NCERT Textbook - पण्डिता रमाबाई Class 7 Notes | EduRev

Created by: Rohini Seth

Class 7 : NCERT Textbook - पण्डिता रमाबाई Class 7 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


i×pe% ikB%
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
L=khf'k{kk{ks=ks vxzx.;k if.Mrk jekckbZ 1858 res f[k
z
"VkCns
tUe vyHkrA rL;k% firk vuUr'kkL=kh Mksaxjs ekrk p
y{ehckbZ vkLrke~A rfLeu~ dkys L=khf'k{kk;k% fLFkfr%
fpUruh;k vklhr~A L=kh.kka Ñrs laLÑrf'k{k.ka izk;% izpfyra
uklhr~A fdUrq  Mksaxjs :f<c¼ka èkkj.kka ifjR;T; LoiRuha
LkaLÑreè;ki;r~A ,rnFk± l% lektL; izrkj.kke~ vfi
vlgrA vuUrja jek vfi Loekrq% laLÑrf'k{kka izkIrorhA
dkyØes.k jek;k% firk foiÂ% l×tkr%A rL;k% firjkS T;s"Bk Hkfxuh p
nqfHkZ{kihfMrk% fnoÄõrk%A rnuUrja jek Lo&T;s"BHkzk=kk lg in~H;ka lexza Hkkjre~
vHkzer~A Hkze.kØes lk dksydkrka izkIrkA laLÑroSnq";s.k lk r=k ^if.Mrk* ^ljLorh*
psfr mikfèkH;ka foHkwf"krkA r=kSo lk czãlektsu izHkkfork osnkè;;ue~ vdjksr~A
i'pkr~ lk L=kh.kka Ñrs osnknhuka 'kkL=kk.kka f'k{kk;S vkUnksyua izkjC/orhA
1880 res f[kz"VkCns lk fofiufcgkjhnklsu lg ckdhiqj&U;k;ky;s fookge~
vdjksr~A lk/SZdo"kkZr~ vuUrja rL;k% ifr% fnoÄõr%A
rnuUrja lk iq=;k euksje;k lg tUeHkwfea egkjk"Vªa izR;kxPNr~A ukjh.kka
lEekuk; f'k{kk;S p lk Lodh;a thoue~ vfiZrorhA g.Vj&f'k{kk&vk;ksxL;
le{ka  ukjhf'k{kkfo"k;s lk Loera izLrqrorhA lk mPpf'k{kkFkZe~ baXyS.Mns'ka xrorhA
r=k bZlkbZ/eZL; L=khfo"k;oSQ% mÙkefopkjS% izHkkfork tkrkA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 2


i×pe% ikB%
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
L=khf'k{kk{ks=ks vxzx.;k if.Mrk jekckbZ 1858 res f[k
z
"VkCns
tUe vyHkrA rL;k% firk vuUr'kkL=kh Mksaxjs ekrk p
y{ehckbZ vkLrke~A rfLeu~ dkys L=khf'k{kk;k% fLFkfr%
fpUruh;k vklhr~A L=kh.kka Ñrs laLÑrf'k{k.ka izk;% izpfyra
uklhr~A fdUrq  Mksaxjs :f<c¼ka èkkj.kka ifjR;T; LoiRuha
LkaLÑreè;ki;r~A ,rnFk± l% lektL; izrkj.kke~ vfi
vlgrA vuUrja jek vfi Loekrq% laLÑrf'k{kka izkIrorhA
dkyØes.k jek;k% firk foiÂ% l×tkr%A rL;k% firjkS T;s"Bk Hkfxuh p
nqfHkZ{kihfMrk% fnoÄõrk%A rnuUrja jek Lo&T;s"BHkzk=kk lg in~H;ka lexza Hkkjre~
vHkzer~A Hkze.kØes lk dksydkrka izkIrkA laLÑroSnq";s.k lk r=k ^if.Mrk* ^ljLorh*
psfr mikfèkH;ka foHkwf"krkA r=kSo lk czãlektsu izHkkfork osnkè;;ue~ vdjksr~A
i'pkr~ lk L=kh.kka Ñrs osnknhuka 'kkL=kk.kka f'k{kk;S vkUnksyua izkjC/orhA
1880 res f[kz"VkCns lk fofiufcgkjhnklsu lg ckdhiqj&U;k;ky;s fookge~
vdjksr~A lk/SZdo"kkZr~ vuUrja rL;k% ifr% fnoÄõr%A
rnuUrja lk iq=;k euksje;k lg tUeHkwfea egkjk"Vªa izR;kxPNr~A ukjh.kka
lEekuk; f'k{kk;S p lk Lodh;a thoue~ vfiZrorhA g.Vj&f'k{kk&vk;ksxL;
le{ka  ukjhf'k{kkfo"k;s lk Loera izLrqrorhA lk mPpf'k{kkFkZe~ baXyS.Mns'ka xrorhA
