NCERT Textbook: पाठ 12 - संसार पुस्तक है, हिंदी, कक्षा - 6 Class 6 Notes | EduRev

Hindi (Vasant) Class 6

Class 6 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 12 - संसार पुस्तक है, हिंदी, कक्षा - 6 Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


lalkj iqLrd gS 87
lalkj iqLrd gS
tc rqe esjs lkFk jgrh gks rks vdlj eq>ls cgqr&lh ckrsa iwNk djrh gks vkSj eSa mudk
tokc nsus dh dksf'k'k djrk gw¡A ysfdu vc] tc rqe elwjh esa gks vkSj eSa bykgkckn
eas] ge nksuksa ml rjg ckrphr ugha dj ldrsA blfy, eSaus bjknk
fd;k gS fd dHkh&dHkh rqEgsa bl nqfu;k dh vkSj mu NksVs&cM+s
ns'kksa dh tks bl nqfu;k esa gSa] NksVh&NksVh dFkk,¡ fy[kk d:¡A
rqeus ¯gnqLrku vkSj baXySaM dk oqQN gky bfrgkl esa i<+k gSA
ysfdu baXySaM osQoy ,d NksVk&lk Vkiw gS vkSj ¯gnqLrku]
tks ,d cgqr cM+k ns'k gS] fiQj Hkh nqfu;k dk ,d
NksVk&lk fgLlk gSA vxj rqEgsa bl nqfu;k dk
oqQN gky tkuus dk 'kkSd gS] rks rqEgsa lc
ns'kksa dk vkSj mu lc tkfr;ksa dk
tks blesa clh gqbZ gSa] è;ku j[kuk
iM+sxk] osQoy ml ,d NksVs&ls
ns'k dk ugha ftlesa rqe iSnk
gqbZ gksA
eq>s ekywe gS fd bu
NksVs&NksVs [krksa esa cgqr FkksM+h&lh
ckrsa gh cryk ldrk gw¡A
12
2020-21
Page 2


lalkj iqLrd gS 87
lalkj iqLrd gS
tc rqe esjs lkFk jgrh gks rks vdlj eq>ls cgqr&lh ckrsa iwNk djrh gks vkSj eSa mudk
tokc nsus dh dksf'k'k djrk gw¡A ysfdu vc] tc rqe elwjh esa gks vkSj eSa bykgkckn
eas] ge nksuksa ml rjg ckrphr ugha dj ldrsA blfy, eSaus bjknk
fd;k gS fd dHkh&dHkh rqEgsa bl nqfu;k dh vkSj mu NksVs&cM+s
ns'kksa dh tks bl nqfu;k esa gSa] NksVh&NksVh dFkk,¡ fy[kk d:¡A
rqeus ¯gnqLrku vkSj baXySaM dk oqQN gky bfrgkl esa i<+k gSA
ysfdu baXySaM osQoy ,d NksVk&lk Vkiw gS vkSj ¯gnqLrku]
tks ,d cgqr cM+k ns'k gS] fiQj Hkh nqfu;k dk ,d
NksVk&lk fgLlk gSA vxj rqEgsa bl nqfu;k dk
oqQN gky tkuus dk 'kkSd gS] rks rqEgsa lc
ns'kksa dk vkSj mu lc tkfr;ksa dk
tks blesa clh gqbZ gSa] è;ku j[kuk
iM+sxk] osQoy ml ,d NksVs&ls
ns'k dk ugha ftlesa rqe iSnk
gqbZ gksA
eq>s ekywe gS fd bu
NksVs&NksVs [krksa esa cgqr FkksM+h&lh
ckrsa gh cryk ldrk gw¡A
12
2020-21
88 oLkar
ysfdu eq>s vk'kk gS fd bu FkksM+h&lh ckrksa dks Hkh rqe 'kkSd ls i<+ksxh vkSj le>ksxh
fd nqfu;k ,d gS vkSj nwljs yksx tks blesa vkckn gSa gekjs HkkbZ&cgu gSaA tc rqe cM+h
gks tkvksxh rks rqe nqfu;k vkSj mlosQ vknfe;ksa dk gky eksVh&eksVh fdrkcksa esa i<+ksxhA
mlesa rqEgsa ftruk vkuan feysxk] mruk fdlh dgkuh ;k miU;kl esa Hkh u feyk gksxkA
;g rks rqe tkurh gh gks fd ;g èkjrh yk[kksa&djksM+ksa o"kZ iqjkuh gS vkSj cgqr fnuksa
rd blesa dksbZ vkneh u FkkA vknfe;ksa ls igys flI
+
kZQ tkuoj Fks vkSj tkuojksa ls igys
,d ,slk le; Fkk tc bl èkjrh ij dksbZ tkunkj ph”k u FkhA vkt tc ;g nqfu;k
gj rjg osQ tkuojksa vkSj vknfe;ksa ls Hkjh gqbZ gS] ml ”kekus dk [k;ky djuk Hkh
eqf'dy gS] tc ;gk¡ oqQN u FkkA ysfdu foKku tkuusokyksa vkSj fo}kuksa us] ftUgksaus bl
