSj esa ikbZA ;'kiky fo|kFkhZ dky ls gh Økafrdkjh xfrfofèk;ksa esa tqV
x, FksA vej 'kghn Hkxrflag vkfn osQ lkFk feydj bUgksaus Hkkjrh; Lora=krk vkanksyu esa Hkkx
fy;kA
;'kiky dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSa % ns'knzksgh] ikVhZ dkejsM] nknk dkejsM] >wBk lp rFkk esjh]
rsjh] mldh ckr (lHkh miU;kl)] Kkunku] roZQ dk rwI
+
kQku] fiatM+s dh mM+ku] iwQyks dk oqQrkZ]
mÙkjkfèkdkjh (lHkh dgkuh laxzg) vkSj flagkoyksdu (vkRedFkk)A
^esjh] rsjh] mldh ckr* ij ;'kiky dks lkfgR; vdkneh iqjLdkj feykA ;'kiky dh
dgkfu;ksa esa dFkk jl loZ=k feyrk gSA oxZ&la?k"kZ] euksfo'ys"k.k vkSj iSuk O;aX; budh dgkfu;ksa
dh fo'ks"krk,¡ gSaA
;'kiky ;g ekurs jgs fd lekt dks mUur cukus dk ,d gh jkLrk gSµ lkekftd lekurk
osQ lkFk&lkFk vkfFkZd lekurkA ;'kiky us viuh jpukvksa esa fganh osQ vykok mnwZ vkSj vaxzs”kh
osQ 'kCnksa dk Hkh csfgpd iz;ksx fd;k gSA
izLrqr dgkuh ns'k esa iSQys vaèkfo'oklksa vkSj m¡Qp&uhp osQ Hksn&Hkko dks csudkc djrs gq,
;g crkrh gS fd nq%[k dh vuqHkwfr lHkh dks leku :i ls gksrh gSA dgkuh èkuh yksxksa dh
vekuoh;rk vkSj xjhcksa dh etcwjh dks Hkh iwjh xgjkbZ ls mtkxj djrh gSA ;g lgh gS fd nq%[k
lHkh dks rksM+rk gS] nq%[k esa ekre eukuk gj dksbZ pkgrk gS] nq%[k osQ {k.k ls lkeuk gksus ij
lc vo'k gks tkrs gSa] ij bl ns'k esa ,sls Hkh vHkkxs yksx gSa ftUgsa u rks nq%[k eukus dk vfèkdkj
gS] u vodk'k!
14/Li'kZ
nq%[k dk vfèkdkj
euq";ksa dh iks'kkosaQ mUgsa fofHkUu Jsf.k;ksa esa ck¡V nsrh gSaA izk;% iks'kkd gh lekt esa
euq"; dk vfèkdkj vkSj mldk n”kkZ fuf'pr djrh gSA og gekjs fy, vusd can
njok”ks [kksy nsrh gS] ijarq dHkh ,slh Hkh ifjfLFkfr vk tkrh gS fd ge ”kjk uhps
>qddj lekt dh fupyh Jsf.k;ksa dh vuqHkwfr dks le>uk pkgrs gSaA ml le; ;g
iks'kkd gh caèku vkSj vM+pu cu tkrh gSA tSls ok;q dh ygjsa dVh gqbZ irax dks
lglk Hkwfe ij ugha fxj tkus nsrha] mlh rjg [kkl ifjfLFkfr;kas esa gekjh iks'kkd
gesa >qd ldus ls jksosQ jgrh gSA
ck”kkj esa] iqQVikFk ij oqQN
[kjcw”ks Mfy;k esa vkSj oqQN
”kehu ij fcØh osQ fy, j[ks
tku iM+rs FksA [kjcw”kksa osQ
lehi ,d vèksM+ mez dh vkSjr
cSBh jks jgh FkhA [kjcw”ks fcØh
osQ fy, Fks] ijarq mUgsa [kjhnus
osQ fy, dksbZ oSQls vkxs c<+rk\
[kjcw”kksa dks cspusokyh rks diMs+
ls eq¡g fNik, flj dks ?kqVuksa
ij j[ks iQiQd&iQiQddj jks
jgh FkhA
Page 3


;'kiky
(1903 - 1976)
;'kiky dk tUe fiQjks”kiqj Nkouh esa lu~ 1903 esa gqvkA bUgksaus vkjafHkd f'k{kk LFkkuh; LowQy
esa vkSj mPp f'k{kk ykgkSj esa ikbZA ;'kiky fo|kFkhZ dky ls gh Økafrdkjh xfrfofèk;ksa esa tqV
x, FksA vej 'kghn Hkxrflag vkfn osQ lkFk feydj bUgksaus Hkkjrh; Lora=krk vkanksyu esa Hkkx
fy;kA
;'kiky dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSa % ns'knzksgh] ikVhZ dkejsM] nknk dkejsM] >wBk lp rFkk esjh]