r=k bZlkbZ/eZL; L=khfo"k;oSQ% mÙkefopkjS% izHkkfork tkrkA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
#fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%
26
baXyS.Mns'kkr~ jekckbZ vejhdkns'ke~ vxPNr~A r=k lk HkkjrL; foèkokL=kh.kka
lgk;rkFkZe~ vFkZl×p;e~ vdjksr~A Hkkjra izR;kxR; eqEcbZuxjs lk ^'kkjnk&lnue~*
vLFkki;r~A vfLeu~ vkJes fuLlgk;k% fL=k;% fuolfUr LeA r=k fL=k;%
eqnz.k&VÄï.k& dk"Bdyknhuk×p
izf'k{k.kefi yHkUrs LeA ije~
bna lnua iq.ksuxjs LFkkukUrfjra
tkre~A rr% iq.ksuxjL; lehis
osQMxk¡o& LFkkus ^eqfDrfe'ku*
uke laLFkkua r;k LFkkfire~A
v=k v/quk vfi fujkfJrk%
fL=k;% llEekua thoua
;ki;fUrA
1922 res f[kz"VkCns jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% fu/ue~ vHkor~A lk ns'k&fons'kkuke~
vusdklq Hkk"kklq fuiq.kk vklhr~A lektlsok;k% vfrfjDra ys[ku{ks=ks vfi rL;k%
egÙoiw.kZe~ vonkue~ vfLrA ^L=kh/eZuhfr* ^gkbZ dkLV fgUnw foesu* bfr rL;k%
izfl¼a jpuk};a orZrsA
ifjR;T; & NksM+dj giving up
vè;ki;r~ & i<+k;k taught
izrkj.kke~ & rkM+uk torture
vlgr & lgu fd;k endured
'kCnkFkkZ%
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 3


i×pe% ikB%
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
L=khf'k{kk{ks=ks vxzx.;k if.Mrk jekckbZ 1858 res f[k
z
"VkCns
tUe vyHkrA rL;k% firk vuUr'kkL=kh Mksaxjs ekrk p
y{ehckbZ vkLrke~A rfLeu~ dkys L=khf'k{kk;k% fLFkfr%
fpUruh;k vklhr~A L=kh.kka Ñrs laLÑrf'k{k.ka izk;% izpfyra
uklhr~A fdUrq  Mksaxjs :f<c¼ka èkkj.kka ifjR;T; LoiRuha
LkaLÑreè;ki;r~A ,rnFk± l% lektL; izrkj.kke~ vfi
vlgrA vuUrja jek vfi Loekrq% laLÑrf'k{kka izkIrorhA
dkyØes.k jek;k% firk foiÂ% l×tkr%A rL;k% firjkS T;s"Bk Hkfxuh p
nqfHkZ{kihfMrk% fnoÄõrk%A rnuUrja jek Lo&T;s"BHkzk=kk lg in~H;ka lexza Hkkjre~
vHkzer~A Hkze.kØes lk dksydkrka izkIrkA laLÑroSnq";s.k lk r=k ^if.Mrk* ^ljLorh*
psfr mikfèkH;ka foHkwf"krkA r=kSo lk czãlektsu izHkkfork osnkè;;ue~ vdjksr~A
i'pkr~ lk L=kh.kka Ñrs osnknhuka 'kkL=kk.kka f'k{kk;S vkUnksyua izkjC/orhA
1880 res f[kz"VkCns lk fofiufcgkjhnklsu lg ckdhiqj&U;k;ky;s fookge~
vdjksr~A lk/SZdo"kkZr~ vuUrja rL;k% ifr% fnoÄõr%A
rnuUrja lk iq=;k euksje;k lg tUeHkwfea egkjk"Vªa izR;kxPNr~A ukjh.kka
lEekuk; f'k{kk;S p lk Lodh;a thoue~ vfiZrorhA g.Vj&f'k{kk&vk;ksxL;
le{ka  ukjhf'k{kkfo"k;s lk Loera izLrqrorhA lk mPpf'k{kkFkZe~ baXyS.Mns'ka xrorhA
r=k bZlkbZ/eZL; L=khfo"k;oSQ% mÙkefopkjS% izHkkfork tkrkA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
#fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%
26
baXyS.Mns'kkr~ jekckbZ vejhdkns'ke~ vxPNr~A r=k lk HkkjrL; foèkokL=kh.kka
lgk;rkFkZe~ vFkZl×p;e~ vdjksr~A Hkkjra izR;kxR; eqEcbZuxjs lk ^'kkjnk&lnue~*
