NCERT Textbook - ध्वनि Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 8

Created by: Trisha Vashisht

Class 8 : NCERT Textbook - ध्वनि Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


1
èofu
vHkh u gksxk esjk var
vHkh&vHkh gh rks vk;k gS
esjs ou esa e`nqy olarµ
vHkh u gksxk esjk varA
gjs&gjs ;s ikr]
Mkfy;k¡] dfy;k¡] dksey xkrA
eSa gh viuk LoIu&e`nqy&dj
isQ: ¡ xk fufnzr dfy;ksa ij
txk ,d izR;w"k euksgjA
iq"i&iq"i ls ranzkyl ykylk [khap yw¡xk eSa]
vius uo thou dk ve`r lg"kZ lhap nw¡xk eSa]
}kj fn[kk nw¡xk fiQj mudksA
gSa esjs os tgk¡ vuarµ
vHkh u gksxk esjk varA
µlw;Zdkar f=kikBh ^fujkyk*
Page 2


1
èofu
vHkh u gksxk esjk var
vHkh&vHkh gh rks vk;k gS
esjs ou esa e`nqy olarµ
vHkh u gksxk esjk varA
gjs&gjs ;s ikr]
Mkfy;k¡] dfy;k¡] dksey xkrA
eSa gh viuk LoIu&e`nqy&dj
isQ: ¡ xk fufnzr dfy;ksa ij
txk ,d izR;w"k euksgjA
iq"i&iq"i ls ranzkyl ykylk [khap yw¡xk eSa]
vius uo thou dk ve`r lg"kZ lhap nw¡xk eSa]
}kj fn[kk nw¡xk fiQj mudksA
gSa esjs os tgk¡ vuarµ
vHkh u gksxk esjk varA
µlw;Zdkar f=kikBh ^fujkyk*
2 olar Hkkx 3
dfork ls
1- dfo dks ,slk fo'okl D;ksa gS fd mldk var vHkh ugha gksxk\
2- iwQyksa dks vUkar rd fodflr djus osQ fy, dfo dkSu&dkSu&lk iz;kl
djrk gS\
3- dfo iq"iksa dh ranzk vkSj vkyL; nwj gVkus osQ fy, D;k djuk pkgrk gS\
dfork ls vkxs
1- olar dks Írqjkt D;ksa dgk tkrk gS\ vkil esa ppkZ dhft,A
2- olar Írq esa vkusokys R;ksgkjksa osQ fo"k; esa tkudkjh ,d=k dhft, vkSj
fdlh ,d R;ksgkj ij fuca/ fyf[k,A
3- ¶Írq ifjorZu dk thou ij xgjk izHkko iM+rk gS¸µbl dFku dh iqf"V
vki fdu&fdu ckrksa ls dj ldrs gSa\ fyf[k,A
vuqeku vkSj dYiuk
1- dfork dh fuEufyf[kr iafDr;k¡ i<+dj crkb, fd buesa fdl Írq dk
o.kZu gS\
iwQVs gSa vkeksa esa ckSj
HkkSaj ou&ou VwVs gSaA
gksyh eph BkSj&BkSj
lHkh caèku NwVs gSaA
2- LoIu Hkjs dksey&dksey gkFkksa dks vylkbZ dfy;ksa ij isQjrs gq, dfo
dfy;ksa dks izHkkr osQ vkus dk lans'k nsrk gS] mUgsa txkuk pkgrk gS vkSj
[kq'kh&[kq'kh vius thou osQ ve`r ls mUgsa lhapdj gjk&Hkjk djuk pkgrk
gSA iwQyksa&ikSèkksa osQ fy, vki D;k&D;k djuk pkgsaxs\
iz'u&vH;kl
Page 3


1
èofu
vHkh u gksxk esjk var
vHkh&vHkh gh rks vk;k gS
esjs ou esa e`nqy olarµ
vHkh u gksxk esjk varA
gjs&gjs ;s ikr]
Mkfy;k¡] dfy;k¡] dksey xkrA
eSa gh viuk LoIu&e`nqy&dj
