NCERT Textbook: पाठ 12 - सुदामा चरित, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

कक्षा - 8 हिन्दी (Class 8 Hindi) by VP Classes

Class 8 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 12 - सुदामा चरित, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


70 olar Hkkx 3
12
lqnkek pfjr
lhl ixk u >¡xk ru esa] izHkq! tkus dks vkfg cls osQfg xzkekA
/ksrh iQVh&lh yVh nqiVh] v# ik¡; mikug dks u¯g lkekAA
}kj [kM+ks f}t nqcZy ,d] jáks pfdlkas clq/k vfHkjkekA
iwNr nhun;ky dks /ke] crkor vkiuks uke lqnkekAA
,sls csgky fcokbu lksa] ix oaQVd tky yxs iqfu tks,A
gk;! egknq[k ik;ks l[kk] rqe vk, brS u fdrS fnu [kks,AA
nsf[k lqnkek dh nhu nlk] d#uk dfjoSQ d#ukfuf/ jks,A
ikuh ijkr dks gkFk Nq;ks ufga] uSuu ds ty lksa ix /ks,AA
dNq HkkHkh gedks fn;ks] lks rqe dkgs u nsrA
pk¡fi iksVjh dk¡[k esa] jgs dgks dsfg gsrqAA
vkxs puk xq#ekrq n, rs] y, rqe pkfc gesa ufga nhusA
L;ke dáks eqldk; lqnkek lksa] ¶pksjh dh cku esa gkS tw izohusAA
iksVfj dk¡[k esa pk¡fi jgs rqe] [kksyr ukfga lq/k jl HkhusA
ikfNfy ckfu vtkS u rtks rqe] rSlbZ HkkHkh ds ranqy dhUgsAA¸
2020-21
Page 2


70 olar Hkkx 3
12
lqnkek pfjr
lhl ixk u >¡xk ru esa] izHkq! tkus dks vkfg cls osQfg xzkekA
/ksrh iQVh&lh yVh nqiVh] v# ik¡; mikug dks u¯g lkekAA
}kj [kM+ks f}t nqcZy ,d] jáks pfdlkas clq/k vfHkjkekA
iwNr nhun;ky dks /ke] crkor vkiuks uke lqnkekAA
,sls csgky fcokbu lksa] ix oaQVd tky yxs iqfu tks,A
gk;! egknq[k ik;ks l[kk] rqe vk, brS u fdrS fnu [kks,AA
nsf[k lqnkek dh nhu nlk] d#uk dfjoSQ d#ukfuf/ jks,A
ikuh ijkr dks gkFk Nq;ks ufga] uSuu ds ty lksa ix /ks,AA
dNq HkkHkh gedks fn;ks] lks rqe dkgs u nsrA
pk¡fi iksVjh dk¡[k esa] jgs dgks dsfg gsrqAA
vkxs puk xq#ekrq n, rs] y, rqe pkfc gesa ufga nhusA
L;ke dáks eqldk; lqnkek lksa] ¶pksjh dh cku esa gkS tw izohusAA
iksVfj dk¡[k esa pk¡fi jgs rqe] [kksyr ukfga lq/k jl HkhusA
ikfNfy ckfu vtkS u rtks rqe] rSlbZ HkkHkh ds ranqy dhUgsAA¸
2020-21
lqnkek pfjr            71
iz'u&vH;kl
og iqydfu] og mfB feyfu] og vknj dh ckrA
og  iBofu  xksiky  dh]  dNw  u  tkuh  tkrAA
?kj&?kj dj vksM+r fiQjs] rud ngh osQ dktA
dgk Hk;ks tks vc Hk;ks] gfj dks jkt&lektA
gkSa vkor ukgha gqrkS] okgh iB;ks BsfyAA
vc dfggkSa leq>k; oSQ] cgq /u /jkS ldsfyAA
oSlksbZ jkt&lekt cus] xt] ckft ?kus eu laHkze Nk;ksA
oSQ/ksa ij~;ks dgq¡ ekjx Hkwfy] fd iSQfj oSQ eSa vc }kjdk vk;ksAA
HkkSu fcyksfdcs dks eu ykspr] lkspr gh lc xk¡o e>k;ksA
iw¡Nr ik¡Ms fiQjs lc lksa] ij >ksijh dks dgq¡ [kkst u ik;ksA
oSQ og VwVh&lh Nkuh grh] dg¡ oaQpu osQ vc /ke lqgkorA
oSQ ix esa iugh u grh] dg¡ yS xtjktgq Bk<+s egkorAA
