NCERT Textbook - ध्वनि Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - ध्वनि Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


èofu
èofu
ius fo|ky; esa vkidks oSQls Kkr gksrk gS fd
dkyka'k (ihfj;M) lekIr gks x;k gS\ njok”ks
dh ?kaVh dh èofu vFkok [kV[kVkus (nLrd)
dh vkok”k lqudj vkidks rqjUr irk py tkrk gS
fd vkiosQ njok”ks ij dksbZ vk;k gSA izk;% inpki
lqu dj gh vki tku ysrs gSa fd dksbZ vkidh vksj
vk jgk gSA
vkius yqdk&fNih dk [ksy [ksyk gksxkA bl [ksy
esa ,d f[kykM+h dh vk¡[kksa ij iVðh ck¡èk nh tkrh gS
vkSj mls vU; f[kykfM+;ksa dks idM+uk gksrk gSA
vk¡[kksa ij iVðh c¡èks gksus ij Hkh ml f[kykM+h dks
oSQls irk py tkrk gS fd mlosQ lcls lehi dksbZ
f[kykM+h gS\
èofu dk gekjs thou esa ,d egÙoiw.kZ LFkku
gSA ,d nwljs ls lEioZQ djus esa ;g gekjh lgk;rk
djrh gSA vius pkjksa vksj gesa fofHkUu izdkj dh
èofu;k¡ lqukbZ iM+rh gSaA
vius vkl&ikl lqukbZ nsus okyh èofu;ksa dh ,d
lwph cukb,A
vius fo|ky; osQ laxhr d{k esa vki ck¡lqjh]
rcyk] gkjeksfu;e vkfn ok| ;a=kksa dh èofu;k¡ lqurs gSa
(fp=k 13-1)A
èofu oSQls mRiUu gksrh gS\ ;g ,d LFkku ls nwljs
LFkku rd fdl izdkj igq¡prh gS\ èofu dks ge oSQls
lqu ikrs gSa\ oqQN èofu;k¡ nwljksa dh vis{kk izcy D;ksa
gksrh gSa\ bl vè;k; esa ge ,sls gh oqQN iz'uksa ij
fopkj&foe'kZ djsaxsA
fp=k 13-1 % oqQN ok| ;a=kA
ck¡lqjh
v
rcyk
gkjeksfu;e
flrkj
Page 2


èofu
èofu
ius fo|ky; esa vkidks oSQls Kkr gksrk gS fd
dkyka'k (ihfj;M) lekIr gks x;k gS\ njok”ks
dh ?kaVh dh èofu vFkok [kV[kVkus (nLrd)
dh vkok”k lqudj vkidks rqjUr irk py tkrk gS
fd vkiosQ njok”ks ij dksbZ vk;k gSA izk;% inpki
lqu dj gh vki tku ysrs gSa fd dksbZ vkidh vksj
vk jgk gSA
vkius yqdk&fNih dk [ksy [ksyk gksxkA bl [ksy
esa ,d f[kykM+h dh vk¡[kksa ij iVðh ck¡èk nh tkrh gS
vkSj mls vU; f[kykfM+;ksa dks idM+uk gksrk gSA
vk¡[kksa ij iVðh c¡èks gksus ij Hkh ml f[kykM+h dks
oSQls irk py tkrk gS fd mlosQ lcls lehi dksbZ
f[kykM+h gS\
èofu dk gekjs thou esa ,d egÙoiw.kZ LFkku
gSA ,d nwljs ls lEioZQ djus esa ;g gekjh lgk;rk
djrh gSA vius pkjksa vksj gesa fofHkUu izdkj dh
èofu;k¡ lqukbZ iM+rh gSaA
vius vkl&ikl lqukbZ nsus okyh èofu;ksa dh ,d
lwph cukb,A
vius fo|ky; osQ laxhr d{k esa vki ck¡lqjh]
rcyk] gkjeksfu;e vkfn ok| ;a=kksa dh èofu;k¡ lqurs gSa
(fp=k 13-1)A
èofu oSQls mRiUu gksrh gS\ ;g ,d LFkku ls nwljs
LFkku rd fdl izdkj igq¡prh gS\ èofu dks ge oSQls
lqu ikrs gSa\ oqQN èofu;k¡ nwljksa dh vis{kk izcy D;ksa
gksrh gSa\ bl vè;k; esa ge ,sls gh oqQN iz'uksa ij
fopkj&foe'kZ djsaxsA
fp=k 13-1 % oqQN ok| ;a=kA
ck¡lqjh
v
rcyk
gkjeksfu;e
flrkj
foKku 158
fp=k 13-2 % ,d mFkyh dM+kgh ij pksV ekjrs gq,A
IysV ij fiQj ls NM+h ls pksV ekfj, rFkk pksV
ekjus osQ rqjar ckn bls vius gkFkksa ls dl dj
idM+ yhft,A D;k vki vc Hkh èofu lqu ikrs
gSa\ tc IysV èofu mRiUu djuk can dj ns rc
bls fiQj ls Nwdj nsf[k,A D;k vc vki oaQiuksa
dk vuqHko dj ikrs gSa\
d{kk lkr esa vki vè;;u dj pqosQ gSa fd fdlh
oLrq dh viuh ekè; fLFkfr osQ bèkj&mèkj ;k vkxs
ihNs gksus okyh xfr dks oaQiu dgrs gSaA tc dl dj
rkfur ,d jcM+ osQ NYys dks df"kZr (pluck) djrs
gSa ;k chp ls [khap dj NksM+rs gSa rks ;g oaQiu djrk
gS vkSj èofu mRiUu djrk gSA tc ;g oaQiu djuk can
dj nsrk gS rks èofu can gks tkrh gSA
fØ;kdyki 13-3
èkkrq dh ,d Fkkyh yhft,A blesa oqQN ty
Mkfy,A ,d pEep ls blosQ fdukjs ij vk?kkr
dhft, (fp=k 13-4)A D;k vki èofu lqu ikrs
gSa\ Fkkyh ij iqu% vk?kkr dhft, vkSj rc bls
Nwdj nsf[k,A D;k vki Fkkyh dk oaQfir gksrk
vuqHko djrs gSa\ Fkkyh ij iqu% vk?kkr dhft,A
ty dh lrg dks nsf[k,A D;k vki ogk¡ ij dksbZ
rjaxsa ns[k ikrs gSa\ vc Fkkyh dks idfM+,A vki
ty dh lrg ij D;k ifjorZu ns[krs gSa\ D;k
vki bl ifjorZu dh O;k[;k dj ldrs gSa\ D;k
blls oLrq osQ oaQiuksa dks èofu osQ lkFk tksM+us dk
dksbZ laosQr feyrk gS\
fØ;kdyki 13-2
jcM+ dk ,d NYyk yhft,A bls fp=k 13-3 esa
fn[kk, vuqlkj ,d iasfly ckWDl ij p<+kb,A
ckWDl rFkk rkfur jcM+ osQ chp esa nks iasflysa yxkb,A
vc jcM+ osQ NYys dks yxHkx chp esa ls [khap dj
NksM+ nhft,A D;k vkidks dksbZ èofu lqukbZ nsrh gS\
D;k jcM+ dk NYyk oaQiu djrk gS\
fp=k 13-3 % jcM+ osQ NYys dks df"kZr (pluck) djukA
13-1 èofu oaQfir oLrqvksa }kjk mRiUu
gksrh gS
fo|ky; dh ?kaVh dks] tc ct u jgh gks] Nwdj
nsf[k,A vki oSQlk vuqHko djrs gSa\ tc og èofu
mRiUu dj jgh gks rks bls iqu% Nwdj nsf[k,A D;k vki
bls oaQfir gksrk gqvk vuqHko dj ldrs gSa\
fØ;kdyki 13-1
èkkrq dh ,d IysV (vFkok ,d mFkyh dM+kgh)
yhft,A bls fdlh lqfoèkktud LFkku ij bl izdkj
yVdkb, fd ;g fdlh nhokj dks u Nq,A vc bl
ij fdlh NM+h ls pksV ekfj, (fp=k 13-2)A IysV
vFkok dM+kgh dks èkhes ls viuh v¡xqyh ls Nwdj
nsf[k,A D;k vki oaQiuksa dk vuqHko djrs gSa\
Page 3