fo"k; dks [kwc lkspk vkSj i<+k gS] fy[kk gS fd ,d le; ,slk Fkk tc ;g èkjrh csgn
xje Fkh vkSj bl ij dksbZ tkunkj ph”k ugha jg ldrh FkhA vkSj vxj ge mudh
fdrkcsa i<+sa vkSj igkM+ksa vkSj tkuojksa dh iqjkuh gfì;ksa dks xkSj ls ns[ksa rks gesa [kqn ekywe
gksxk fd ,slk le; ”k:j jgk gksxkA
rqe bfrgkl dh fdrkcksa esa gh i<+ ldrh gksA ysfdu iqjkus ”kekus esa rks vkneh iSnk
gh u gqvk Fkk] fdrkcsa dkSu fy[krk\ rc gesa ml ”kekus dh ckrsa oSQls ekywe gksa\ ;g
rks ugha gks ldrk fd ge cSBs&cSBs gj ,d ckr lksp fudkysaA ;g cM+s e”ks dh ckr
gksrh] D;ksafd ge tks ph”k pkgrs lksp ysrs vkSj lqanj ifj;ksa dh dgkfu;k¡ x<+ ysrsA
ysfdu tks dgkuh fdlh ckr dks ns[ks fcuk gh x<+ yh tk, og Bhd oSQls gks ldrh
gS\ ysfdu [kq'kh dh ckr gS fd ml iqjkus ”kekus dh fy[kh gqbZ fdrkcsa u gksus ij Hkh
oqQN ,slh ph”ksa gSa] ftuls gesa mruh gh ckrsa ekywe gksrh gSa ftruh fdlh fdrkc ls
gksrhaA ;s igkM+] leqnz] flrkjs] ufn;k¡] taxy] tkuojksa dh iqjkuh gfì;k¡ vkSj blh rjg
dh vkSj Hkh fdruh gh ph”ksa gSa] ftuls gesa nqfu;k dk iqjkuk gky ekywe gks ldrk gSA
exj gky tkuus dk vlyh rjhdk ;g ugha gS fd ge osQoy nwljksa dh fy[kh gqbZ
fdrkcsa i<+ ysa] cfYd [kqn lalkj&:ih iqLrd dks i<+saA eq>s vk'kk gS fd iRFkjksa vkSj
igkM+ksa dks i<+dj rqe FkksM+s gh fnuksa esa mudk gky tkuuk lh[k tkvksxhA lkspks] fdruh
e”ks dh ckr gSA ,d NksVk&lk jksM+k ftls rqe lM+d ij ;k igkM+ osQ uhps iM+k gqvk
ns[krh gks] 'kk;n lalkj dh iqLrd dk NksVk&lk i`"B gks] 'kk;n mlls rqEgsa dksbZ u;h
ckr ekywe gks tk,A 'krZ ;gh gS fd rqEgsa mls i<+uk vkrk gksA
2020-21
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lalkj iqLrd gS 87
lalkj iqLrd gS
tc rqe esjs lkFk jgrh gks rks vdlj eq>ls cgqr&lh ckrsa iwNk djrh gks vkSj eSa mudk
tokc nsus dh dksf'k'k djrk gw¡A ysfdu vc] tc rqe elwjh esa gks vkSj eSa bykgkckn
eas] ge nksuksa ml rjg ckrphr ugha dj ldrsA blfy, eSaus bjknk
fd;k gS fd dHkh&dHkh rqEgsa bl nqfu;k dh vkSj mu NksVs&cM+s
ns'kksa dh tks bl nqfu;k esa gSa] NksVh&NksVh dFkk,¡ fy[kk d:¡A
rqeus ¯gnqLrku vkSj baXySaM dk oqQN gky bfrgkl esa i<+k gSA
ysfdu baXySaM osQoy ,d NksVk&lk Vkiw gS vkSj ¯gnqLrku]
tks ,d cgqr cM+k ns'k gS] fiQj Hkh nqfu;k dk ,d
NksVk&lk fgLlk gSA vxj rqEgsa bl nqfu;k dk
oqQN gky tkuus dk 'kkSd gS] rks rqEgsa lc
ns'kksa dk vkSj mu lc tkfr;ksa dk
tks blesa clh gqbZ gSa] è;ku j[kuk
iM+sxk] osQoy ml ,d NksVs&ls
ns'k dk ugha ftlesa rqe iSnk
gqbZ gksA
eq>s ekywe gS fd bu
NksVs&NksVs [krksa esa cgqr FkksM+h&lh
ckrsa gh cryk ldrk gw¡A
12
2020-21
88 oLkar
ysfdu eq>s vk'kk gS fd bu FkksM+h&lh ckrksa dks Hkh rqe 'kkSd ls i<+ksxh vkSj le>ksxh
fd nqfu;k ,d gS vkSj nwljs yksx tks blesa vkckn gSa gekjs HkkbZ&cgu gSaA tc rqe cM+h
gks tkvksxh rks rqe nqfu;k vkSj mlosQ vknfe;ksa dk gky eksVh&eksVh fdrkcksa esa i<+ksxhA