Hkwfe dBksj iS jkr dVS] dg¡ dksey lst iS uhan u vkorAA
oSQ tqjrks ufga dksnks lok¡] izHkq osQ ijrki rsa nk[k u HkkorAA
&ujksÙkenkl
dfork ls
1- lqnkek dh nhun'kk ns[kdj JhÑ".k dh D;k euksn'kk gqbZ\ vius 'kCnksa
esa fyf[k,A
2- ¶ikuh ijkr dks gkFk Nq;ks ufga] uSuu osQ ty lksa ix /ks,A¸ iafDr esa
of.kZr Hkko dk o.kZu vius 'kCnksa esa dhft,A
3- ¶pksjh dh cku esa gkS tw izohusA¸
2020-21
Page 3


70 olar Hkkx 3
12
lqnkek pfjr
lhl ixk u >¡xk ru esa] izHkq! tkus dks vkfg cls osQfg xzkekA
/ksrh iQVh&lh yVh nqiVh] v# ik¡; mikug dks u¯g lkekAA
}kj [kM+ks f}t nqcZy ,d] jáks pfdlkas clq/k vfHkjkekA
iwNr nhun;ky dks /ke] crkor vkiuks uke lqnkekAA
,sls csgky fcokbu lksa] ix oaQVd tky yxs iqfu tks,A
gk;! egknq[k ik;ks l[kk] rqe vk, brS u fdrS fnu [kks,AA
nsf[k lqnkek dh nhu nlk] d#uk dfjoSQ d#ukfuf/ jks,A
ikuh ijkr dks gkFk Nq;ks ufga] uSuu ds ty lksa ix /ks,AA
dNq HkkHkh gedks fn;ks] lks rqe dkgs u nsrA
pk¡fi iksVjh dk¡[k esa] jgs dgks dsfg gsrqAA
vkxs puk xq#ekrq n, rs] y, rqe pkfc gesa ufga nhusA
L;ke dáks eqldk; lqnkek lksa] ¶pksjh dh cku esa gkS tw izohusAA
iksVfj dk¡[k esa pk¡fi jgs rqe] [kksyr ukfga lq/k jl HkhusA
ikfNfy ckfu vtkS u rtks rqe] rSlbZ HkkHkh ds ranqy dhUgsAA¸
2020-21
lqnkek pfjr            71
iz'u&vH;kl
og iqydfu] og mfB feyfu] og vknj dh ckrA
og  iBofu  xksiky  dh]  dNw  u  tkuh  tkrAA
?kj&?kj dj vksM+r fiQjs] rud ngh osQ dktA
dgk Hk;ks tks vc Hk;ks] gfj dks jkt&lektA
gkSa vkor ukgha gqrkS] okgh iB;ks BsfyAA
vc dfggkSa leq>k; oSQ] cgq /u /jkS ldsfyAA
oSlksbZ jkt&lekt cus] xt] ckft ?kus eu laHkze Nk;ksA
oSQ/ksa ij~;ks dgq¡ ekjx Hkwfy] fd iSQfj oSQ eSa vc }kjdk vk;ksAA
HkkSu fcyksfdcs dks eu ykspr] lkspr gh lc xk¡o e>k;ksA
iw¡Nr ik¡Ms fiQjs lc lksa] ij >ksijh dks dgq¡ [kkst u ik;ksA
oSQ og VwVh&lh Nkuh grh] dg¡ oaQpu osQ vc /ke lqgkorA
oSQ ix esa iugh u grh] dg¡ yS xtjktgq Bk<+s egkorAA
Hkwfe dBksj iS jkr dVS] dg¡ dksey lst iS uhan u vkorAA
oSQ tqjrks ufga dksnks lok¡] izHkq osQ ijrki rsa nk[k u HkkorAA
&ujksÙkenkl
dfork ls
1- lqnkek dh nhun'kk ns[kdj JhÑ".k dh D;k euksn'kk gqbZ\ vius 'kCnksa
esa fyf[k,A
2- ¶ikuh ijkr dks gkFk Nq;ks ufga] uSuu osQ ty lksa ix /ks,A¸ iafDr esa
of.kZr Hkko dk o.kZu vius 'kCnksa esa dhft,A
3- ¶pksjh dh cku esa gkS tw izohusA¸
2020-21
72 olar Hkkx 3
(d) mi;qZDr iafDr dkSu] fdlls dg jgk gS\
([k) bl dFku dh i`"BHkwfe Li"V dhft,A
(x) bl mikyaHk (f'kdk;r) osQ ihNs dkSu&lh ikSjkf.kd dFkk gS\
4- }kjdk ls [kkyh gkFk ykSVrs le; lqnkek ekxZ eas D;k&D;k lksprs tk jgs
Fks\ og Ñ".k osQ O;ogkj ls D;ksa [kh> jgs Fks\ lqnkek osQ eu dh nqfoèkk
dks vius 'kCnksa esa izdV dhft,A