èofu
èofu
ius fo|ky; esa vkidks oSQls Kkr gksrk gS fd
dkyka'k (ihfj;M) lekIr gks x;k gS\ njok”ks
dh ?kaVh dh èofu vFkok [kV[kVkus (nLrd)
dh vkok”k lqudj vkidks rqjUr irk py tkrk gS
fd vkiosQ njok”ks ij dksbZ vk;k gSA izk;% inpki
lqu dj gh vki tku ysrs gSa fd dksbZ vkidh vksj
vk jgk gSA
vkius yqdk&fNih dk [ksy [ksyk gksxkA bl [ksy
esa ,d f[kykM+h dh vk¡[kksa ij iVðh ck¡èk nh tkrh gS
vkSj mls vU; f[kykfM+;ksa dks idM+uk gksrk gSA
vk¡[kksa ij iVðh c¡èks gksus ij Hkh ml f[kykM+h dks
oSQls irk py tkrk gS fd mlosQ lcls lehi dksbZ
f[kykM+h gS\
èofu dk gekjs thou esa ,d egÙoiw.kZ LFkku
gSA ,d nwljs ls lEioZQ djus esa ;g gekjh lgk;rk
djrh gSA vius pkjksa vksj gesa fofHkUu izdkj dh
èofu;k¡ lqukbZ iM+rh gSaA
vius vkl&ikl lqukbZ nsus okyh èofu;ksa dh ,d
lwph cukb,A
vius fo|ky; osQ laxhr d{k esa vki ck¡lqjh]
rcyk] gkjeksfu;e vkfn ok| ;a=kksa dh èofu;k¡ lqurs gSa
(fp=k 13-1)A
èofu oSQls mRiUu gksrh gS\ ;g ,d LFkku ls nwljs
LFkku rd fdl izdkj igq¡prh gS\ èofu dks ge oSQls
lqu ikrs gSa\ oqQN èofu;k¡ nwljksa dh vis{kk izcy D;ksa
gksrh gSa\ bl vè;k; esa ge ,sls gh oqQN iz'uksa ij
fopkj&foe'kZ djsaxsA
fp=k 13-1 % oqQN ok| ;a=kA
ck¡lqjh
v
rcyk
gkjeksfu;e
flrkj
foKku 158
fp=k 13-2 % ,d mFkyh dM+kgh ij pksV ekjrs gq,A
IysV ij fiQj ls NM+h ls pksV ekfj, rFkk pksV
ekjus osQ rqjar ckn bls vius gkFkksa ls dl dj
idM+ yhft,A D;k vki vc Hkh èofu lqu ikrs
gSa\ tc IysV èofu mRiUu djuk can dj ns rc
bls fiQj ls Nwdj nsf[k,A D;k vc vki oaQiuksa
dk vuqHko dj ikrs gSa\
d{kk lkr esa vki vè;;u dj pqosQ gSa fd fdlh
oLrq dh viuh ekè; fLFkfr osQ bèkj&mèkj ;k vkxs
ihNs gksus okyh xfr dks oaQiu dgrs gSaA tc dl dj
rkfur ,d jcM+ osQ NYys dks df"kZr (pluck) djrs
gSa ;k chp ls [khap dj NksM+rs gSa rks ;g oaQiu djrk
gS vkSj èofu mRiUu djrk gSA tc ;g oaQiu djuk can
dj nsrk gS rks èofu can gks tkrh gSA
fØ;kdyki 13-3
èkkrq dh ,d Fkkyh yhft,A blesa oqQN ty
Mkfy,A ,d pEep ls blosQ fdukjs ij vk?kkr
dhft, (fp=k 13-4)A D;k vki èofu lqu ikrs
gSa\ Fkkyh ij iqu% vk?kkr dhft, vkSj rc bls
Nwdj nsf[k,A D;k vki Fkkyh dk oaQfir gksrk
vuqHko djrs gSa\ Fkkyh ij iqu% vk?kkr dhft,A
ty dh lrg dks nsf[k,A D;k vki ogk¡ ij dksbZ
rjaxsa ns[k ikrs gSa\ vc Fkkyh dks idfM+,A vki
ty dh lrg ij D;k ifjorZu ns[krs gSa\ D;k
vki bl ifjorZu dh O;k[;k dj ldrs gSa\ D;k
blls oLrq osQ oaQiuksa dks èofu osQ lkFk tksM+us dk