rsjh] mldh ckr (lHkh miU;kl)] Kkunku] roZQ dk rwI
+
kQku] fiatM+s dh mM+ku] iwQyks dk oqQrkZ]
mÙkjkfèkdkjh (lHkh dgkuh laxzg) vkSj flagkoyksdu (vkRedFkk)A
^esjh] rsjh] mldh ckr* ij ;'kiky dks lkfgR; vdkneh iqjLdkj feykA ;'kiky dh
dgkfu;ksa esa dFkk jl loZ=k feyrk gSA oxZ&la?k"kZ] euksfo'ys"k.k vkSj iSuk O;aX; budh dgkfu;ksa
dh fo'ks"krk,¡ gSaA
;'kiky ;g ekurs jgs fd lekt dks mUur cukus dk ,d gh jkLrk gSµ lkekftd lekurk
osQ lkFk&lkFk vkfFkZd lekurkA ;'kiky us viuh jpukvksa esa fganh osQ vykok mnwZ vkSj vaxzs”kh
osQ 'kCnksa dk Hkh csfgpd iz;ksx fd;k gSA
izLrqr dgkuh ns'k esa iSQys vaèkfo'oklksa vkSj m¡Qp&uhp osQ Hksn&Hkko dks csudkc djrs gq,
;g crkrh gS fd nq%[k dh vuqHkwfr lHkh dks leku :i ls gksrh gSA dgkuh èkuh yksxksa dh
vekuoh;rk vkSj xjhcksa dh etcwjh dks Hkh iwjh xgjkbZ ls mtkxj djrh gSA ;g lgh gS fd nq%[k
lHkh dks rksM+rk gS] nq%[k esa ekre eukuk gj dksbZ pkgrk gS] nq%[k osQ {k.k ls lkeuk gksus ij
lc vo'k gks tkrs gSa] ij bl ns'k esa ,sls Hkh vHkkxs yksx gSa ftUgsa u rks nq%[k eukus dk vfèkdkj
gS] u vodk'k!
14/Li'kZ
nq%[k dk vfèkdkj
euq";ksa dh iks'kkosaQ mUgsa fofHkUu Jsf.k;ksa esa ck¡V nsrh gSaA izk;% iks'kkd gh lekt esa
euq"; dk vfèkdkj vkSj mldk n”kkZ fuf'pr djrh gSA og gekjs fy, vusd can
njok”ks [kksy nsrh gS] ijarq dHkh ,slh Hkh ifjfLFkfr vk tkrh gS fd ge ”kjk uhps
>qddj lekt dh fupyh Jsf.k;ksa dh vuqHkwfr dks le>uk pkgrs gSaA ml le; ;g
iks'kkd gh caèku vkSj vM+pu cu tkrh gSA tSls ok;q dh ygjsa dVh gqbZ irax dks
lglk Hkwfe ij ugha fxj tkus nsrha] mlh rjg [kkl ifjfLFkfr;kas esa gekjh iks'kkd
gesa >qd ldus ls jksosQ jgrh gSA
ck”kkj esa] iqQVikFk ij oqQN
[kjcw”ks Mfy;k esa vkSj oqQN
”kehu ij fcØh osQ fy, j[ks
tku iM+rs FksA [kjcw”kksa osQ
lehi ,d vèksM+ mez dh vkSjr
cSBh jks jgh FkhA [kjcw”ks fcØh
osQ fy, Fks] ijarq mUgsa [kjhnus
osQ fy, dksbZ oSQls vkxs c<+rk\
[kjcw”kksa dks cspusokyh rks diMs+
ls eq¡g fNik, flj dks ?kqVuksa
ij j[ks iQiQd&iQiQddj jks
jgh FkhA
nq%[k dk vf/dkj/15
iM+ksl dh nqdkuksa osQ r[rksa ij cSBs ;k ck”kkj esa [kMs+ yksx ?k`.kk ls mlh L=kh osQ lacaèk
esa ckr dj jgs FksA ml L=kh dk jksuk ns[kdj eu esa ,d O;Fkk&lh mBh] ij mlosQ jksus
dk dkj.k tkuus dk mik; D;k Fkk\ iqQVikFk ij mlosQ lehi cSB ldus esa esjh iks'kkd
gh O;oèkku cu [kM+h gks xbZA
,d vkneh us ?k`.kk ls ,d rjI
+
kQ Fkwdrs gq, dgk] ¶D;k ”kekuk gS! toku
yM+osQ dks ejs iwjk fnu ugha chrk vkSj ;g csg;k nqdku yxk osQ cSBh gSA¸
nwljs lkgc viuh nk<+h [kqtkrs gq, dg jgs Fks] ¶vjs tSlh uh;r gksrh gS vYyk
Hkh oSlh gh cjdr nsrk gSA¸
lkeus osQ iqQVikFk ij [kM+s ,d vkneh us fn;klykbZ dh rhyh ls dku [kqtkrs
gq, dgk] ¶vjs] bu yksxksa dk D;k gS\ ;s dehus yksx jksVh osQ VqdM+s ij tku nsrs