mlesa rqEgsa ftruk vkuan feysxk] mruk fdlh dgkuh ;k miU;kl esa Hkh u feyk gksxkA
;g rks rqe tkurh gh gks fd ;g èkjrh yk[kksa&djksM+ksa o"kZ iqjkuh gS vkSj cgqr fnuksa
rd blesa dksbZ vkneh u FkkA vknfe;ksa ls igys flI
+
kZQ tkuoj Fks vkSj tkuojksa ls igys
,d ,slk le; Fkk tc bl èkjrh ij dksbZ tkunkj ph”k u FkhA vkt tc ;g nqfu;k
gj rjg osQ tkuojksa vkSj vknfe;ksa ls Hkjh gqbZ gS] ml ”kekus dk [k;ky djuk Hkh
eqf'dy gS] tc ;gk¡ oqQN u FkkA ysfdu foKku tkuusokyksa vkSj fo}kuksa us] ftUgksaus bl
fo"k; dks [kwc lkspk vkSj i<+k gS] fy[kk gS fd ,d le; ,slk Fkk tc ;g èkjrh csgn
xje Fkh vkSj bl ij dksbZ tkunkj ph”k ugha jg ldrh FkhA vkSj vxj ge mudh
fdrkcsa i<+sa vkSj igkM+ksa vkSj tkuojksa dh iqjkuh gfì;ksa dks xkSj ls ns[ksa rks gesa [kqn ekywe
gksxk fd ,slk le; ”k:j jgk gksxkA
rqe bfrgkl dh fdrkcksa esa gh i<+ ldrh gksA ysfdu iqjkus ”kekus esa rks vkneh iSnk
gh u gqvk Fkk] fdrkcsa dkSu fy[krk\ rc gesa ml ”kekus dh ckrsa oSQls ekywe gksa\ ;g
rks ugha gks ldrk fd ge cSBs&cSBs gj ,d ckr lksp fudkysaA ;g cM+s e”ks dh ckr
gksrh] D;ksafd ge tks ph”k pkgrs lksp ysrs vkSj lqanj ifj;ksa dh dgkfu;k¡ x<+ ysrsA
ysfdu tks dgkuh fdlh ckr dks ns[ks fcuk gh x<+ yh tk, og Bhd oSQls gks ldrh
gS\ ysfdu [kq'kh dh ckr gS fd ml iqjkus ”kekus dh fy[kh gqbZ fdrkcsa u gksus ij Hkh
oqQN ,slh ph”ksa gSa] ftuls gesa mruh gh ckrsa ekywe gksrh gSa ftruh fdlh fdrkc ls
gksrhaA ;s igkM+] leqnz] flrkjs] ufn;k¡] taxy] tkuojksa dh iqjkuh gfì;k¡ vkSj blh rjg
dh vkSj Hkh fdruh gh ph”ksa gSa] ftuls gesa nqfu;k dk iqjkuk gky ekywe gks ldrk gSA
exj gky tkuus dk vlyh rjhdk ;g ugha gS fd ge osQoy nwljksa dh fy[kh gqbZ
fdrkcsa i<+ ysa] cfYd [kqn lalkj&:ih iqLrd dks i<+saA eq>s vk'kk gS fd iRFkjksa vkSj
igkM+ksa dks i<+dj rqe FkksM+s gh fnuksa esa mudk gky tkuuk lh[k tkvksxhA lkspks] fdruh
e”ks dh ckr gSA ,d NksVk&lk jksM+k ftls rqe lM+d ij ;k igkM+ osQ uhps iM+k gqvk
ns[krh gks] 'kk;n lalkj dh iqLrd dk NksVk&lk i`"B gks] 'kk;n mlls rqEgsa dksbZ u;h
ckr ekywe gks tk,A 'krZ ;gh gS fd rqEgsa mls i<+uk vkrk gksA
2020-21
lalkj iqLrd gS 89
dksbZ ”kcku] mnwZ] ¯gnh ;k vaxzs”kh] lh[kus osQ fy, rqEgsa mlosQ v{kj lh[kus gksrs gSaA
blh rjg igys rqEgsa izÑfr osQ v{kj i<+us iM+saxs] rHkh rqe mldh dgkuh mlosQ iRFkjksa
vkSj pêkuksa dh fdrkc ls i<+ ldksxhA 'kk;n vc Hkh rqe mls FkksM+k&FkksM+k i<+uk
tkurh gksA tc rqe dksbZ NksVk&lk xksy pedhyk jksM+k ns[krh gks] rks D;k og rqEgsa oqQN
ugha crykrk\ ;g oSQls xksy] fpduk vkSj pedhyk gks x;k vkSj mlosQ [kqjnjs fdukjs
;k dksus D;k gq,\ vxj rqe fdlh cM+h pêku dks rksM+dj VqdM+s&VqdM+s dj Mkyks rks
gj ,d VqdM+k [kqjnjk vkSj uksdhyk gksxkA ;g xksy fpdus jksM+s dh rjg fcyoqQy ugha
gksrkA fiQj ;g jksM+k oSQls bruk pedhyk] fpduk vkSj xksy gks x;k\ vxj rqEgkjh
vk¡[ksa ns[ksa vkSj dku lqusa rks rqe mlh osQ eq¡g ls mldh dgkuh lqu ldrh gksA og rqels