isQ: ¡ xk fufnzr dfy;ksa ij
txk ,d izR;w"k euksgjA
iq"i&iq"i ls ranzkyl ykylk [khap yw¡xk eSa]
vius uo thou dk ve`r lg"kZ lhap nw¡xk eSa]
}kj fn[kk nw¡xk fiQj mudksA
gSa esjs os tgk¡ vuarµ
vHkh u gksxk esjk varA
µlw;Zdkar f=kikBh ^fujkyk*
2 olar Hkkx 3
dfork ls
1- dfo dks ,slk fo'okl D;ksa gS fd mldk var vHkh ugha gksxk\
2- iwQyksa dks vUkar rd fodflr djus osQ fy, dfo dkSu&dkSu&lk iz;kl
djrk gS\
3- dfo iq"iksa dh ranzk vkSj vkyL; nwj gVkus osQ fy, D;k djuk pkgrk gS\
dfork ls vkxs
1- olar dks Írqjkt D;ksa dgk tkrk gS\ vkil esa ppkZ dhft,A
2- olar Írq esa vkusokys R;ksgkjksa osQ fo"k; esa tkudkjh ,d=k dhft, vkSj
fdlh ,d R;ksgkj ij fuca/ fyf[k,A
3- ¶Írq ifjorZu dk thou ij xgjk izHkko iM+rk gS¸µbl dFku dh iqf"V
vki fdu&fdu ckrksa ls dj ldrs gSa\ fyf[k,A
vuqeku vkSj dYiuk
1- dfork dh fuEufyf[kr iafDr;k¡ i<+dj crkb, fd buesa fdl Írq dk
o.kZu gS\
iwQVs gSa vkeksa esa ckSj
HkkSaj ou&ou VwVs gSaA
gksyh eph BkSj&BkSj
lHkh caèku NwVs gSaA
2- LoIu Hkjs dksey&dksey gkFkksa dks vylkbZ dfy;ksa ij isQjrs gq, dfo
dfy;ksa dks izHkkr osQ vkus dk lans'k nsrk gS] mUgsa txkuk pkgrk gS vkSj
[kq'kh&[kq'kh vius thou osQ ve`r ls mUgsa lhapdj gjk&Hkjk djuk pkgrk
gSA iwQyksa&ikSèkksa osQ fy, vki D;k&D;k djuk pkgsaxs\
iz'u&vH;kl
èofu            3
3- dfo viuh dfork esa ,d dYiuk'khy dk;Z dh ckr crk jgk gSA vuqeku
dhft, vkSj fyf[k, fd mlosQ crk, dk;ks± dk vU; fdu&fdu lanHkks± ls
lacaèk tqM+ ldrk gS\ tSls uUgs&eqUus ckyd dks ek¡ txk jgh gks---A
Hkk"kk dh ckr
1- ^gjs&gjs*] ^iq"i&iq"i* esa ,d 'kCn dh ,d gh vFkZ esa iqujko`fÙk gqbZ gSA
dfork osQ ^gjs&gjs ;s ikr* okD;ka'k esa ^gjs&gjs* 'kCn ;qXe iÙkksa osQ fy,
fo'ks"k.k osQ :i esa iz;qDr gq, gSaA ;gk¡ ^ikr* 'kCn cgqopu esa iz;qDr gSA
,slk iz;ksx Hkh gksrk gS tc drkZ ;k fo'ks"; ,d opu esa gks vkSj deZ
;k fØ;k ;k fo'ks"k.k cgqopu esa_ tSlsµog yach&pkSM+h ckrsa djus yxkA
dfork esa ,d gh 'kCn dk ,d ls vfèkd vFkks± esa Hkh iz;ksx gksrk
gSµ¶rhu csj [kkrh rs os rhu csj [kkrh gSA¸ tks rhu ckj [kkrh Fkh og
rhu csj [kkus yxh gSA ,d 'kCn ^csj* dk nks vFkks± esa iz;ksx djus ls
okD; eas peRdkj vk x;kA bls ;ed vyadkj dgk tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh
mPpkj.k dh lekurk ls 'kCnksa dh iqujko`fÙk dk vkHkkl gksrk gS tcfd