gSaA buosQ fy, csVk&csVh] [kle&yqxkbZ] èkeZ&bZeku lc jksVh dk VqdM+k gSA¸
ijpwu dh nqdku ij cSBs ykyk th us dgk] ¶vjs HkkbZ] muosQ fy, ejs&ft,
dk dksbZ eryc u gks] ij nwljs osQ èkeZ&bZeku dk rks [k;ky djuk pkfg,! toku
csVs osQ ejus ij rsjg fnu dk lwrd gksrk gS vkSj og ;gk¡ lM+d ij ck”kkj esa
vkdj [kjcw”ks cspus cSB xbZ gSA g”kkj vkneh vkrs&tkrs gSaA dksbZ D;k tkurk gS fd
blosQ ?kj esa lwrd gSA dksbZ blosQ [kjcw”ks [kk ys rks mldk bZeku&èkeZ oSQls jgsxk\
D;k v¡èksj gS!¸
ikl&iM+ksl dh nqdkuksa ls iwNus ij irk yxkµmldk rsbZl cjl dk toku
yM+dk FkkA ?kj esa mldh cgw vkSj iksrk&iksrh gSaA yM+dk 'kgj osQ ikl Ms<+ ch?kk
Hkj ”kehu esa dfN;kjh djosQ ifjokj dk fuokZg djrk FkkA [kjcw”kksa dh Mfy;k
ck”kkj esa igq¡pkdj dHkh yM+dk Lo;a lkSns osQ ikl cSB tkrk] dHkh ek¡ cSB tkrhA
yM+dk ijlksa lqcg eq¡g&v¡èksjs csyksa esa ls iosQ [kjcw”ks pqu jgk FkkA xhyh esM+
dh rjkoV esa foJke djrs gq, ,d lk¡i ij yM+osQ dk iSj iM+ x;kA lk¡i us yM+osQ
dks M¡l fy;kA
yM+osQ dh cqf<+;k ek¡ ckoyh gksdj vks>k dks cqyk ykbZA >kM+uk&iwQ¡duk gqvkA
ukxnso dh iwtk gqbZA iwtk osQ fy, nku&nf{k.kk pkfg,A ?kj esa tks oqQN vkVk vkSj
Page 4


;'kiky
(1903 - 1976)
;'kiky dk tUe fiQjks”kiqj Nkouh esa lu~ 1903 esa gqvkA bUgksaus vkjafHkd f'k{kk LFkkuh; LowQy
esa vkSj mPp f'k{kk ykgkSj esa ikbZA ;'kiky fo|kFkhZ dky ls gh Økafrdkjh xfrfofèk;ksa esa tqV
x, FksA vej 'kghn Hkxrflag vkfn osQ lkFk feydj bUgksaus Hkkjrh; Lora=krk vkanksyu esa Hkkx
fy;kA
;'kiky dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSa % ns'knzksgh] ikVhZ dkejsM] nknk dkejsM] >wBk lp rFkk esjh]
rsjh] mldh ckr (lHkh miU;kl)] Kkunku] roZQ dk rwI
+
kQku] fiatM+s dh mM+ku] iwQyks dk oqQrkZ]
mÙkjkfèkdkjh (lHkh dgkuh laxzg) vkSj flagkoyksdu (vkRedFkk)A
^esjh] rsjh] mldh ckr* ij ;'kiky dks lkfgR; vdkneh iqjLdkj feykA ;'kiky dh
dgkfu;ksa esa dFkk jl loZ=k feyrk gSA oxZ&la?k"kZ] euksfo'ys"k.k vkSj iSuk O;aX; budh dgkfu;ksa
dh fo'ks"krk,¡ gSaA
;'kiky ;g ekurs jgs fd lekt dks mUur cukus dk ,d gh jkLrk gSµ lkekftd lekurk
osQ lkFk&lkFk vkfFkZd lekurkA ;'kiky us viuh jpukvksa esa fganh osQ vykok mnwZ vkSj vaxzs”kh
osQ 'kCnksa dk Hkh csfgpd iz;ksx fd;k gSA
izLrqr dgkuh ns'k esa iSQys vaèkfo'oklksa vkSj m¡Qp&uhp osQ Hksn&Hkko dks csudkc djrs gq,
;g crkrh gS fd nq%[k dh vuqHkwfr lHkh dks leku :i ls gksrh gSA dgkuh èkuh yksxksa dh
vekuoh;rk vkSj xjhcksa dh etcwjh dks Hkh iwjh xgjkbZ ls mtkxj djrh gSA ;g lgh gS fd nq%[k
lHkh dks rksM+rk gS] nq%[k esa ekre eukuk gj dksbZ pkgrk gS] nq%[k osQ {k.k ls lkeuk gksus ij
lc vo'k gks tkrs gSa] ij bl ns'k esa ,sls Hkh vHkkxs yksx gSa ftUgsa u rks nq%[k eukus dk vfèkdkj
gS] u vodk'k!