vLFkki;r~A vfLeu~ vkJes fuLlgk;k% fL=k;% fuolfUr LeA r=k fL=k;%
eqnz.k&VÄï.k& dk"Bdyknhuk×p
izf'k{k.kefi yHkUrs LeA ije~
bna lnua iq.ksuxjs LFkkukUrfjra
tkre~A rr% iq.ksuxjL; lehis
osQMxk¡o& LFkkus ^eqfDrfe'ku*
uke laLFkkua r;k LFkkfire~A
v=k v/quk vfi fujkfJrk%
fL=k;% llEekua thoua
;ki;fUrA
1922 res f[kz"VkCns jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% fu/ue~ vHkor~A lk ns'k&fons'kkuke~
vusdklq Hkk"kklq fuiq.kk vklhr~A lektlsok;k% vfrfjDra ys[ku{ks=ks vfi rL;k%
egÙoiw.kZe~ vonkue~ vfLrA ^L=kh/eZuhfr* ^gkbZ dkLV fgUnw foesu* bfr rL;k%
izfl¼a jpuk};a orZrsA
ifjR;T; & NksM+dj giving up
vè;ki;r~ & i<+k;k taught
izrkj.kke~ & rkM+uk torture
vlgr & lgu fd;k endured
'kCnkFkkZ%
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
if.Mrk jekckbZ
27
Loekrq% & viuh ekrk ls from her own mother
foiÂ% & fu/Zu poor
nqfHkZ{kihfMrk% & vdky ihfM+r victims of famine
fnoÄõrk% & e`R;q dks izkIr gks x, died
mikf/H;ke~ & mikf/;ksa ls with honourary titles
izkjC/orh & vkjEHk fd;k initiated
lk/SZdo"kkZr~ & Ms<+ o"kZ one and half year
izR;kxPNr~ & ykSV vkbZ returned
(izfr$vkxPNr~)
vFkZl×p;e~ & /u l×p; accumulation of wealth
izR;kxR; & ykSVdj returning
(izfr$vkxR;)
eqnz.ke~ & NikbZ printing
VÄï.ke~ & VÄï.k typing
fujkfJrk% & cslgkjk helpless
(fuj~$vkfJrk%)
;ki;fUr & fcrkrs@fcrkrh gSa spend
vonkue~ & ;ksxnku contribution
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 4


i×pe% ikB%
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
L=khf'k{kk{ks=ks vxzx.;k if.Mrk jekckbZ 1858 res f[k
z
"VkCns
tUe vyHkrA rL;k% firk vuUr'kkL=kh Mksaxjs ekrk p
y{ehckbZ vkLrke~A rfLeu~ dkys L=khf'k{kk;k% fLFkfr%
fpUruh;k vklhr~A L=kh.kka Ñrs laLÑrf'k{k.ka izk;% izpfyra
uklhr~A fdUrq  Mksaxjs :f<c¼ka èkkj.kka ifjR;T; LoiRuha
LkaLÑreè;ki;r~A ,rnFk± l% lektL; izrkj.kke~ vfi
vlgrA vuUrja jek vfi Loekrq% laLÑrf'k{kka izkIrorhA
dkyØes.k jek;k% firk foiÂ% l×tkr%A rL;k% firjkS T;s"Bk Hkfxuh p
nqfHkZ{kihfMrk% fnoÄõrk%A rnuUrja jek Lo&T;s"BHkzk=kk lg in~H;ka lexza Hkkjre~
vHkzer~A Hkze.kØes lk dksydkrka izkIrkA laLÑroSnq";s.k lk r=k ^if.Mrk* ^ljLorh*
psfr mikfèkH;ka foHkwf"krkA r=kSo lk czãlektsu izHkkfork osnkè;;ue~ vdjksr~A
i'pkr~ lk L=kh.kka Ñrs osnknhuka 'kkL=kk.kka f'k{kk;S vkUnksyua izkjC/orhA
1880 res f[kz"VkCns lk fofiufcgkjhnklsu lg ckdhiqj&U;k;ky;s fookge~
vdjksr~A lk/SZdo"kkZr~ vuUrja rL;k% ifr% fnoÄõr%A
rnuUrja lk iq=;k euksje;k lg tUeHkwfea egkjk"Vªa izR;kxPNr~A ukjh.kka
lEekuk; f'k{kk;S p lk Lodh;a thoue~ vfiZrorhA g.Vj&f'k{kk&vk;ksxL;
le{ka  ukjhf'k{kkfo"k;s lk Loera izLrqrorhA lk mPpf'k{kkFkZe~ baXyS.Mns'ka xrorhA
r=k bZlkbZ/eZL; L=khfo"k;oSQ% mÙkefopkjS% izHkkfork tkrkA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
#fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%
26
baXyS.Mns'kkr~ jekckbZ vejhdkns'ke~ vxPNr~A r=k lk HkkjrL; foèkokL=kh.kka
lgk;rkFkZe~ vFkZl×p;e~ vdjksr~A Hkkjra izR;kxR; eqEcbZuxjs lk ^'kkjnk&lnue~*
vLFkki;r~A vfLeu~ vkJes fuLlgk;k% fL=k;% fuolfUr LeA r=k fL=k;%
eqnz.k&VÄï.k& dk"Bdyknhuk×p
izf'k{k.kefi yHkUrs LeA ije~
bna lnua iq.ksuxjs LFkkukUrfjra
tkre~A rr% iq.ksuxjL; lehis
osQMxk¡o& LFkkus ^eqfDrfe'ku*
uke laLFkkua r;k LFkkfire~A
v=k v/quk vfi fujkfJrk%
fL=k;% llEekua thoua
;ki;fUrA
1922 res f[kz"VkCns jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% fu/ue~ vHkor~A lk ns'k&fons'kkuke~
vusdklq Hkk"kklq fuiq.kk vklhr~A lektlsok;k% vfrfjDra ys[ku{ks=ks vfi rL;k%
egÙoiw.kZe~ vonkue~ vfLrA ^L=kh/eZuhfr* ^gkbZ dkLV fgUnw foesu* bfr rL;k%
izfl¼a jpuk};a orZrsA
ifjR;T; & NksM+dj giving up
vè;ki;r~ & i<+k;k taught
izrkj.kke~ & rkM+uk torture
vlgr & lgu fd;k endured
'kCnkFkkZ%
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
if.Mrk jekckbZ
27
Loekrq% & viuh ekrk ls from her own mother
foiÂ% & fu/Zu poor
nqfHkZ{kihfMrk% & vdky ihfM+r victims of famine
fnoÄõrk% & e`R;q dks izkIr gks x, died
mikf/H;ke~ & mikf/;ksa ls with honourary titles
izkjC/orh & vkjEHk fd;k initiated
lk/SZdo"kkZr~ & Ms<+ o"kZ one and half year
izR;kxPNr~ & ykSV vkbZ returned
(izfr$vkxPNr~)
vFkZl×p;e~ & /u l×p; accumulation of wealth
izR;kxR; & ykSVdj returning
(izfr$vkxR;)
eqnz.ke~ & NikbZ printing
VÄï.ke~ & VÄï.k typing
fujkfJrk% & cslgkjk helpless
(fuj~$vkfJrk%)
;ki;fUr & fcrkrs@fcrkrh gSa spend
vonkue~ & ;ksxnku contribution
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
#fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%
28
1- ,dinsu mÙkjr&
(d) ^if.Mrk* ^ljLorh* bfr mikf/H;ka dk foHkwf"krk\
([k) jek oqQr% laLÑrf'k{kka izkIrorh\
(x) jekckbZ osQu lg fookge~ vdjksr~\
(?k) dklka f'k{kk;S jekckbZ Lodh;a thoue~ vfiZrorh\
(Ä) jekckbZ mPpf'k{kkFk± oqQ=k vxPNr~\
2- js[kkfÄïrinkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
(d) jek;k% firk lektL; izrkj.kke~ vlgrA
([k) iR;q% ej.kkuUrja jekckbZ egkjk"Vªa izR;kxPNr~A
(x) jekckbZ eqEcbZuxjs ^'kkjnk&lnue~* vLFkki;r~A
(?k) 1922 res f–"VkCns jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% fu/ue~ vHkor~A
(Ä) fL=k;% f'k{kka yHkUrs LeA
3- iz'ukukeqÙkjkf.k fy[kr&
(d) jekckbZ fdeFkZe~ vkUnksyua izkjC/orh\
([k) fu%lgk;k% fL=k;% vkJes ¯d ¯d yHkUrs Le\
(x) dfLeu~ fo"k;s jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% ;ksxnkue~ vfLr\
(?k) osQu jpuk};su jekckbZ iz'kaflrk orZrs\
vH;kl%
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 5


i×pe% ikB%