nksuksa nks izdkj osQ 'kCn gksrs gSa_ tSlsµeu dk eudkA
,sls okD;ksa dks ,d=k dhft, ftuesa ,d gh 'kCn dh iqujko`fÙk gksA ,sls
iz;ksxksa dks è;ku ls nsf[k, vkSj fuEufyf[kr iqujko`r 'kCnksa dk okD; esa
iz;ksx dhft,µckrksa&ckrksa eas] jg&jgdj] yky&yky] lqcg&lqcg] jkrksa&jkr]
?kM+h&?kM+hA
2- ^dksey xkr] e`nqy olar] gjs&gjs ;s ikr*
fo'ks"k.k ftl laKk (;k loZuke) dh fo'ks"krk crkrk gS] mls fo'ks"; dgrs gSaA
mQij fn, x, okD;ka'kksa esa xkr] olar vkSj ikr 'kCn fo'ks"; gSa] D;ksafd budh
fo'ks"krk (fo'ks"k.k) ozQe'k% dksey] e`nqy vkSj gjs&gjs 'kCn crk jgs gSaA
fganh fo'ks"k.kksa ds lkekU;r;k pkj izdkj ekus x, gSaµxq.kokpd fo'ks"k.k]
ifjek.kokpd fo'ks"k.k] la[;kokpd fo'ks"k.k vkSj lkoZukfed fo'ks"k.kA
oqQN djus dks
1- olar ij vusd lqanj dfork,¡ gSaA oqQN dforkvkas dk ladyu rS;kj dhft,A
2- 'kCndks'k esa ^olar* 'kCn dk vFkZ nsf[k,A 'kCndks'k esa 'kCnksa osQ vFkks± osQ
Page 4


1
èofu
vHkh u gksxk esjk var
vHkh&vHkh gh rks vk;k gS
esjs ou esa e`nqy olarµ
vHkh u gksxk esjk varA
gjs&gjs ;s ikr]
Mkfy;k¡] dfy;k¡] dksey xkrA
eSa gh viuk LoIu&e`nqy&dj
isQ: ¡ xk fufnzr dfy;ksa ij
txk ,d izR;w"k euksgjA
iq"i&iq"i ls ranzkyl ykylk [khap yw¡xk eSa]
vius uo thou dk ve`r lg"kZ lhap nw¡xk eSa]
}kj fn[kk nw¡xk fiQj mudksA
gSa esjs os tgk¡ vuarµ
vHkh u gksxk esjk varA
µlw;Zdkar f=kikBh ^fujkyk*
2 olar Hkkx 3
dfork ls
1- dfo dks ,slk fo'okl D;ksa gS fd mldk var vHkh ugha gksxk\
2- iwQyksa dks vUkar rd fodflr djus osQ fy, dfo dkSu&dkSu&lk iz;kl
djrk gS\
3- dfo iq"iksa dh ranzk vkSj vkyL; nwj gVkus osQ fy, D;k djuk pkgrk gS\
dfork ls vkxs
1- olar dks Írqjkt D;ksa dgk tkrk gS\ vkil esa ppkZ dhft,A
2- olar Írq esa vkusokys R;ksgkjksa osQ fo"k; esa tkudkjh ,d=k dhft, vkSj
fdlh ,d R;ksgkj ij fuca/ fyf[k,A
3- ¶Írq ifjorZu dk thou ij xgjk izHkko iM+rk gS¸µbl dFku dh iqf"V
vki fdu&fdu ckrksa ls dj ldrs gSa\ fyf[k,A
vuqeku vkSj dYiuk
1- dfork dh fuEufyf[kr iafDr;k¡ i<+dj crkb, fd buesa fdl Írq dk
o.kZu gS\
iwQVs gSa vkeksa esa ckSj
HkkSaj ou&ou VwVs gSaA
gksyh eph BkSj&BkSj
lHkh caèku NwVs gSaA
2- LoIu Hkjs dksey&dksey gkFkksa dks vylkbZ dfy;ksa ij isQjrs gq, dfo
dfy;ksa dks izHkkr osQ vkus dk lans'k nsrk gS] mUgsa txkuk pkgrk gS vkSj
[kq'kh&[kq'kh vius thou osQ ve`r ls mUgsa lhapdj gjk&Hkjk djuk pkgrk