14/Li'kZ
nq%[k dk vfèkdkj
euq";ksa dh iks'kkosaQ mUgsa fofHkUu Jsf.k;ksa esa ck¡V nsrh gSaA izk;% iks'kkd gh lekt esa
euq"; dk vfèkdkj vkSj mldk n”kkZ fuf'pr djrh gSA og gekjs fy, vusd can
njok”ks [kksy nsrh gS] ijarq dHkh ,slh Hkh ifjfLFkfr vk tkrh gS fd ge ”kjk uhps
>qddj lekt dh fupyh Jsf.k;ksa dh vuqHkwfr dks le>uk pkgrs gSaA ml le; ;g
iks'kkd gh caèku vkSj vM+pu cu tkrh gSA tSls ok;q dh ygjsa dVh gqbZ irax dks
lglk Hkwfe ij ugha fxj tkus nsrha] mlh rjg [kkl ifjfLFkfr;kas esa gekjh iks'kkd
gesa >qd ldus ls jksosQ jgrh gSA
ck”kkj esa] iqQVikFk ij oqQN
[kjcw”ks Mfy;k esa vkSj oqQN
”kehu ij fcØh osQ fy, j[ks
tku iM+rs FksA [kjcw”kksa osQ
lehi ,d vèksM+ mez dh vkSjr
cSBh jks jgh FkhA [kjcw”ks fcØh
osQ fy, Fks] ijarq mUgsa [kjhnus
osQ fy, dksbZ oSQls vkxs c<+rk\
[kjcw”kksa dks cspusokyh rks diMs+
ls eq¡g fNik, flj dks ?kqVuksa
ij j[ks iQiQd&iQiQddj jks
jgh FkhA
nq%[k dk vf/dkj/15
iM+ksl dh nqdkuksa osQ r[rksa ij cSBs ;k ck”kkj esa [kMs+ yksx ?k`.kk ls mlh L=kh osQ lacaèk
esa ckr dj jgs FksA ml L=kh dk jksuk ns[kdj eu esa ,d O;Fkk&lh mBh] ij mlosQ jksus
dk dkj.k tkuus dk mik; D;k Fkk\ iqQVikFk ij mlosQ lehi cSB ldus esa esjh iks'kkd
gh O;oèkku cu [kM+h gks xbZA
,d vkneh us ?k`.kk ls ,d rjI
+
kQ Fkwdrs gq, dgk] ¶D;k ”kekuk gS! toku
yM+osQ dks ejs iwjk fnu ugha chrk vkSj ;g csg;k nqdku yxk osQ cSBh gSA¸
nwljs lkgc viuh nk<+h [kqtkrs gq, dg jgs Fks] ¶vjs tSlh uh;r gksrh gS vYyk
Hkh oSlh gh cjdr nsrk gSA¸
lkeus osQ iqQVikFk ij [kM+s ,d vkneh us fn;klykbZ dh rhyh ls dku [kqtkrs
gq, dgk] ¶vjs] bu yksxksa dk D;k gS\ ;s dehus yksx jksVh osQ VqdM+s ij tku nsrs
gSaA buosQ fy, csVk&csVh] [kle&yqxkbZ] èkeZ&bZeku lc jksVh dk VqdM+k gSA¸
ijpwu dh nqdku ij cSBs ykyk th us dgk] ¶vjs HkkbZ] muosQ fy, ejs&ft,
dk dksbZ eryc u gks] ij nwljs osQ èkeZ&bZeku dk rks [k;ky djuk pkfg,! toku
csVs osQ ejus ij rsjg fnu dk lwrd gksrk gS vkSj og ;gk¡ lM+d ij ck”kkj esa