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ if.Mrk jekckbZ
L=khf'k{kk{ks=ks vxzx.;k if.Mrk jekckbZ 1858 res f[k
z
"VkCns
tUe vyHkrA rL;k% firk vuUr'kkL=kh Mksaxjs ekrk p
y{ehckbZ vkLrke~A rfLeu~ dkys L=khf'k{kk;k% fLFkfr%
fpUruh;k vklhr~A L=kh.kka Ñrs laLÑrf'k{k.ka izk;% izpfyra
uklhr~A fdUrq  Mksaxjs :f<c¼ka èkkj.kka ifjR;T; LoiRuha
LkaLÑreè;ki;r~A ,rnFk± l% lektL; izrkj.kke~ vfi
vlgrA vuUrja jek vfi Loekrq% laLÑrf'k{kka izkIrorhA
dkyØes.k jek;k% firk foiÂ% l×tkr%A rL;k% firjkS T;s"Bk Hkfxuh p
nqfHkZ{kihfMrk% fnoÄõrk%A rnuUrja jek Lo&T;s"BHkzk=kk lg in~H;ka lexza Hkkjre~
vHkzer~A Hkze.kØes lk dksydkrka izkIrkA laLÑroSnq";s.k lk r=k ^if.Mrk* ^ljLorh*
psfr mikfèkH;ka foHkwf"krkA r=kSo lk czãlektsu izHkkfork osnkè;;ue~ vdjksr~A
i'pkr~ lk L=kh.kka Ñrs osnknhuka 'kkL=kk.kka f'k{kk;S vkUnksyua izkjC/orhA
1880 res f[kz"VkCns lk fofiufcgkjhnklsu lg ckdhiqj&U;k;ky;s fookge~
vdjksr~A lk/SZdo"kkZr~ vuUrja rL;k% ifr% fnoÄõr%A
rnuUrja lk iq=;k euksje;k lg tUeHkwfea egkjk"Vªa izR;kxPNr~A ukjh.kka
lEekuk; f'k{kk;S p lk Lodh;a thoue~ vfiZrorhA g.Vj&f'k{kk&vk;ksxL;
le{ka  ukjhf'k{kkfo"k;s lk Loera izLrqrorhA lk mPpf'k{kkFkZe~ baXyS.Mns'ka xrorhA
r=k bZlkbZ/eZL; L=khfo"k;oSQ% mÙkefopkjS% izHkkfork tkrkA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
#fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%
26
baXyS.Mns'kkr~ jekckbZ vejhdkns'ke~ vxPNr~A r=k lk HkkjrL; foèkokL=kh.kka
lgk;rkFkZe~ vFkZl×p;e~ vdjksr~A Hkkjra izR;kxR; eqEcbZuxjs lk ^'kkjnk&lnue~*
vLFkki;r~A vfLeu~ vkJes fuLlgk;k% fL=k;% fuolfUr LeA r=k fL=k;%
eqnz.k&VÄï.k& dk"Bdyknhuk×p
izf'k{k.kefi yHkUrs LeA ije~
bna lnua iq.ksuxjs LFkkukUrfjra
tkre~A rr% iq.ksuxjL; lehis
osQMxk¡o& LFkkus ^eqfDrfe'ku*
uke laLFkkua r;k LFkkfire~A
v=k v/quk vfi fujkfJrk%
fL=k;% llEekua thoua
;ki;fUrA
1922 res f[kz"VkCns jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% fu/ue~ vHkor~A lk ns'k&fons'kkuke~
vusdklq Hkk"kklq fuiq.kk vklhr~A lektlsok;k% vfrfjDra ys[ku{ks=ks vfi rL;k%
egÙoiw.kZe~ vonkue~ vfLrA ^L=kh/eZuhfr* ^gkbZ dkLV fgUnw foesu* bfr rL;k%
izfl¼a jpuk};a orZrsA
ifjR;T; & NksM+dj giving up
vè;ki;r~ & i<+k;k taught
izrkj.kke~ & rkM+uk torture
vlgr & lgu fd;k endured
'kCnkFkkZ%
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
if.Mrk jekckbZ
27
Loekrq% & viuh ekrk ls from her own mother
foiÂ% & fu/Zu poor
nqfHkZ{kihfMrk% & vdky ihfM+r victims of famine
fnoÄõrk% & e`R;q dks izkIr gks x, died
mikf/H;ke~ & mikf/;ksa ls with honourary titles
izkjC/orh & vkjEHk fd;k initiated
lk/SZdo"kkZr~ & Ms<+ o"kZ one and half year
izR;kxPNr~ & ykSV vkbZ returned
(izfr$vkxPNr~)
vFkZl×p;e~ & /u l×p; accumulation of wealth