dksbZ laosQr feyrk gS\
fØ;kdyki 13-2
jcM+ dk ,d NYyk yhft,A bls fp=k 13-3 esa
fn[kk, vuqlkj ,d iasfly ckWDl ij p<+kb,A
ckWDl rFkk rkfur jcM+ osQ chp esa nks iasflysa yxkb,A
vc jcM+ osQ NYys dks yxHkx chp esa ls [khap dj
NksM+ nhft,A D;k vkidks dksbZ èofu lqukbZ nsrh gS\
D;k jcM+ dk NYyk oaQiu djrk gS\
fp=k 13-3 % jcM+ osQ NYys dks df"kZr (pluck) djukA
13-1 èofu oaQfir oLrqvksa }kjk mRiUu
gksrh gS
fo|ky; dh ?kaVh dks] tc ct u jgh gks] Nwdj
nsf[k,A vki oSQlk vuqHko djrs gSa\ tc og èofu
mRiUu dj jgh gks rks bls iqu% Nwdj nsf[k,A D;k vki
bls oaQfir gksrk gqvk vuqHko dj ldrs gSa\
fØ;kdyki 13-1
èkkrq dh ,d IysV (vFkok ,d mFkyh dM+kgh)
yhft,A bls fdlh lqfoèkktud LFkku ij bl izdkj
yVdkb, fd ;g fdlh nhokj dks u Nq,A vc bl
ij fdlh NM+h ls pksV ekfj, (fp=k 13-2)A IysV
vFkok dM+kgh dks èkhes ls viuh v¡xqyh ls Nwdj
nsf[k,A D;k vki oaQiuksa dk vuqHko djrs gSa\
èofu 159
bl izdkj geus ns[kk fd oaQik;eku oLrq,¡ èofu
mRiUu djrh gSaA oqQN fLFkfr;ksa esa ;s oaQiu gesa vklkuh
ls fn[kkbZ ns tkrs gSaA ysfdu vfèkdka'k fLFkfr;ksa esa
mudk vk;ke (amplitude) bruk de gksrk gS fd ge
mUgsa ns[k ugha ikrsA rFkkfi] ge bu oaQiuksa dk vuqHko
dj ldrs gSaA
fØ;kdyki 13-4
ukfj;y dk ,d [kks[kyk [kksy yhft, vkSj mlls
,d ok|;a=k ^,drkjk* cukb,A bls vki fdlh
feVðh osQ crZu ls Hkh cuk ldrs gSa (fp=k 13-5)A
bl ok|;a=k dks ctkb, vkSj blosQ oaQik;eku
Hkkx dks igpkfu,A
lEHkor% vkius eathjk (>k¡>)] ?kVe rFkk uwV
(feVðh osQ crZu) rFkk djrky ns[ks gksaxsA ;s ok|;a=k
lkekU;r% gekjs ns'k osQ vusd Hkkxksa esa ctk, tkrs gSaA
bu ok|;a=kksa dks osQoy ihVk ;k vk?kkr fd;k tkrk gSA
D;k vki bl izdkj osQ oqQN vU; ok|;a=kksa osQ uke
crk ldrs gSa\
vki Hkh ,d ok|;a=k cuk ldrs gSaA
fp=k 13-4 % oaQfir Fkkyh ty esa rjaxsa mRiUu djrh gSA
fp=k 13-6 % oqQN vU; ok|;a=kA
?kVe
lqifjfpr ok|;a=kksa dh ,d lwph cukb, vkSj muosQ
oaQik;eku Hkkxksa dks igpkfu,A oqQN mnkgj.k lkj.kh
13-1 esa fn, x, gSaA 'ks"k lkj.kh dks iwjk dhft,A
fp=k 13-5 % ,drkjkA
eathjk
lkj.kh 13-1 % ok|;a=k rFkk muosQ
oaQik;eku Hkkx
Øe ok|;a=k èofu mRiUu djus
 la[;k okyk oaQieku Hkkx
1 oh.kk rkfur Mksjh@rkj
2 rcyk rkfur f>Yyh
3 ck¡lqjh ok;q&LraHk
4 ----------- --------------------------
5 ----------- --------------------------
6 ----------- --------------------------
7 ----------- --------------------------
Page 4