vkdj [kjcw”ks cspus cSB xbZ gSA g”kkj vkneh vkrs&tkrs gSaA dksbZ D;k tkurk gS fd
blosQ ?kj esa lwrd gSA dksbZ blosQ [kjcw”ks [kk ys rks mldk bZeku&èkeZ oSQls jgsxk\
D;k v¡èksj gS!¸
ikl&iM+ksl dh nqdkuksa ls iwNus ij irk yxkµmldk rsbZl cjl dk toku
yM+dk FkkA ?kj esa mldh cgw vkSj iksrk&iksrh gSaA yM+dk 'kgj osQ ikl Ms<+ ch?kk
Hkj ”kehu esa dfN;kjh djosQ ifjokj dk fuokZg djrk FkkA [kjcw”kksa dh Mfy;k
ck”kkj esa igq¡pkdj dHkh yM+dk Lo;a lkSns osQ ikl cSB tkrk] dHkh ek¡ cSB tkrhA
yM+dk ijlksa lqcg eq¡g&v¡èksjs csyksa esa ls iosQ [kjcw”ks pqu jgk FkkA xhyh esM+
dh rjkoV esa foJke djrs gq, ,d lk¡i ij yM+osQ dk iSj iM+ x;kA lk¡i us yM+osQ
dks M¡l fy;kA
yM+osQ dh cqf<+;k ek¡ ckoyh gksdj vks>k dks cqyk ykbZA >kM+uk&iwQ¡duk gqvkA
ukxnso dh iwtk gqbZA iwtk osQ fy, nku&nf{k.kk pkfg,A ?kj esa tks oqQN vkVk vkSj
16/Li'kZ
vukt Fkk] nku&nf{k.kk esa mB x;kA ek¡] cgw vkSj cPps ^Hkxokuk* ls fyiV&fyiVdj
jks,] ij Hkxokuk tks ,d nIksQ pqi gqvk rks fiQj u cksykA liZ osQ fo"k ls mldk
lc cnu dkyk iM+ x;k FkkA
f”kank vkneh uaxk Hkh jg ldrk gS] ijarq eqnsZ dks uaxk oSQls fonk fd;k tk,\
mlosQ fy, rks ctkt dh nqdku ls u;k diM+k ykuk gh gksxk] pkgs mlosQ fy, ek¡
osQ gkFkksa osQ NUuh&dduk gh D;ksa u fcd tk,¡A
Hkxokuk ijyksd pyk x;kA ?kj esa tks oqQN pwuh&Hkwlh Fkh lks mls fonk djus
esa pyh xbZA cki ugha jgk rks D;k] yM+osQ lqcg mBrs gh Hkw[k ls fcyfcykus yxsA
nknh us mUgsa [kkus osQ fy, [kjcw”ks ns fn, ysfdu cgw dks D;k nsrh\ cgw dk cnu
cq[kkj ls ros dh rjg ri jgk FkkA vc csVs osQ fcuk cqf<+;k dks nqvUuh&poUuh Hkh
dkSu mèkkj nsrkA
cqf<+;k jksrs&jksrs vkSj vk¡[ksa iksaNrs&iksaNrs Hkxokuk osQ cVksjs gq, [kjcw”ks Mfy;k
esa lesVdj ck”kkj dh vksj pyhµvkSj pkjk Hkh D;k Fkk\
cqf<+;k [kjcw”ks cspus dk lkgl djosQ vkbZ Fkh] ijarq flj ij pknj yisVs] flj
dks ?kqVuksa ij fVdk, gq, iQiQd&iQiQddj jks jgh FkhA
dy ftldk csVk py clk] vkt og ck”kkj esa lkSnk cspus pyh gS] gk; js
iRFkj&fny!