dgsxk fd ,d le;] ftls 'kk;n cgqr fnu xq”kjs gksa] og Hkh ,d pêku dk VqdM+k
FkkA Bhd mlh VqdM+s dh rjg] mlesa fdukjs vkSj dksus Fks] ftls rqe cM+h pêku ls
rksM+rh gksA 'kk;n og fdlh igkM+ osQ nkeu esa iM+k jgkA rc ikuh vk;k vkSj mls
cgkdj NksVh ?kkVh rd ys x;kA ogk¡ ls ,d igkM+h ukys us <osQydj mls ,d NksVs&ls
nfj;k esa igq¡pk fn;kA bl NksVs&ls nfj;k ls og cM+s nfj;k esa igq¡pkA bl chp og nfj;k
osQ isans esa yq<+drk jgk] mlosQ  fdukjs f?kl x, vkSj og fpduk vkSj pednkj gks x;kA
bl rjg og OkaQdM+ cuk tks rqEgkjs lkeus gSA fdlh otg ls nfj;k mls NksM+ x;k vkSj
2020-21
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lalkj iqLrd gS 87
lalkj iqLrd gS
tc rqe esjs lkFk jgrh gks rks vdlj eq>ls cgqr&lh ckrsa iwNk djrh gks vkSj eSa mudk
tokc nsus dh dksf'k'k djrk gw¡A ysfdu vc] tc rqe elwjh esa gks vkSj eSa bykgkckn
eas] ge nksuksa ml rjg ckrphr ugha dj ldrsA blfy, eSaus bjknk
fd;k gS fd dHkh&dHkh rqEgsa bl nqfu;k dh vkSj mu NksVs&cM+s
ns'kksa dh tks bl nqfu;k esa gSa] NksVh&NksVh dFkk,¡ fy[kk d:¡A
rqeus ¯gnqLrku vkSj baXySaM dk oqQN gky bfrgkl esa i<+k gSA
ysfdu baXySaM osQoy ,d NksVk&lk Vkiw gS vkSj ¯gnqLrku]
tks ,d cgqr cM+k ns'k gS] fiQj Hkh nqfu;k dk ,d
NksVk&lk fgLlk gSA vxj rqEgsa bl nqfu;k dk
oqQN gky tkuus dk 'kkSd gS] rks rqEgsa lc
ns'kksa dk vkSj mu lc tkfr;ksa dk
tks blesa clh gqbZ gSa] è;ku j[kuk
iM+sxk] osQoy ml ,d NksVs&ls
ns'k dk ugha ftlesa rqe iSnk
gqbZ gksA
eq>s ekywe gS fd bu
NksVs&NksVs [krksa esa cgqr FkksM+h&lh
ckrsa gh cryk ldrk gw¡A
12
2020-21
88 oLkar
ysfdu eq>s vk'kk gS fd bu FkksM+h&lh ckrksa dks Hkh rqe 'kkSd ls i<+ksxh vkSj le>ksxh
fd nqfu;k ,d gS vkSj nwljs yksx tks blesa vkckn gSa gekjs HkkbZ&cgu gSaA tc rqe cM+h
gks tkvksxh rks rqe nqfu;k vkSj mlosQ vknfe;ksa dk gky eksVh&eksVh fdrkcksa esa i<+ksxhA
mlesa rqEgsa ftruk vkuan feysxk] mruk fdlh dgkuh ;k miU;kl esa Hkh u feyk gksxkA
;g rks rqe tkurh gh gks fd ;g èkjrh yk[kksa&djksM+ksa o"kZ iqjkuh gS vkSj cgqr fnuksa
rd blesa dksbZ vkneh u FkkA vknfe;ksa ls igys flI
+
kZQ tkuoj Fks vkSj tkuojksa ls igys
,d ,slk le; Fkk tc bl èkjrh ij dksbZ tkunkj ph”k u FkhA vkt tc ;g nqfu;k
gj rjg osQ tkuojksa vkSj vknfe;ksa ls Hkjh gqbZ gS] ml ”kekus dk [k;ky djuk Hkh
eqf'dy gS] tc ;gk¡ oqQN u FkkA ysfdu foKku tkuusokyksa vkSj fo}kuksa us] ftUgksaus bl
fo"k; dks [kwc lkspk vkSj i<+k gS] fy[kk gS fd ,d le; ,slk Fkk tc ;g èkjrh csgn
xje Fkh vkSj bl ij dksbZ tkunkj ph”k ugha jg ldrh FkhA vkSj vxj ge mudh
fdrkcsa i<+sa vkSj igkM+ksa vkSj tkuojksa dh iqjkuh gfì;ksa dks xkSj ls ns[ksa rks gesa [kqn ekywe
gksxk fd ,slk le; ”k:j jgk gksxkA
rqe bfrgkl dh fdrkcksa esa gh i<+ ldrh gksA ysfdu iqjkus ”kekus esa rks vkneh iSnk
gh u gqvk Fkk] fdrkcsa dkSu fy[krk\ rc gesa ml ”kekus dh ckrsa oSQls ekywe gksa\ ;g