èofu
èofu
ius fo|ky; esa vkidks oSQls Kkr gksrk gS fd
dkyka'k (ihfj;M) lekIr gks x;k gS\ njok”ks
dh ?kaVh dh èofu vFkok [kV[kVkus (nLrd)
dh vkok”k lqudj vkidks rqjUr irk py tkrk gS
fd vkiosQ njok”ks ij dksbZ vk;k gSA izk;% inpki
lqu dj gh vki tku ysrs gSa fd dksbZ vkidh vksj
vk jgk gSA
vkius yqdk&fNih dk [ksy [ksyk gksxkA bl [ksy
esa ,d f[kykM+h dh vk¡[kksa ij iVðh ck¡èk nh tkrh gS
vkSj mls vU; f[kykfM+;ksa dks idM+uk gksrk gSA
vk¡[kksa ij iVðh c¡èks gksus ij Hkh ml f[kykM+h dks
oSQls irk py tkrk gS fd mlosQ lcls lehi dksbZ
f[kykM+h gS\
èofu dk gekjs thou esa ,d egÙoiw.kZ LFkku
gSA ,d nwljs ls lEioZQ djus esa ;g gekjh lgk;rk
djrh gSA vius pkjksa vksj gesa fofHkUu izdkj dh
èofu;k¡ lqukbZ iM+rh gSaA
vius vkl&ikl lqukbZ nsus okyh èofu;ksa dh ,d
lwph cukb,A
vius fo|ky; osQ laxhr d{k esa vki ck¡lqjh]
rcyk] gkjeksfu;e vkfn ok| ;a=kksa dh èofu;k¡ lqurs gSa
(fp=k 13-1)A
èofu oSQls mRiUu gksrh gS\ ;g ,d LFkku ls nwljs
LFkku rd fdl izdkj igq¡prh gS\ èofu dks ge oSQls
lqu ikrs gSa\ oqQN èofu;k¡ nwljksa dh vis{kk izcy D;ksa
gksrh gSa\ bl vè;k; esa ge ,sls gh oqQN iz'uksa ij
fopkj&foe'kZ djsaxsA
fp=k 13-1 % oqQN ok| ;a=kA
ck¡lqjh
v
rcyk
gkjeksfu;e
flrkj
foKku 158
fp=k 13-2 % ,d mFkyh dM+kgh ij pksV ekjrs gq,A
IysV ij fiQj ls NM+h ls pksV ekfj, rFkk pksV
ekjus osQ rqjar ckn bls vius gkFkksa ls dl dj
idM+ yhft,A D;k vki vc Hkh èofu lqu ikrs
gSa\ tc IysV èofu mRiUu djuk can dj ns rc
bls fiQj ls Nwdj nsf[k,A D;k vc vki oaQiuksa
dk vuqHko dj ikrs gSa\
d{kk lkr esa vki vè;;u dj pqosQ gSa fd fdlh
oLrq dh viuh ekè; fLFkfr osQ bèkj&mèkj ;k vkxs
ihNs gksus okyh xfr dks oaQiu dgrs gSaA tc dl dj
rkfur ,d jcM+ osQ NYys dks df"kZr (pluck) djrs
gSa ;k chp ls [khap dj NksM+rs gSa rks ;g oaQiu djrk
gS vkSj èofu mRiUu djrk gSA tc ;g oaQiu djuk can
dj nsrk gS rks èofu can gks tkrh gSA
fØ;kdyki 13-3
èkkrq dh ,d Fkkyh yhft,A blesa oqQN ty
Mkfy,A ,d pEep ls blosQ fdukjs ij vk?kkr
dhft, (fp=k 13-4)A D;k vki èofu lqu ikrs
gSa\ Fkkyh ij iqu% vk?kkr dhft, vkSj rc bls
Nwdj nsf[k,A D;k vki Fkkyh dk oaQfir gksrk
vuqHko djrs gSa\ Fkkyh ij iqu% vk?kkr dhft,A
ty dh lrg dks nsf[k,A D;k vki ogk¡ ij dksbZ
rjaxsa ns[k ikrs gSa\ vc Fkkyh dks idfM+,A vki
ty dh lrg ij D;k ifjorZu ns[krs gSa\ D;k
vki bl ifjorZu dh O;k[;k dj ldrs gSa\ D;k
blls oLrq osQ oaQiuksa dks èofu osQ lkFk tksM+us dk
dksbZ laosQr feyrk gS\
fØ;kdyki 13-2
jcM+ dk ,d NYyk yhft,A bls fp=k 13-3 esa
fn[kk, vuqlkj ,d iasfly ckWDl ij p<+kb,A
ckWDl rFkk rkfur jcM+ osQ chp esa nks iasflysa yxkb,A
vc jcM+ osQ NYys dks yxHkx chp esa ls [khap dj
NksM+ nhft,A D;k vkidks dksbZ èofu lqukbZ nsrh gS\
D;k jcM+ dk NYyk oaQiu djrk gS\
fp=k 13-3 % jcM+ osQ NYys dks df"kZr (pluck) djukA
13-1 èofu oaQfir oLrqvksa }kjk mRiUu
gksrh gS
fo|ky; dh ?kaVh dks] tc ct u jgh gks] Nwdj
nsf[k,A vki oSQlk vuqHko djrs gSa\ tc og èofu
mRiUu dj jgh gks rks bls iqu% Nwdj nsf[k,A D;k vki
bls oaQfir gksrk gqvk vuqHko dj ldrs gSa\
fØ;kdyki 13-1
èkkrq dh ,d IysV (vFkok ,d mFkyh dM+kgh)
yhft,A bls fdlh lqfoèkktud LFkku ij bl izdkj
yVdkb, fd ;g fdlh nhokj dks u Nq,A vc bl
ij fdlh NM+h ls pksV ekfj, (fp=k 13-2)A IysV