ml iq=k&fo;ksfxuh osQ nq%[k dk vank”kk yxkus osQ fy, fiNys lky vius iM+ksl
esa iq=k dh e`R;q ls nq%[kh ekrk dh ckr lkspus yxkA og laHkzkar efgyk iq=k dh e`R;q
osQ ckn v<+kbZ ekl rd iyax ls mB u ldh FkhA mUgsa ianzg&ianzg feuV ckn
iq=k&fo;ksx ls ewNkZ vk tkrh Fkh vkSj ewNkZ u vkus dh voLFkk esa vk¡[kksa ls vk¡lw u
jQd ldrs FksA nks&nks MkWDVj gjne fljgkus cSBs jgrs FksA gjne flj ij cjI
+
kQ j[kh
tkrh FkhA 'kgj Hkj osQ yksxksa osQ eu ml iq=k&'kksd ls nzfor gks mBs FksA
tc eu dks lw> dk jkLrk ugha feyrk rks cspSuh ls dne rs”k gks tkrs gSaA mlh
gkyr esa ukd mQij mBk,] jkg pyrksa ls Bksdjas [kkrk eSa pyk tk jgk FkkA lksp
jgk Fkkµ
Page 5


;'kiky
(1903 - 1976)
;'kiky dk tUe fiQjks”kiqj Nkouh esa lu~ 1903 esa gqvkA bUgksaus vkjafHkd f'k{kk LFkkuh; LowQy
esa vkSj mPp f'k{kk ykgkSj esa ikbZA ;'kiky fo|kFkhZ dky ls gh Økafrdkjh xfrfofèk;ksa esa tqV
x, FksA vej 'kghn Hkxrflag vkfn osQ lkFk feydj bUgksaus Hkkjrh; Lora=krk vkanksyu esa Hkkx
fy;kA
;'kiky dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSa % ns'knzksgh] ikVhZ dkejsM] nknk dkejsM] >wBk lp rFkk esjh]
rsjh] mldh ckr (lHkh miU;kl)] Kkunku] roZQ dk rwI
+
kQku] fiatM+s dh mM+ku] iwQyks dk oqQrkZ]
mÙkjkfèkdkjh (lHkh dgkuh laxzg) vkSj flagkoyksdu (vkRedFkk)A
^esjh] rsjh] mldh ckr* ij ;'kiky dks lkfgR; vdkneh iqjLdkj feykA ;'kiky dh
dgkfu;ksa esa dFkk jl loZ=k feyrk gSA oxZ&la?k"kZ] euksfo'ys"k.k vkSj iSuk O;aX; budh dgkfu;ksa
dh fo'ks"krk,¡ gSaA
;'kiky ;g ekurs jgs fd lekt dks mUur cukus dk ,d gh jkLrk gSµ lkekftd lekurk
osQ lkFk&lkFk vkfFkZd lekurkA ;'kiky us viuh jpukvksa esa fganh osQ vykok mnwZ vkSj vaxzs”kh
osQ 'kCnksa dk Hkh csfgpd iz;ksx fd;k gSA
izLrqr dgkuh ns'k esa iSQys vaèkfo'oklksa vkSj m¡Qp&uhp osQ Hksn&Hkko dks csudkc djrs gq,
;g crkrh gS fd nq%[k dh vuqHkwfr lHkh dks leku :i ls gksrh gSA dgkuh èkuh yksxksa dh
vekuoh;rk vkSj xjhcksa dh etcwjh dks Hkh iwjh xgjkbZ ls mtkxj djrh gSA ;g lgh gS fd nq%[k
lHkh dks rksM+rk gS] nq%[k esa ekre eukuk gj dksbZ pkgrk gS] nq%[k osQ {k.k ls lkeuk gksus ij
lc vo'k gks tkrs gSa] ij bl ns'k esa ,sls Hkh vHkkxs yksx gSa ftUgsa u rks nq%[k eukus dk vfèkdkj
gS] u vodk'k!
14/Li'kZ
nq%[k dk vfèkdkj
euq";ksa dh iks'kkosaQ mUgsa fofHkUu Jsf.k;ksa esa ck¡V nsrh gSaA izk;% iks'kkd gh lekt esa
euq"; dk vfèkdkj vkSj mldk n”kkZ fuf'pr djrh gSA og gekjs fy, vusd can
njok”ks [kksy nsrh gS] ijarq dHkh ,slh Hkh ifjfLFkfr vk tkrh gS fd ge ”kjk uhps
>qddj lekt dh fupyh Jsf.k;ksa dh vuqHkwfr dks le>uk pkgrs gSaA ml le; ;g
iks'kkd gh caèku vkSj vM+pu cu tkrh gSA tSls ok;q dh ygjsa dVh gqbZ irax dks
lglk Hkwfe ij ugha fxj tkus nsrha] mlh rjg [kkl ifjfLFkfr;kas esa gekjh iks'kkd
gesa >qd ldus ls jksosQ jgrh gSA
ck”kkj esa] iqQVikFk ij oqQN
[kjcw”ks Mfy;k esa vkSj oqQN
”kehu ij fcØh osQ fy, j[ks
tku iM+rs FksA [kjcw”kksa osQ
lehi ,d vèksM+ mez dh vkSjr
cSBh jks jgh FkhA [kjcw”ks fcØh
osQ fy, Fks] ijarq mUgsa [kjhnus
osQ fy, dksbZ oSQls vkxs c<+rk\
[kjcw”kksa dks cspusokyh rks diMs+