5- vius xk¡o ykSVdj tc lqnkek viuh >ksaiM+h ugha [kkst ik, rc muosQ eu
esa D;k&D;k fopkj vk,\ dfork osQ vk/kj ij Li"V dhft,A
6- fu/Zurk osQ ckn feyusokyh laiUurk dk fp=k.k dfork dh vafre iafDr;ksa
esa of.kZr gSA mls vius 'kCnksa esa fyf[k,A
dfork ls vkxs
1- nzqin vkSj nzks.kkpk;Z Hkh lgikBh Fks] budh fe=krk vkSj 'k=kqrk dh dFkk
egkHkkjr ls [kkstdj lqnkek osQ dFkkud ls rqyuk dhft,A
2- mPp in ij igq¡pdj ;k vf/d le`¼ gksdj O;fDr vius fu/Zu
ekrk&firk&HkkbZ&ca/qvksa ls utj isQjus yx tkrk gS] ,sls yksxksa osQ fy,
lqnkek pfjr oSQlh pqukSrh [kM+h djrk gS\ fyf[k,A
vuqeku vkSj dYiuk
1- vuqeku dhft, ;fn vkidk dksbZ vfHkUu fe=k vkils cgqr o"kks± ckn
feyus vk, rks vki dks oSQlk vuqHko gksxk\
2- dfg jghe laifr lxs] cur cgqr cgq jhfrA
foifr dlkSVh ts dls rsbZ lk¡ps ehrAA
bl nksgs esa jghe us lPps fe=k dh igpku crkbZ gSA bl nksgs ls lqnkek
pfjr dh lekurk fdl izdkj fn[krh gS\ fyf[k,A
Hkk"kk dh ckr
Ÿ ¶ikuh ijkr dks gkFk Nq;ks ufga] uSuu osQ ty lks ix /ks,¸
mQij fy[kh xbZ iafDr dks è;ku ls if<+,A blesa ckr dks cgqr vf/d
2020-21
Page 4


70 olar Hkkx 3
12
lqnkek pfjr
lhl ixk u >¡xk ru esa] izHkq! tkus dks vkfg cls osQfg xzkekA
/ksrh iQVh&lh yVh nqiVh] v# ik¡; mikug dks u¯g lkekAA
}kj [kM+ks f}t nqcZy ,d] jáks pfdlkas clq/k vfHkjkekA
iwNr nhun;ky dks /ke] crkor vkiuks uke lqnkekAA
,sls csgky fcokbu lksa] ix oaQVd tky yxs iqfu tks,A
gk;! egknq[k ik;ks l[kk] rqe vk, brS u fdrS fnu [kks,AA
nsf[k lqnkek dh nhu nlk] d#uk dfjoSQ d#ukfuf/ jks,A
ikuh ijkr dks gkFk Nq;ks ufga] uSuu ds ty lksa ix /ks,AA
dNq HkkHkh gedks fn;ks] lks rqe dkgs u nsrA
pk¡fi iksVjh dk¡[k esa] jgs dgks dsfg gsrqAA
vkxs puk xq#ekrq n, rs] y, rqe pkfc gesa ufga nhusA
L;ke dáks eqldk; lqnkek lksa] ¶pksjh dh cku esa gkS tw izohusAA
iksVfj dk¡[k esa pk¡fi jgs rqe] [kksyr ukfga lq/k jl HkhusA
ikfNfy ckfu vtkS u rtks rqe] rSlbZ HkkHkh ds ranqy dhUgsAA¸
2020-21
lqnkek pfjr            71
iz'u&vH;kl
og iqydfu] og mfB feyfu] og vknj dh ckrA
og  iBofu  xksiky  dh]  dNw  u  tkuh  tkrAA
?kj&?kj dj vksM+r fiQjs] rud ngh osQ dktA
dgk Hk;ks tks vc Hk;ks] gfj dks jkt&lektA
gkSa vkor ukgha gqrkS] okgh iB;ks BsfyAA
vc dfggkSa leq>k; oSQ] cgq /u /jkS ldsfyAA
oSlksbZ jkt&lekt cus] xt] ckft ?kus eu laHkze Nk;ksA
oSQ/ksa ij~;ks dgq¡ ekjx Hkwfy] fd iSQfj oSQ eSa vc }kjdk vk;ksAA
HkkSu fcyksfdcs dks eu ykspr] lkspr gh lc xk¡o e>k;ksA
iw¡Nr ik¡Ms fiQjs lc lksa] ij >ksijh dks dgq¡ [kkst u ik;ksA
oSQ og VwVh&lh Nkuh grh] dg¡ oaQpu osQ vc /ke lqgkorA
oSQ ix esa iugh u grh] dg¡ yS xtjktgq Bk<+s egkorAA
Hkwfe dBksj iS jkr dVS] dg¡ dksey lst iS uhan u vkorAA
oSQ tqjrks ufga dksnks lok¡] izHkq osQ ijrki rsa nk[k u HkkorAA