vFkok dM+kgh dks èkhes ls viuh v¡xqyh ls Nwdj
nsf[k,A D;k vki oaQiuksa dk vuqHko djrs gSa\
èofu 159
bl izdkj geus ns[kk fd oaQik;eku oLrq,¡ èofu
mRiUu djrh gSaA oqQN fLFkfr;ksa esa ;s oaQiu gesa vklkuh
ls fn[kkbZ ns tkrs gSaA ysfdu vfèkdka'k fLFkfr;ksa esa
mudk vk;ke (amplitude) bruk de gksrk gS fd ge
mUgsa ns[k ugha ikrsA rFkkfi] ge bu oaQiuksa dk vuqHko
dj ldrs gSaA
fØ;kdyki 13-4
ukfj;y dk ,d [kks[kyk [kksy yhft, vkSj mlls
,d ok|;a=k ^,drkjk* cukb,A bls vki fdlh
feVðh osQ crZu ls Hkh cuk ldrs gSa (fp=k 13-5)A
bl ok|;a=k dks ctkb, vkSj blosQ oaQik;eku
Hkkx dks igpkfu,A
lEHkor% vkius eathjk (>k¡>)] ?kVe rFkk uwV
(feVðh osQ crZu) rFkk djrky ns[ks gksaxsA ;s ok|;a=k
lkekU;r% gekjs ns'k osQ vusd Hkkxksa esa ctk, tkrs gSaA
bu ok|;a=kksa dks osQoy ihVk ;k vk?kkr fd;k tkrk gSA
D;k vki bl izdkj osQ oqQN vU; ok|;a=kksa osQ uke
crk ldrs gSa\
vki Hkh ,d ok|;a=k cuk ldrs gSaA
fp=k 13-4 % oaQfir Fkkyh ty esa rjaxsa mRiUu djrh gSA
fp=k 13-6 % oqQN vU; ok|;a=kA
?kVe
lqifjfpr ok|;a=kksa dh ,d lwph cukb, vkSj muosQ
oaQik;eku Hkkxksa dks igpkfu,A oqQN mnkgj.k lkj.kh
13-1 esa fn, x, gSaA 'ks"k lkj.kh dks iwjk dhft,A
fp=k 13-5 % ,drkjkA
eathjk
lkj.kh 13-1 % ok|;a=k rFkk muosQ
oaQik;eku Hkkx
Øe ok|;a=k èofu mRiUu djus
 la[;k okyk oaQieku Hkkx
1 oh.kk rkfur Mksjh@rkj
2 rcyk rkfur f>Yyh
3 ck¡lqjh ok;q&LraHk
4 ----------- --------------------------
5 ----------- --------------------------
6 ----------- --------------------------
7 ----------- --------------------------
foKku 160
13-2 euq";ksa (ekuoksa) }kjk mRiUu èofu
oqQN le; rd tksj ls cksfy, ;k xkuk xkb, vFkok
HkkSajs dh rjg xqatu dhft,A fp=kkuqlkj (13-7) vius
gkFk dks vius oaQB ij jf[k,A D;k vkidks oqQN oaQiuksa
dk vuqHko gksrk gS\
ekuoksa esa èofu okd;a=k vFkok oaQB (larynx)
}kjk mRiUu gksrh gSA viuh vaxqfy;ksa dks oaQB ij
jf[k, rFkk ,d dBksj mHkkj dks [kksft, tks fuxyrs
le; pyrk gqvk izrhr gksrk gSA 'kjhj dk ;g Hkkx
okd;a=k dgykrk gSA ;g 'okluyh osQ Åijh fljs ij
gksrk gSA okd;a=k ;k oaQB osQ vkj&ikj nks oko~Q&rarq
bl izdkj rkfur gksrs gSa fd muosQ chp esa ok;q osQ
fudyus osQ fy, ,d ladh.kZ f>jh cuh gksrh gS
(fp=k 13-8)A
fp=k 13-7 % ty rjaxA
tc ge cksyrs gSa rks D;k gekjs
'kjhj dk dksbZ Hkkx oaQfir
gksrk gS\
fp=k 13-8 % ekuoksa esa okd;a=kA
tc isQiQM+s ok;q dks cyiwoZd f>jh ls ckgj
fudkyrs gSa rks oko~Q&rarq oaQfir gksrs gSa ftlls èofu
mRiUu gksrh gSA oko~Q&rarqvksa ls tqM+h ekalisf'k;k¡ rarqvksa
dks ruk gqvk ;k <hyk dj ldrh gSaA tc oko~Q&rarq
rus gq, vkSj irys gksrs gSa rc oko~Q èofu dk izdkj ;k
fØ;kdyki 13-5
èkkrq osQ 6&8 dVksjs ;k fxykl yhft,A bUgsa ,d
fljs ls nwljs fljs rd Øe'k% ty osQ c<+rs Lrj
rd Hkfj,A vc ,d isafly ysdj dVksjksa ij èkhes
ls ,d osQ ckn ,d ij vk?kkr dhft,A vki
,d lq[kn èofu lqusaxsA ;g vkidk ty rjax gS
(fp=k 13-7)A
tc ge fdlh ok|;a=k] tSls flrkj] osQ rkj dks
df"kZr djrs gSa rks gesa osQoy rkj dh gh èofu
lqukbZ ugha nsrh gSA okLro esa lEiw.kZ ;a=k oaQiu
djrk gS vkSj bl iwjs ;a=k osQ oaQiu ls mRiUu èofu
dks ge lqurs gSaA blh izdkj tc ge fdlh e`naxe
dh f>Yyh ij vk?kkr djrs gSa rks ge osQoy
f>Yyh dh vkok”k gh ugha lqurs cfYd lEiw.kZ ;a=k
dh vkok”k lqurs gSaA
Page 5