rks ugha gks ldrk fd ge cSBs&cSBs gj ,d ckr lksp fudkysaA ;g cM+s e”ks dh ckr
gksrh] D;ksafd ge tks ph”k pkgrs lksp ysrs vkSj lqanj ifj;ksa dh dgkfu;k¡ x<+ ysrsA
ysfdu tks dgkuh fdlh ckr dks ns[ks fcuk gh x<+ yh tk, og Bhd oSQls gks ldrh
gS\ ysfdu [kq'kh dh ckr gS fd ml iqjkus ”kekus dh fy[kh gqbZ fdrkcsa u gksus ij Hkh
oqQN ,slh ph”ksa gSa] ftuls gesa mruh gh ckrsa ekywe gksrh gSa ftruh fdlh fdrkc ls
gksrhaA ;s igkM+] leqnz] flrkjs] ufn;k¡] taxy] tkuojksa dh iqjkuh gfì;k¡ vkSj blh rjg
dh vkSj Hkh fdruh gh ph”ksa gSa] ftuls gesa nqfu;k dk iqjkuk gky ekywe gks ldrk gSA
exj gky tkuus dk vlyh rjhdk ;g ugha gS fd ge osQoy nwljksa dh fy[kh gqbZ
fdrkcsa i<+ ysa] cfYd [kqn lalkj&:ih iqLrd dks i<+saA eq>s vk'kk gS fd iRFkjksa vkSj
igkM+ksa dks i<+dj rqe FkksM+s gh fnuksa esa mudk gky tkuuk lh[k tkvksxhA lkspks] fdruh
e”ks dh ckr gSA ,d NksVk&lk jksM+k ftls rqe lM+d ij ;k igkM+ osQ uhps iM+k gqvk
ns[krh gks] 'kk;n lalkj dh iqLrd dk NksVk&lk i`"B gks] 'kk;n mlls rqEgsa dksbZ u;h
ckr ekywe gks tk,A 'krZ ;gh gS fd rqEgsa mls i<+uk vkrk gksA
2020-21
lalkj iqLrd gS 89
dksbZ ”kcku] mnwZ] ¯gnh ;k vaxzs”kh] lh[kus osQ fy, rqEgsa mlosQ v{kj lh[kus gksrs gSaA
blh rjg igys rqEgsa izÑfr osQ v{kj i<+us iM+saxs] rHkh rqe mldh dgkuh mlosQ iRFkjksa
vkSj pêkuksa dh fdrkc ls i<+ ldksxhA 'kk;n vc Hkh rqe mls FkksM+k&FkksM+k i<+uk
tkurh gksA tc rqe dksbZ NksVk&lk xksy pedhyk jksM+k ns[krh gks] rks D;k og rqEgsa oqQN
ugha crykrk\ ;g oSQls xksy] fpduk vkSj pedhyk gks x;k vkSj mlosQ [kqjnjs fdukjs
;k dksus D;k gq,\ vxj rqe fdlh cM+h pêku dks rksM+dj VqdM+s&VqdM+s dj Mkyks rks
gj ,d VqdM+k [kqjnjk vkSj uksdhyk gksxkA ;g xksy fpdus jksM+s dh rjg fcyoqQy ugha
gksrkA fiQj ;g jksM+k oSQls bruk pedhyk] fpduk vkSj xksy gks x;k\ vxj rqEgkjh
vk¡[ksa ns[ksa vkSj dku lqusa rks rqe mlh osQ eq¡g ls mldh dgkuh lqu ldrh gksA og rqels
dgsxk fd ,d le;] ftls 'kk;n cgqr fnu xq”kjs gksa] og Hkh ,d pêku dk VqdM+k
FkkA Bhd mlh VqdM+s dh rjg] mlesa fdukjs vkSj dksus Fks] ftls rqe cM+h pêku ls
rksM+rh gksA 'kk;n og fdlh igkM+ osQ nkeu esa iM+k jgkA rc ikuh vk;k vkSj mls
cgkdj NksVh ?kkVh rd ys x;kA ogk¡ ls ,d igkM+h ukys us <osQydj mls ,d NksVs&ls
nfj;k esa igq¡pk fn;kA bl NksVs&ls nfj;k ls og cM+s nfj;k esa igq¡pkA bl chp og nfj;k
osQ isans esa yq<+drk jgk] mlosQ  fdukjs f?kl x, vkSj og fpduk vkSj pednkj gks x;kA
bl rjg og OkaQdM+ cuk tks rqEgkjs lkeus gSA fdlh otg ls nfj;k mls NksM+ x;k vkSj
2020-21
90 oLkar
ys[kd osQ ckjs esa
tokgjyky usg: (14 uoEcj 1889&27 ebZ 1964)
vk”kkn Hkkjr osQ izFke izèkkuea=kh FksA cPpksa ls mUgsa
csgn yxko FkkA os ^pkpk usg:* osQ uke ls tkus
tkrs gSaA mudh csVh bafnjk tc 10 o"kZ dh Fkha]
usg: th us mUgsa vusd fpfë;k¡ fy[khaA buesa
crk;k x;k gS fd i`Foh dh 'kq#vkr oSQls gqbZ vkSj
euq"; us vius vki dks oSQls èkhjs&èkhjs