&ujksÙkenkl
dfork ls
1- lqnkek dh nhun'kk ns[kdj JhÑ".k dh D;k euksn'kk gqbZ\ vius 'kCnksa
esa fyf[k,A
2- ¶ikuh ijkr dks gkFk Nq;ks ufga] uSuu osQ ty lksa ix /ks,A¸ iafDr esa
of.kZr Hkko dk o.kZu vius 'kCnksa esa dhft,A
3- ¶pksjh dh cku esa gkS tw izohusA¸
2020-21
72 olar Hkkx 3
(d) mi;qZDr iafDr dkSu] fdlls dg jgk gS\
([k) bl dFku dh i`"BHkwfe Li"V dhft,A
(x) bl mikyaHk (f'kdk;r) osQ ihNs dkSu&lh ikSjkf.kd dFkk gS\
4- }kjdk ls [kkyh gkFk ykSVrs le; lqnkek ekxZ eas D;k&D;k lksprs tk jgs
Fks\ og Ñ".k osQ O;ogkj ls D;ksa [kh> jgs Fks\ lqnkek osQ eu dh nqfoèkk
dks vius 'kCnksa esa izdV dhft,A
5- vius xk¡o ykSVdj tc lqnkek viuh >ksaiM+h ugha [kkst ik, rc muosQ eu
esa D;k&D;k fopkj vk,\ dfork osQ vk/kj ij Li"V dhft,A
6- fu/Zurk osQ ckn feyusokyh laiUurk dk fp=k.k dfork dh vafre iafDr;ksa
esa of.kZr gSA mls vius 'kCnksa esa fyf[k,A
dfork ls vkxs
1- nzqin vkSj nzks.kkpk;Z Hkh lgikBh Fks] budh fe=krk vkSj 'k=kqrk dh dFkk
egkHkkjr ls [kkstdj lqnkek osQ dFkkud ls rqyuk dhft,A
2- mPp in ij igq¡pdj ;k vf/d le`¼ gksdj O;fDr vius fu/Zu
ekrk&firk&HkkbZ&ca/qvksa ls utj isQjus yx tkrk gS] ,sls yksxksa osQ fy,
lqnkek pfjr oSQlh pqukSrh [kM+h djrk gS\ fyf[k,A
vuqeku vkSj dYiuk
1- vuqeku dhft, ;fn vkidk dksbZ vfHkUu fe=k vkils cgqr o"kks± ckn
feyus vk, rks vki dks oSQlk vuqHko gksxk\
2- dfg jghe laifr lxs] cur cgqr cgq jhfrA
foifr dlkSVh ts dls rsbZ lk¡ps ehrAA
bl nksgs esa jghe us lPps fe=k dh igpku crkbZ gSA bl nksgs ls lqnkek
pfjr dh lekurk fdl izdkj fn[krh gS\ fyf[k,A
Hkk"kk dh ckr
Ÿ ¶ikuh ijkr dks gkFk Nq;ks ufga] uSuu osQ ty lks ix /ks,¸
mQij fy[kh xbZ iafDr dks è;ku ls if<+,A blesa ckr dks cgqr vf/d
2020-21
lqnkek pfjr            73
c<+k&p<+kdj fpf=kr fd;k x;k gSA tc fdlh ckr dks bruk c<+k&p<+kdj
izLrqr fd;k tkrk gS rks ogk¡ ij vfr'k;ksfDr vyadkj gksrk gSA vki Hkh
dfork esa ls ,d vfr'k;ksfDr vyadkj dk mnkgj.k Nk¡fV,A
oqQN djus dks
1- bl dfork dks ,dkadh esa cnfy, vkSj mldk vfHku; dhft,A
2- dfork osQ mfpr lLoj okpu dk vH;kl dhft,A
3- ^fe=krk* laca/h nksgksa dk ladyu dhft,A
'kCnkFkZ
ixk µ ixM+h
>¡xk µ <hyk oqQjrk
vkfg µ gS
yVh µ yVduk
nqiVh µ vaxksNk] xeNk
mikug µ twrk
f}t µ czkã.k
pfdlkas µ pfdr] fofLer
olqèkk µ i`Foh
fcokbu µ ik¡o dh ,M+h dk
iQVuk
vfHkjkek µ lqanj
tks, µ <w¡<+uk
ijkr µ Fkkyh dh rjg dk
ihry vkfn /krq ls
cuk ,d cM+k vkSj
xgjk cjru
ikfNyh µ fiNyk
iqydfu µ [kq'kh] meax
iBofu µ Hkstuk] fonkbZ
fcyksfdcs µ ns[kuk
e>k;ks µ chp esa
lqgkor µ lqanj@Hkyk yxuk
iugh µ twrk
egkor µ gkFkhoku
tqjr µ tqVuk] izkIr gksuk
2020-21
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