èofu
èofu
ius fo|ky; esa vkidks oSQls Kkr gksrk gS fd
dkyka'k (ihfj;M) lekIr gks x;k gS\ njok”ks
dh ?kaVh dh èofu vFkok [kV[kVkus (nLrd)
dh vkok”k lqudj vkidks rqjUr irk py tkrk gS
fd vkiosQ njok”ks ij dksbZ vk;k gSA izk;% inpki
lqu dj gh vki tku ysrs gSa fd dksbZ vkidh vksj
vk jgk gSA
vkius yqdk&fNih dk [ksy [ksyk gksxkA bl [ksy
esa ,d f[kykM+h dh vk¡[kksa ij iVðh ck¡èk nh tkrh gS
vkSj mls vU; f[kykfM+;ksa dks idM+uk gksrk gSA
vk¡[kksa ij iVðh c¡èks gksus ij Hkh ml f[kykM+h dks
oSQls irk py tkrk gS fd mlosQ lcls lehi dksbZ
f[kykM+h gS\
èofu dk gekjs thou esa ,d egÙoiw.kZ LFkku
gSA ,d nwljs ls lEioZQ djus esa ;g gekjh lgk;rk
djrh gSA vius pkjksa vksj gesa fofHkUu izdkj dh
èofu;k¡ lqukbZ iM+rh gSaA
vius vkl&ikl lqukbZ nsus okyh èofu;ksa dh ,d
lwph cukb,A
vius fo|ky; osQ laxhr d{k esa vki ck¡lqjh]
rcyk] gkjeksfu;e vkfn ok| ;a=kksa dh èofu;k¡ lqurs gSa
(fp=k 13-1)A
èofu oSQls mRiUu gksrh gS\ ;g ,d LFkku ls nwljs
LFkku rd fdl izdkj igq¡prh gS\ èofu dks ge oSQls
lqu ikrs gSa\ oqQN èofu;k¡ nwljksa dh vis{kk izcy D;ksa
gksrh gSa\ bl vè;k; esa ge ,sls gh oqQN iz'uksa ij
fopkj&foe'kZ djsaxsA
fp=k 13-1 % oqQN ok| ;a=kA
ck¡lqjh
v
rcyk
gkjeksfu;e
flrkj
foKku 158
fp=k 13-2 % ,d mFkyh dM+kgh ij pksV ekjrs gq,A
IysV ij fiQj ls NM+h ls pksV ekfj, rFkk pksV
ekjus osQ rqjar ckn bls vius gkFkksa ls dl dj
idM+ yhft,A D;k vki vc Hkh èofu lqu ikrs
gSa\ tc IysV èofu mRiUu djuk can dj ns rc
bls fiQj ls Nwdj nsf[k,A D;k vc vki oaQiuksa
dk vuqHko dj ikrs gSa\
d{kk lkr esa vki vè;;u dj pqosQ gSa fd fdlh
oLrq dh viuh ekè; fLFkfr osQ bèkj&mèkj ;k vkxs
ihNs gksus okyh xfr dks oaQiu dgrs gSaA tc dl dj
rkfur ,d jcM+ osQ NYys dks df"kZr (pluck) djrs
gSa ;k chp ls [khap dj NksM+rs gSa rks ;g oaQiu djrk
gS vkSj èofu mRiUu djrk gSA tc ;g oaQiu djuk can
dj nsrk gS rks èofu can gks tkrh gSA
fØ;kdyki 13-3
èkkrq dh ,d Fkkyh yhft,A blesa oqQN ty
Mkfy,A ,d pEep ls blosQ fdukjs ij vk?kkr
dhft, (fp=k 13-4)A D;k vki èofu lqu ikrs
gSa\ Fkkyh ij iqu% vk?kkr dhft, vkSj rc bls
Nwdj nsf[k,A D;k vki Fkkyh dk oaQfir gksrk
vuqHko djrs gSa\ Fkkyh ij iqu% vk?kkr dhft,A
ty dh lrg dks nsf[k,A D;k vki ogk¡ ij dksbZ
rjaxsa ns[k ikrs gSa\ vc Fkkyh dks idfM+,A vki
ty dh lrg ij D;k ifjorZu ns[krs gSa\ D;k
vki bl ifjorZu dh O;k[;k dj ldrs gSa\ D;k
blls oLrq osQ oaQiuksa dks èofu osQ lkFk tksM+us dk
dksbZ laosQr feyrk gS\
fØ;kdyki 13-2
jcM+ dk ,d NYyk yhft,A bls fp=k 13-3 esa
fn[kk, vuqlkj ,d iasfly ckWDl ij p<+kb,A
ckWDl rFkk rkfur jcM+ osQ chp esa nks iasflysa yxkb,A
vc jcM+ osQ NYys dks yxHkx chp esa ls [khap dj
NksM+ nhft,A D;k vkidks dksbZ èofu lqukbZ nsrh gS\
D;k jcM+ dk NYyk oaQiu djrk gS\
fp=k 13-3 % jcM+ osQ NYys dks df"kZr (pluck) djukA
13-1 èofu oaQfir oLrqvksa }kjk mRiUu
gksrh gS
fo|ky; dh ?kaVh dks] tc ct u jgh gks] Nwdj
nsf[k,A vki oSQlk vuqHko djrs gSa\ tc og èofu