ls eq¡g fNik, flj dks ?kqVuksa
ij j[ks iQiQd&iQiQddj jks
jgh FkhA
nq%[k dk vf/dkj/15
iM+ksl dh nqdkuksa osQ r[rksa ij cSBs ;k ck”kkj esa [kMs+ yksx ?k`.kk ls mlh L=kh osQ lacaèk
esa ckr dj jgs FksA ml L=kh dk jksuk ns[kdj eu esa ,d O;Fkk&lh mBh] ij mlosQ jksus
dk dkj.k tkuus dk mik; D;k Fkk\ iqQVikFk ij mlosQ lehi cSB ldus esa esjh iks'kkd
gh O;oèkku cu [kM+h gks xbZA
,d vkneh us ?k`.kk ls ,d rjI
+
kQ Fkwdrs gq, dgk] ¶D;k ”kekuk gS! toku
yM+osQ dks ejs iwjk fnu ugha chrk vkSj ;g csg;k nqdku yxk osQ cSBh gSA¸
nwljs lkgc viuh nk<+h [kqtkrs gq, dg jgs Fks] ¶vjs tSlh uh;r gksrh gS vYyk
Hkh oSlh gh cjdr nsrk gSA¸
lkeus osQ iqQVikFk ij [kM+s ,d vkneh us fn;klykbZ dh rhyh ls dku [kqtkrs
gq, dgk] ¶vjs] bu yksxksa dk D;k gS\ ;s dehus yksx jksVh osQ VqdM+s ij tku nsrs
gSaA buosQ fy, csVk&csVh] [kle&yqxkbZ] èkeZ&bZeku lc jksVh dk VqdM+k gSA¸
ijpwu dh nqdku ij cSBs ykyk th us dgk] ¶vjs HkkbZ] muosQ fy, ejs&ft,
dk dksbZ eryc u gks] ij nwljs osQ èkeZ&bZeku dk rks [k;ky djuk pkfg,! toku
csVs osQ ejus ij rsjg fnu dk lwrd gksrk gS vkSj og ;gk¡ lM+d ij ck”kkj esa
vkdj [kjcw”ks cspus cSB xbZ gSA g”kkj vkneh vkrs&tkrs gSaA dksbZ D;k tkurk gS fd
blosQ ?kj esa lwrd gSA dksbZ blosQ [kjcw”ks [kk ys rks mldk bZeku&èkeZ oSQls jgsxk\
D;k v¡èksj gS!¸
ikl&iM+ksl dh nqdkuksa ls iwNus ij irk yxkµmldk rsbZl cjl dk toku
yM+dk FkkA ?kj esa mldh cgw vkSj iksrk&iksrh gSaA yM+dk 'kgj osQ ikl Ms<+ ch?kk
Hkj ”kehu esa dfN;kjh djosQ ifjokj dk fuokZg djrk FkkA [kjcw”kksa dh Mfy;k
ck”kkj esa igq¡pkdj dHkh yM+dk Lo;a lkSns osQ ikl cSB tkrk] dHkh ek¡ cSB tkrhA
yM+dk ijlksa lqcg eq¡g&v¡èksjs csyksa esa ls iosQ [kjcw”ks pqu jgk FkkA xhyh esM+
dh rjkoV esa foJke djrs gq, ,d lk¡i ij yM+osQ dk iSj iM+ x;kA lk¡i us yM+osQ
dks M¡l fy;kA
yM+osQ dh cqf<+;k ek¡ ckoyh gksdj vks>k dks cqyk ykbZA >kM+uk&iwQ¡duk gqvkA
ukxnso dh iwtk gqbZA iwtk osQ fy, nku&nf{k.kk pkfg,A ?kj esa tks oqQN vkVk vkSj
16/Li'kZ
vukt Fkk] nku&nf{k.kk esa mB x;kA ek¡] cgw vkSj cPps ^Hkxokuk* ls fyiV&fyiVdj
jks,] ij Hkxokuk tks ,d nIksQ pqi gqvk rks fiQj u cksykA liZ osQ fo"k ls mldk
lc cnu dkyk iM+ x;k FkkA
f”kank vkneh uaxk Hkh jg ldrk gS] ijarq eqnsZ dks uaxk oSQls fonk fd;k tk,\
mlosQ fy, rks ctkt dh nqdku ls u;k diM+k ykuk gh gksxk] pkgs mlosQ fy, ek¡
osQ gkFkksa osQ NUuh&dduk gh D;ksa u fcd tk,¡A
Hkxokuk ijyksd pyk x;kA ?kj esa tks oqQN pwuh&Hkwlh Fkh lks mls fonk djus
esa pyh xbZA cki ugha jgk rks D;k] yM+osQ lqcg mBrs gh Hkw[k ls fcyfcykus yxsA
nknh us mUgsa [kkus osQ fy, [kjcw”ks ns fn, ysfdu cgw dks D;k nsrh\ cgw dk cnu
cq[kkj ls ros dh rjg ri jgk FkkA vc csVs osQ fcuk cqf<+;k dks nqvUuh&poUuh Hkh
dkSu mèkkj nsrkA
cqf<+;k jksrs&jksrs vkSj vk¡[ksa iksaNrs&iksaNrs Hkxokuk osQ cVksjs gq, [kjcw”ks Mfy;k
esa lesVdj ck”kkj dh vksj pyhµvkSj pkjk Hkh D;k Fkk\
cqf<+;k [kjcw”ks cspus dk lkgl djosQ vkbZ Fkh] ijarq flj ij pknj yisVs] flj
dks ?kqVuksa ij fVdk, gq, iQiQd&iQiQddj jks jgh FkhA
dy ftldk csVk py clk] vkt og ck”kkj esa lkSnk cspus pyh gS] gk; js
iRFkj&fny!