le>k&igpkukA ;s fpfë;k¡ cPpksa esa vius vkl&ikl
dh nqfu;k osQ ckjs esa lkspus&le>us vkSj tkuus dh
mRlqdrk iSnk djrh gSaA usg: th dks vius ns'k osQ ckjs esa cksyus&crkus esa fo'ks"k
vkuan vkrk FkkA ;s lHkh fpfë;k¡ ^firk osQ i=k iq=kh osQ uke* iqLrd esa ladfyr gSaA
^lalkj iqLrd gS* blh iqLrd ls lkHkkj fy;k x;k gSA [kkl ckr ;g gS fd ;s i=k
usg: th us vaxzs”kh esa fy[ks Fks vkSj budk ¯gnh esa vuqokn ¯gnh osQ e'kgwj
miU;kldkj eqa'kh izsepan us fd;k gSA
rqe mls ik xb±A vxj nfj;k mls vkSj vkxs ys tkrk rks og NksVk gksrs&gksrs var esa ckyw
dk ,d ”kjkZ gks tkrk vkSj leqnz osQ fdukjs vius Hkkb;ksa ls tk feyrk] tgk¡ ,d lqanj
ckyw dk fdukjk cu tkrk] ftl ij NksVs&NksVs cPps [ksyrs vkSj ckyw osQ ?kjkSans cukrsA
vxj ,d NksVk&lk jksM+k rqEgsa bruh ckrsa crk ldrk gS] rks igkM+ksa vkSj nwljh ph”kksa
ls] tks gekjs pkjksa rjI
+
kQ gSa] gesa vkSj fdruh ckrsa ekywe gks ldrh gSa!
q q q q q tokgjyky usg:
(vaxzs”kh ls vuqoknµizsepan)
2020-21
Page 5


lalkj iqLrd gS 87
lalkj iqLrd gS
tc rqe esjs lkFk jgrh gks rks vdlj eq>ls cgqr&lh ckrsa iwNk djrh gks vkSj eSa mudk
tokc nsus dh dksf'k'k djrk gw¡A ysfdu vc] tc rqe elwjh esa gks vkSj eSa bykgkckn
eas] ge nksuksa ml rjg ckrphr ugha dj ldrsA blfy, eSaus bjknk
fd;k gS fd dHkh&dHkh rqEgsa bl nqfu;k dh vkSj mu NksVs&cM+s
ns'kksa dh tks bl nqfu;k esa gSa] NksVh&NksVh dFkk,¡ fy[kk d:¡A
rqeus ¯gnqLrku vkSj baXySaM dk oqQN gky bfrgkl esa i<+k gSA
ysfdu baXySaM osQoy ,d NksVk&lk Vkiw gS vkSj ¯gnqLrku]
tks ,d cgqr cM+k ns'k gS] fiQj Hkh nqfu;k dk ,d
NksVk&lk fgLlk gSA vxj rqEgsa bl nqfu;k dk
oqQN gky tkuus dk 'kkSd gS] rks rqEgsa lc
ns'kksa dk vkSj mu lc tkfr;ksa dk
tks blesa clh gqbZ gSa] è;ku j[kuk
iM+sxk] osQoy ml ,d NksVs&ls
ns'k dk ugha ftlesa rqe iSnk
gqbZ gksA
eq>s ekywe gS fd bu
NksVs&NksVs [krksa esa cgqr FkksM+h&lh
ckrsa gh cryk ldrk gw¡A
12
2020-21
88 oLkar
ysfdu eq>s vk'kk gS fd bu FkksM+h&lh ckrksa dks Hkh rqe 'kkSd ls i<+ksxh vkSj le>ksxh
fd nqfu;k ,d gS vkSj nwljs yksx tks blesa vkckn gSa gekjs HkkbZ&cgu gSaA tc rqe cM+h
gks tkvksxh rks rqe nqfu;k vkSj mlosQ vknfe;ksa dk gky eksVh&eksVh fdrkcksa esa i<+ksxhA
mlesa rqEgsa ftruk vkuan feysxk] mruk fdlh dgkuh ;k miU;kl esa Hkh u feyk gksxkA
;g rks rqe tkurh gh gks fd ;g èkjrh yk[kksa&djksM+ksa o"kZ iqjkuh gS vkSj cgqr fnuksa
rd blesa dksbZ vkneh u FkkA vknfe;ksa ls igys flI
+
kZQ tkuoj Fks vkSj tkuojksa ls igys
,d ,slk le; Fkk tc bl èkjrh ij dksbZ tkunkj ph”k u FkhA vkt tc ;g nqfu;k
gj rjg osQ tkuojksa vkSj vknfe;ksa ls Hkjh gqbZ gS] ml ”kekus dk [k;ky djuk Hkh
eqf'dy gS] tc ;gk¡ oqQN u FkkA ysfdu foKku tkuusokyksa vkSj fo}kuksa us] ftUgksaus bl
fo"k; dks [kwc lkspk vkSj i<+k gS] fy[kk gS fd ,d le; ,slk Fkk tc ;g èkjrh csgn
xje Fkh vkSj bl ij dksbZ tkunkj ph”k ugha jg ldrh FkhA vkSj vxj ge mudh