mRiUu dj jgh gks rks bls iqu% Nwdj nsf[k,A D;k vki
bls oaQfir gksrk gqvk vuqHko dj ldrs gSa\
fØ;kdyki 13-1
èkkrq dh ,d IysV (vFkok ,d mFkyh dM+kgh)
yhft,A bls fdlh lqfoèkktud LFkku ij bl izdkj
yVdkb, fd ;g fdlh nhokj dks u Nq,A vc bl
ij fdlh NM+h ls pksV ekfj, (fp=k 13-2)A IysV
vFkok dM+kgh dks èkhes ls viuh v¡xqyh ls Nwdj
nsf[k,A D;k vki oaQiuksa dk vuqHko djrs gSa\
èofu 159
bl izdkj geus ns[kk fd oaQik;eku oLrq,¡ èofu
mRiUu djrh gSaA oqQN fLFkfr;ksa esa ;s oaQiu gesa vklkuh
ls fn[kkbZ ns tkrs gSaA ysfdu vfèkdka'k fLFkfr;ksa esa
mudk vk;ke (amplitude) bruk de gksrk gS fd ge
mUgsa ns[k ugha ikrsA rFkkfi] ge bu oaQiuksa dk vuqHko
dj ldrs gSaA
fØ;kdyki 13-4
ukfj;y dk ,d [kks[kyk [kksy yhft, vkSj mlls
,d ok|;a=k ^,drkjk* cukb,A bls vki fdlh
feVðh osQ crZu ls Hkh cuk ldrs gSa (fp=k 13-5)A
bl ok|;a=k dks ctkb, vkSj blosQ oaQik;eku
Hkkx dks igpkfu,A
lEHkor% vkius eathjk (>k¡>)] ?kVe rFkk uwV
(feVðh osQ crZu) rFkk djrky ns[ks gksaxsA ;s ok|;a=k
lkekU;r% gekjs ns'k osQ vusd Hkkxksa esa ctk, tkrs gSaA
bu ok|;a=kksa dks osQoy ihVk ;k vk?kkr fd;k tkrk gSA
D;k vki bl izdkj osQ oqQN vU; ok|;a=kksa osQ uke
crk ldrs gSa\
vki Hkh ,d ok|;a=k cuk ldrs gSaA
fp=k 13-4 % oaQfir Fkkyh ty esa rjaxsa mRiUu djrh gSA
fp=k 13-6 % oqQN vU; ok|;a=kA
?kVe
lqifjfpr ok|;a=kksa dh ,d lwph cukb, vkSj muosQ
oaQik;eku Hkkxksa dks igpkfu,A oqQN mnkgj.k lkj.kh
13-1 esa fn, x, gSaA 'ks"k lkj.kh dks iwjk dhft,A
fp=k 13-5 % ,drkjkA
eathjk
lkj.kh 13-1 % ok|;a=k rFkk muosQ
oaQik;eku Hkkx
Øe ok|;a=k èofu mRiUu djus
 la[;k okyk oaQieku Hkkx
1 oh.kk rkfur Mksjh@rkj
2 rcyk rkfur f>Yyh
3 ck¡lqjh ok;q&LraHk
4 ----------- --------------------------
5 ----------- --------------------------
6 ----------- --------------------------
7 ----------- --------------------------
foKku 160
13-2 euq";ksa (ekuoksa) }kjk mRiUu èofu
oqQN le; rd tksj ls cksfy, ;k xkuk xkb, vFkok
HkkSajs dh rjg xqatu dhft,A fp=kkuqlkj (13-7) vius
gkFk dks vius oaQB ij jf[k,A D;k vkidks oqQN oaQiuksa
dk vuqHko gksrk gS\
ekuoksa esa èofu okd;a=k vFkok oaQB (larynx)
}kjk mRiUu gksrh gSA viuh vaxqfy;ksa dks oaQB ij
jf[k, rFkk ,d dBksj mHkkj dks [kksft, tks fuxyrs
le; pyrk gqvk izrhr gksrk gSA 'kjhj dk ;g Hkkx
okd;a=k dgykrk gSA ;g 'okluyh osQ Åijh fljs ij
gksrk gSA okd;a=k ;k oaQB osQ vkj&ikj nks oko~Q&rarq
bl izdkj rkfur gksrs gSa fd muosQ chp esa ok;q osQ
fudyus osQ fy, ,d ladh.kZ f>jh cuh gksrh gS
(fp=k 13-8)A
fp=k 13-7 % ty rjaxA
tc ge cksyrs gSa rks D;k gekjs
'kjhj dk dksbZ Hkkx oaQfir
gksrk gS\
fp=k 13-8 % ekuoksa esa okd;a=kA
tc isQiQM+s ok;q dks cyiwoZd f>jh ls ckgj
fudkyrs gSa rks oko~Q&rarq oaQfir gksrs gSa ftlls èofu
mRiUu gksrh gSA oko~Q&rarqvksa ls tqM+h ekalisf'k;k¡ rarqvksa
dks ruk gqvk ;k <hyk dj ldrh gSaA tc oko~Q&rarq
rus gq, vkSj irys gksrs gSa rc oko~Q èofu dk izdkj ;k
fØ;kdyki 13-5