ml iq=k&fo;ksfxuh osQ nq%[k dk vank”kk yxkus osQ fy, fiNys lky vius iM+ksl
esa iq=k dh e`R;q ls nq%[kh ekrk dh ckr lkspus yxkA og laHkzkar efgyk iq=k dh e`R;q
osQ ckn v<+kbZ ekl rd iyax ls mB u ldh FkhA mUgsa ianzg&ianzg feuV ckn
iq=k&fo;ksx ls ewNkZ vk tkrh Fkh vkSj ewNkZ u vkus dh voLFkk esa vk¡[kksa ls vk¡lw u
jQd ldrs FksA nks&nks MkWDVj gjne fljgkus cSBs jgrs FksA gjne flj ij cjI
+
kQ j[kh
tkrh FkhA 'kgj Hkj osQ yksxksa osQ eu ml iq=k&'kksd ls nzfor gks mBs FksA
tc eu dks lw> dk jkLrk ugha feyrk rks cspSuh ls dne rs”k gks tkrs gSaA mlh
gkyr esa ukd mQij mBk,] jkg pyrksa ls Bksdjas [kkrk eSa pyk tk jgk FkkA lksp
jgk Fkkµ
nq%[k dk vf/dkj/17
'kksd djus] xe eukus osQ fy, Hkh lgwfy;r pkfg, vkSj--- nq%[kh gksus dk Hkh
,d vfèkdkj gksrk gSA
iz'u&vH;kl
ekSf[kd
fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj ,d&nks iafDr;ksa esa nhft,µ
1. fdlh O;fDr dh iks'kkd dks ns[kdj gesa D;k irk pyrk gS\
2. [kjcw”ks cspusokyh L=kh ls dksbZ [kjcw”ks D;ksa ugha [kjhn jgk Fkk\
3. ml L=kh dks ns[kdj ys[kd dks oSQlk yxk\
4. ml L=kh osQ yM+osQ dh e`R;q dk dkj.k D;k Fkk\
5. cqf<+;k dks dksbZ Hkh D;ksa mèkkj ugha nsrk\
fyf[kr
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj (25-30 'kCnksa esa) fyf[k,µ
1. euq"; osQ thou esa iks'kkd dk D;k egÙo gS\
2. iks'kkd gekjs fy, dc caèku vkSj vM+pu cu tkrh gS\
3. ys[kd ml L=kh osQ jksus dk dkj.k D;ksa ugha tku ik;k\
4. Hkxokuk vius ifjokj dk fuokZg oSQls djrk Fkk\
5. yM+osQ dh e`R;q osQ nwljs gh fnu cqf<+;k [kjcw”ks cspus D;ksa py iM+h\
6. cqf<+;k osQ nq%[k dks ns[kdj ys[kd dks vius iM+ksl dh laHkzkar efgyk dh ;kn D;ksa
vkbZ\
([k) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj (50-60 'kCnksa esa) fyf[k,µ
1. ck”kkj osQ yksx [kjcw”ks cspusokyh L=kh osQ ckjs esa D;k&D;k dg jgs Fks\ vius 'kCnksa
esa fyf[k,A
2. ikl&iM+ksl dh nqdkuksa ls iwNus ij ys[kd dks D;k irk pyk\
3. yM+osQ dks cpkus osQ fy, cqf<+;k ek¡ us D;k&D;k mik; fd,\
4. ys[kd us cqf<+;k osQ nq%[k dk vank”kk oSQls yxk;k\
5. bl ikB dk 'kh"kZd ^nq%[k dk vfèkdkj* dgk¡ rd lkFkZd gS\ Li"V dhft,A
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