gSA iwQyksa&ikSèkksa osQ fy, vki D;k&D;k djuk pkgsaxs\
iz'u&vH;kl
èofu            3
3- dfo viuh dfork esa ,d dYiuk'khy dk;Z dh ckr crk jgk gSA vuqeku
dhft, vkSj fyf[k, fd mlosQ crk, dk;ks± dk vU; fdu&fdu lanHkks± ls
lacaèk tqM+ ldrk gS\ tSls uUgs&eqUus ckyd dks ek¡ txk jgh gks---A
Hkk"kk dh ckr
1- ^gjs&gjs*] ^iq"i&iq"i* esa ,d 'kCn dh ,d gh vFkZ esa iqujko`fÙk gqbZ gSA
dfork osQ ^gjs&gjs ;s ikr* okD;ka'k esa ^gjs&gjs* 'kCn ;qXe iÙkksa osQ fy,
fo'ks"k.k osQ :i esa iz;qDr gq, gSaA ;gk¡ ^ikr* 'kCn cgqopu esa iz;qDr gSA
,slk iz;ksx Hkh gksrk gS tc drkZ ;k fo'ks"; ,d opu esa gks vkSj deZ
;k fØ;k ;k fo'ks"k.k cgqopu esa_ tSlsµog yach&pkSM+h ckrsa djus yxkA
dfork esa ,d gh 'kCn dk ,d ls vfèkd vFkks± esa Hkh iz;ksx gksrk
gSµ¶rhu csj [kkrh rs os rhu csj [kkrh gSA¸ tks rhu ckj [kkrh Fkh og
rhu csj [kkus yxh gSA ,d 'kCn ^csj* dk nks vFkks± esa iz;ksx djus ls
okD; eas peRdkj vk x;kA bls ;ed vyadkj dgk tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh
mPpkj.k dh lekurk ls 'kCnksa dh iqujko`fÙk dk vkHkkl gksrk gS tcfd
nksuksa nks izdkj osQ 'kCn gksrs gSa_ tSlsµeu dk eudkA
,sls okD;ksa dks ,d=k dhft, ftuesa ,d gh 'kCn dh iqujko`fÙk gksA ,sls
iz;ksxksa dks è;ku ls nsf[k, vkSj fuEufyf[kr iqujko`r 'kCnksa dk okD; esa
iz;ksx dhft,µckrksa&ckrksa eas] jg&jgdj] yky&yky] lqcg&lqcg] jkrksa&jkr]
?kM+h&?kM+hA
2- ^dksey xkr] e`nqy olar] gjs&gjs ;s ikr*
fo'ks"k.k ftl laKk (;k loZuke) dh fo'ks"krk crkrk gS] mls fo'ks"; dgrs gSaA
mQij fn, x, okD;ka'kksa esa xkr] olar vkSj ikr 'kCn fo'ks"; gSa] D;ksafd budh
fo'ks"krk (fo'ks"k.k) ozQe'k% dksey] e`nqy vkSj gjs&gjs 'kCn crk jgs gSaA
fganh fo'ks"k.kksa ds lkekU;r;k pkj izdkj ekus x, gSaµxq.kokpd fo'ks"k.k]
ifjek.kokpd fo'ks"k.k] la[;kokpd fo'ks"k.k vkSj lkoZukfed fo'ks"k.kA
oqQN djus dks
1- olar ij vusd lqanj dfork,¡ gSaA oqQN dforkvkas dk ladyu rS;kj dhft,A
2- 'kCndks'k esa ^olar* 'kCn dk vFkZ nsf[k,A 'kCndks'k esa 'kCnksa osQ vFkks± osQ
4 olar Hkkx 3
vfrfjDr cgqr&lh vyx rjg dh tkudkfj;k¡ Hkh fey ldrh gSaA mUgsa
viuh dkWih esa fyf[k,A
'kCnkFkZ
e`nqy & dksey
ikr µ iÙkk
xkr µ 'kjhj
fufnzr µ lks;k gqvk
izR;w"k µ izkr%dky
ranzkyl µ uhan ls vylk;k gqvk
ykylk µ oqQN ikus dh pkg] vfHkyk"kk
bPNk
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