èkkrq osQ 6&8 dVksjs ;k fxykl yhft,A bUgsa ,d
fljs ls nwljs fljs rd Øe'k% ty osQ c<+rs Lrj
rd Hkfj,A vc ,d isafly ysdj dVksjksa ij èkhes
ls ,d osQ ckn ,d ij vk?kkr dhft,A vki
,d lq[kn èofu lqusaxsA ;g vkidk ty rjax gS
(fp=k 13-7)A
tc ge fdlh ok|;a=k] tSls flrkj] osQ rkj dks
df"kZr djrs gSa rks gesa osQoy rkj dh gh èofu
lqukbZ ugha nsrh gSA okLro esa lEiw.kZ ;a=k oaQiu
djrk gS vkSj bl iwjs ;a=k osQ oaQiu ls mRiUu èofu
dks ge lqurs gSaA blh izdkj tc ge fdlh e`naxe
dh f>Yyh ij vk?kkr djrs gSa rks ge osQoy
f>Yyh dh vkok”k gh ugha lqurs cfYd lEiw.kZ ;a=k
dh vkok”k lqurs gSaA
èofu 161
mldh xq.krk ml oko~Q èofu ls fHkUu gksrh gS tc
oko~Q&rarq <hys vkSj eksVs gksrs gSaA vkb, ns[ksa fd
oko~Q&rarq fdl izdkj dk;Z djrs gSaA
fØ;kdyki 13-6
leku lkb”k dh jcM+ dh nks ifVð;k¡ yhft,A bu
nksuksa dks ,d nwljs osQ Åij j[k dj dl dj
rkfu,A vc buosQ chp osQ vUrjky (njkj) esa
gok iw¡Qfd, [fp=k 13-9(a)]A tc rkfur jcM+
dh ifVð;ksa osQ chp ls gok iw¡Qdh tkrh gS rks
èofu mRiUu gksrh gSA
,d dkx”k osQ VqdM+s ftlesa ,d iryh f>jh
cuh gks] dh lgk;rk ls Hkh vki bl fØ;kdyki
dks dj ldrs gSaA dkx”k dks viuh v¡xqfy;ksa osQ
chp fp=k 13-9(b) dh Hkkafr idfM+,A vc f>jh
osQ chp ls gok iw¡Qfd, vkSj èofu lqfu,A
gekjs oko~Q&rarq Hkh Bhd blh izdkj èofu mRiUu
djrs gSaA
(a)
(b)
fp=k 13-9 (a) rFkk (b) % oko~Q&rarqvksa dh dk;Z fofèkA
13-3 èofu lapj.k osQ fy, ekè;e dh
vko';drk gksrh gS
tc vki oqQN nwjh ij [kM+h viuh lgsyh dks iqdkjrh
gSa rks vkidh lgsyh vkidh vkok”k dks lqu ikrh gSA
mlosQ ikl rd vkidh èofu oSQls igq¡prh gS\
fØ;kdyki 13-7
èkkrq dk ,d fxykl yhft,A lqfuf'pr dhft,
fd ;g lw[kk gksA blesa ,d ^lsy iQksu* jf[k,A
;kn jf[k, fd lsy iQksu ikuh esa u j[kk
tk,A vius fdlh fe=k ls bl ^lsy iQksu* ij
fdlh nwljs ^lsy iQksu* ls VsyhiQksu djus osQ
fy, dfg,A ?kaVh dh èofu è;kuiwoZd lqfu,A
vc fxykl osQ fdukjksa dks vius gkFkksa ls lVk
dj idfM+,A vc vius eq¡g dks gkFkksa osQ chp
dh [kkyh txg ij lVk dj jf[k, (fp=k 13-10)A
iq#"kksa osQ oko~Q&rarqvksa dh yackbZ yxHkx 20 mm gksrh
gSA efgykvksa esa ;s yxHkx 5 mm NksVs gksrs gSaA cPpksa
osQ oko~Q&rarq cgqr NksVs gksrs gSaA ;gh dkj.k gS fd
iq#"kksa] efgykvksa rFkk cPpksa dh oko~Q èofu;k¡ fHkUu&fHkUu
gksrh gSaA
fp=k 13-10 % èofu lapj.k osQ fy, ekè;e dh vko';drk
gksrh gSA
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

NCERT Textbook - ध्वनि Notes | EduRev

,

pdf

,

Sample Paper

,

Semester Notes

,

Important questions

,

past year papers

,

study material

,

NCERT Textbook - ध्वनि Notes | EduRev

,

Objective type Questions

,

MCQs

,

NCERT Textbook - ध्वनि Notes | EduRev

,

practice quizzes

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Exam

,

mock tests for examination

,

Extra Questions

,

Viva Questions

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

video lectures

,

Summary

,

ppt

,

Free

;