fdrkcsa i<+sa vkSj igkM+ksa vkSj tkuojksa dh iqjkuh gfì;ksa dks xkSj ls ns[ksa rks gesa [kqn ekywe
gksxk fd ,slk le; ”k:j jgk gksxkA
rqe bfrgkl dh fdrkcksa esa gh i<+ ldrh gksA ysfdu iqjkus ”kekus esa rks vkneh iSnk
gh u gqvk Fkk] fdrkcsa dkSu fy[krk\ rc gesa ml ”kekus dh ckrsa oSQls ekywe gksa\ ;g
rks ugha gks ldrk fd ge cSBs&cSBs gj ,d ckr lksp fudkysaA ;g cM+s e”ks dh ckr
gksrh] D;ksafd ge tks ph”k pkgrs lksp ysrs vkSj lqanj ifj;ksa dh dgkfu;k¡ x<+ ysrsA
ysfdu tks dgkuh fdlh ckr dks ns[ks fcuk gh x<+ yh tk, og Bhd oSQls gks ldrh
gS\ ysfdu [kq'kh dh ckr gS fd ml iqjkus ”kekus dh fy[kh gqbZ fdrkcsa u gksus ij Hkh
oqQN ,slh ph”ksa gSa] ftuls gesa mruh gh ckrsa ekywe gksrh gSa ftruh fdlh fdrkc ls
gksrhaA ;s igkM+] leqnz] flrkjs] ufn;k¡] taxy] tkuojksa dh iqjkuh gfì;k¡ vkSj blh rjg
dh vkSj Hkh fdruh gh ph”ksa gSa] ftuls gesa nqfu;k dk iqjkuk gky ekywe gks ldrk gSA
exj gky tkuus dk vlyh rjhdk ;g ugha gS fd ge osQoy nwljksa dh fy[kh gqbZ
fdrkcsa i<+ ysa] cfYd [kqn lalkj&:ih iqLrd dks i<+saA eq>s vk'kk gS fd iRFkjksa vkSj
igkM+ksa dks i<+dj rqe FkksM+s gh fnuksa esa mudk gky tkuuk lh[k tkvksxhA lkspks] fdruh
e”ks dh ckr gSA ,d NksVk&lk jksM+k ftls rqe lM+d ij ;k igkM+ osQ uhps iM+k gqvk
ns[krh gks] 'kk;n lalkj dh iqLrd dk NksVk&lk i`"B gks] 'kk;n mlls rqEgsa dksbZ u;h
ckr ekywe gks tk,A 'krZ ;gh gS fd rqEgsa mls i<+uk vkrk gksA
2020-21
lalkj iqLrd gS 89
dksbZ ”kcku] mnwZ] ¯gnh ;k vaxzs”kh] lh[kus osQ fy, rqEgsa mlosQ v{kj lh[kus gksrs gSaA
blh rjg igys rqEgsa izÑfr osQ v{kj i<+us iM+saxs] rHkh rqe mldh dgkuh mlosQ iRFkjksa
vkSj pêkuksa dh fdrkc ls i<+ ldksxhA 'kk;n vc Hkh rqe mls FkksM+k&FkksM+k i<+uk
tkurh gksA tc rqe dksbZ NksVk&lk xksy pedhyk jksM+k ns[krh gks] rks D;k og rqEgsa oqQN
ugha crykrk\ ;g oSQls xksy] fpduk vkSj pedhyk gks x;k vkSj mlosQ [kqjnjs fdukjs
;k dksus D;k gq,\ vxj rqe fdlh cM+h pêku dks rksM+dj VqdM+s&VqdM+s dj Mkyks rks
gj ,d VqdM+k [kqjnjk vkSj uksdhyk gksxkA ;g xksy fpdus jksM+s dh rjg fcyoqQy ugha
gksrkA fiQj ;g jksM+k oSQls bruk pedhyk] fpduk vkSj xksy gks x;k\ vxj rqEgkjh
vk¡[ksa ns[ksa vkSj dku lqusa rks rqe mlh osQ eq¡g ls mldh dgkuh lqu ldrh gksA og rqels
dgsxk fd ,d le;] ftls 'kk;n cgqr fnu xq”kjs gksa] og Hkh ,d pêku dk VqdM+k
FkkA Bhd mlh VqdM+s dh rjg] mlesa fdukjs vkSj dksus Fks] ftls rqe cM+h pêku ls
rksM+rh gksA 'kk;n og fdlh igkM+ osQ nkeu esa iM+k jgkA rc ikuh vk;k vkSj mls
cgkdj NksVh ?kkVh rd ys x;kA ogk¡ ls ,d igkM+h ukys us <osQydj mls ,d NksVs&ls
nfj;k esa igq¡pk fn;kA bl NksVs&ls nfj;k ls og cM+s nfj;k esa igq¡pkA bl chp og nfj;k
osQ isans esa yq<+drk jgk] mlosQ  fdukjs f?kl x, vkSj og fpduk vkSj pednkj gks x;kA
bl rjg og OkaQdM+ cuk tks rqEgkjs lkeus gSA fdlh otg ls nfj;k mls NksM+ x;k vkSj
2020-21
90 oLkar
ys[kd osQ ckjs esa