izR;kxR; & ykSVdj returning
(izfr$vkxR;)
eqnz.ke~ & NikbZ printing
VÄï.ke~ & VÄï.k typing
fujkfJrk% & cslgkjk helpless
(fuj~$vkfJrk%)
;ki;fUr & fcrkrs@fcrkrh gSa spend
vonkue~ & ;ksxnku contribution
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
#fpjk & f}rh;ks Hkkx%
28
1- ,dinsu mÙkjr&
(d) ^if.Mrk* ^ljLorh* bfr mikf/H;ka dk foHkwf"krk\
([k) jek oqQr% laLÑrf'k{kka izkIrorh\
(x) jekckbZ osQu lg fookge~ vdjksr~\
(?k) dklka f'k{kk;S jekckbZ Lodh;a thoue~ vfiZrorh\
(Ä) jekckbZ mPpf'k{kkFk± oqQ=k vxPNr~\
2- js[kkfÄïrinkfu vk/`R; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r&
(d) jek;k% firk lektL; izrkj.kke~ vlgrA
([k) iR;q% ej.kkuUrja jekckbZ egkjk"Vªa izR;kxPNr~A
(x) jekckbZ eqEcbZuxjs ^'kkjnk&lnue~* vLFkki;r~A
(?k) 1922 res f–"VkCns jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% fu/ue~ vHkor~A
(Ä) fL=k;% f'k{kka yHkUrs LeA
3- iz'ukukeqÙkjkf.k fy[kr&
(d) jekckbZ fdeFkZe~ vkUnksyua izkjC/orh\
([k) fu%lgk;k% fL=k;% vkJes ¯d ¯d yHkUrs Le\
(x) dfLeu~ fo"k;s jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% ;ksxnkue~ vfLr\
(?k) osQu jpuk};su jekckbZ iz'kaflrk orZrs\
vH;kl%
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
if.Mrk jekckbZ
29
4- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka funsZ'kkuqlkja inifjp;a fy[kr&
inkfu ewy'kCn% fyÄõe~ foHkfDr% opue~
;Fkk& osnkuke~ osn iq¡fYyÄõe~ "k"Bh cgqopue~
firk
---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
f'k{kk;S
---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
dU;k%
---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
ukjh.kke~
---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
euksje;k
---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
5- v/ksfyf[krkuka /krwuka ydkja iq#"ka opu×p fy[kr&
/krq% ydkj% iq#"k% opue~
   ;Fkk&vklhr~ vl~ yÄ~ izFkeiq#"k% ,dopue~
oqQoZfUr
---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
vkxPNr~
---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
fuolfUr
---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
xfe";fr
---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
vdjksr~
---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
6- v/ksfyf[krkfu okD;kfu ?kVukØekuqlkja fy[kr&
(d) jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% fofiufcgkjhnklsu lg fookg% vHkor~A
([k) 1858 res f–"VkCns jekckbZ tUe vyHkrA
(x) lk mPpf'k{kkFkZe~ baXyS.Mns'ka xrorhA
(?k) 1922 res f–"VkCnsss jekckbZ&egksn;k;k% fu/ue~ vHkor~A
(Ä) lk eqEcbZuxjs 'kkjnk&lnue~ vLFkki;r~A
(p) lk Loekrq% laLÑrf'k{kka izkIrorhA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
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