tokgjyky usg: (14 uoEcj 1889&27 ebZ 1964)
vk”kkn Hkkjr osQ izFke izèkkuea=kh FksA cPpksa ls mUgsa
csgn yxko FkkA os ^pkpk usg:* osQ uke ls tkus
tkrs gSaA mudh csVh bafnjk tc 10 o"kZ dh Fkha]
usg: th us mUgsa vusd fpfë;k¡ fy[khaA buesa
crk;k x;k gS fd i`Foh dh 'kq#vkr oSQls gqbZ vkSj
euq"; us vius vki dks oSQls èkhjs&èkhjs
le>k&igpkukA ;s fpfë;k¡ cPpksa esa vius vkl&ikl
dh nqfu;k osQ ckjs esa lkspus&le>us vkSj tkuus dh
mRlqdrk iSnk djrh gSaA usg: th dks vius ns'k osQ ckjs esa cksyus&crkus esa fo'ks"k
vkuan vkrk FkkA ;s lHkh fpfë;k¡ ^firk osQ i=k iq=kh osQ uke* iqLrd esa ladfyr gSaA
^lalkj iqLrd gS* blh iqLrd ls lkHkkj fy;k x;k gSA [kkl ckr ;g gS fd ;s i=k
usg: th us vaxzs”kh esa fy[ks Fks vkSj budk ¯gnh esa vuqokn ¯gnh osQ e'kgwj
miU;kldkj eqa'kh izsepan us fd;k gSA
rqe mls ik xb±A vxj nfj;k mls vkSj vkxs ys tkrk rks og NksVk gksrs&gksrs var esa ckyw
dk ,d ”kjkZ gks tkrk vkSj leqnz osQ fdukjs vius Hkkb;ksa ls tk feyrk] tgk¡ ,d lqanj
ckyw dk fdukjk cu tkrk] ftl ij NksVs&NksVs cPps [ksyrs vkSj ckyw osQ ?kjkSans cukrsA
vxj ,d NksVk&lk jksM+k rqEgsa bruh ckrsa crk ldrk gS] rks igkM+ksa vkSj nwljh ph”kksa
ls] tks gekjs pkjksa rjI
+
kQ gSa] gesa vkSj fdruh ckrsa ekywe gks ldrh gSa!
q q q q q tokgjyky usg:
(vaxzs”kh ls vuqoknµizsepan)
2020-21
lalkj iqLrd gS 91
iz'u&vH;kl
i=k ls
1- ys[kd us ^izÑfr osQ v{kj* fdUgsa dgk gS\
2- yk[kksa&djksM+ksa o"kZ igys gekjh èkjrh oSQlh Fkh\
3- nqfu;k dk iqjkuk gky fdu ph”kksa ls tkuk tkrk gS\ oqQN ph”kksa osQ uke fy[kksA
4- xksy] pedhyk jksM+k viuh D;k dgkuh crkrk gS\
5- xksy] pedhys jksM+s dks ;fn nfj;k vkSj vkxs ys tkrk rks D;k gksrk\ foLrkj ls
mÙkj fy[kksA
6- usg: th us bl ckr dk gydk&lk laosQr fn;k gS fd nqfu;k oSQls 'kq: gqbZ
gksxhA mUgksaus D;k crk;k gS\ ikB osQ vkèkkj ij fy[kksA
i=k ls vkxs
1- yxHkx gj txg nqfu;k dh 'kq#vkr dks le>krh gqbZ dgkfu;k¡ izpfyr gSaA
rqEgkjs ;gk¡ dkSu lh dgkuh izpfyr gS\
2- rqEgkjh ilanhnk fdrkc dkSu lh gS vkSj D;ksa\
3- elwjh vkSj bykgkckn Hkkjr osQ fdu izkarksa osQ 'kgj gSa\
4- rqe tkurs gks fd nks iRFkjksa dks jxM+dj vkfn ekuo us vkx dh [kkst dh FkhA
ml ;qx esa iRFkjksa dk vkSj D;k&D;k mi;ksx gksrk Fkk\
vuqeku vkSj dYiuk
n gj ph”k osQ fuekZ.k dh ,d dgkuh gksrh gS] tSls edku osQ fuekZ.k dh dgkuhµ
oqQjlh] xís] j”kkbZ osQ fuekZ.k dh dgkuh gks ldrh gSA blh rjg ok;q;ku]
lkbfdy vFkok vU; fdlh ;a=k osQ fuekZ.k dh dgkuh Hkh gksrh gSA dYiuk djks
;fn jlxqYyk vius fuekZ.k dh dgkuh lqukus yxs fd og igys nwèk Fkk] mls
nwèk ls Nsuk cuk;k x;k] mls xksy vkdkj fn;k x;kA phuh dh pk'kuh esa
Mkydj idk;k x;kA fiQj mldk uke iM+k jlxqYykA
l rqe Hkh fdlh ph”k osQ fuekZ.k dh dgkuh fy[k ldrs gks] blosQ fy, rqEgsa
vuqeku vkSj dYiuk osQ lkFk ml ph”k osQ ckjs esa oqQN tkudkjh Hkh ,d=k
djuh gksxhA
2020-21
Read More
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