NCERT Textbook: पाठ 13 - जहाँ पहिया है, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 8

Class 8 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 13 - जहाँ पहिया है, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


74 olar Hkkx 3
tgk¡ ifg;k gS
Mqdks^bZ (rfeyukMq)% lkbfdy pykuk ,d lkekftd vkanksyu gS\ oqQN
vthc&lh ckr gSµgS u! ysfdu pkSadus dh ckr ugha gSA iqMqdks^bZ f”kys
dh g”kkjksa uolk{kj xzkeh.k efgykvksa osQ fy, ;g vc vke ckr gSA vius
fiNM+siu ij ykr ekjus] viuk fojksèk O;Dr djus vkSj mu ”kathjksa dks
rksM+us dk ftuesa os tdM+s gq, gSa] dksbZ&u&dksbZ rjhdk yksx fudky gh ysrs
gSaA dHkh&dHkh ;s rjhosQ vthcks&xjhc gksrs gSaA
Hkkjr osQ lokZfèkd xjhc f”kyksa esa ls ,d gS iqMqdks^bZA fiNys fnuksa ;gk¡
dh  xzkeh.k  efgykvksa  us  viuh
Lokèkhurk] vk”kknh vkSj xfr'khyrk dks
vfHkO;Dr djus osQ fy, izrhd osQ :i
esa lkbfdy dks pquk gSA muesa ls
vfèkdka'k uolk{kj FkhaA vxj ge nl
o"kZ ls de mez dh yM+fd;ksa dks vyx
dj nsa rks bldk vFkZ ;g gksxk fd ;gk¡
xzkeh.k efgykvksa osQ ,d&pkSFkkbZ fgLls
us lkbfdy pykuk lh[k fy;k gS vkSj
bu efgykvksa esa ls lÙkj g”kkj ls Hkh
vfèkd  efgykvksa  us  ^izn'kZu  ,oa
izfr;ksfxrk* tSls lkoZtfud dk;ZØeksa esa
cM+s xoZ osQ lkFk vius u, dkS'ky dk
13
iq
2020-21
Page 2


74 olar Hkkx 3
tgk¡ ifg;k gS
Mqdks^bZ (rfeyukMq)% lkbfdy pykuk ,d lkekftd vkanksyu gS\ oqQN
vthc&lh ckr gSµgS u! ysfdu pkSadus dh ckr ugha gSA iqMqdks^bZ f”kys
dh g”kkjksa uolk{kj xzkeh.k efgykvksa osQ fy, ;g vc vke ckr gSA vius
fiNM+siu ij ykr ekjus] viuk fojksèk O;Dr djus vkSj mu ”kathjksa dks
rksM+us dk ftuesa os tdM+s gq, gSa] dksbZ&u&dksbZ rjhdk yksx fudky gh ysrs
gSaA dHkh&dHkh ;s rjhosQ vthcks&xjhc gksrs gSaA
Hkkjr osQ lokZfèkd xjhc f”kyksa esa ls ,d gS iqMqdks^bZA fiNys fnuksa ;gk¡
dh  xzkeh.k  efgykvksa  us  viuh
Lokèkhurk] vk”kknh vkSj xfr'khyrk dks
vfHkO;Dr djus osQ fy, izrhd osQ :i
esa lkbfdy dks pquk gSA muesa ls
vfèkdka'k uolk{kj FkhaA vxj ge nl
o"kZ ls de mez dh yM+fd;ksa dks vyx
dj nsa rks bldk vFkZ ;g gksxk fd ;gk¡
xzkeh.k efgykvksa osQ ,d&pkSFkkbZ fgLls
us lkbfdy pykuk lh[k fy;k gS vkSj
bu efgykvksa esa ls lÙkj g”kkj ls Hkh
vfèkd  efgykvksa  us  ^izn'kZu  ,oa
izfr;ksfxrk* tSls lkoZtfud dk;ZØeksa esa
cM+s xoZ osQ lkFk vius u, dkS'ky dk
13
iq
2020-21
tgk¡ ifg;k gS            75
izn'kZu fd;k vkSj vHkh Hkh muesa lkbfdy pykus dh bPNk tkjh gSA ogk¡
blosQ fy, dbZ ^izf'k{k.k f'kfoj* py jgs gSaA
xzkeh.k iqMqdks^bZ osQ eq[; bykdksa esa vR;ar :f<+oknh i`"BHkwfe ls vkb±
;qok eqfLye yM+fd;k¡ lM+dksa ls viuh lkbfdyksa ij tkrh gqbZ fn[kkbZ nsrh
gSaA tehyk choh uked ,d ;qorh us ftlus lkbfdy pykuk 'kq: fd;k
gS] eq>ls dgkµ¶;g esjk vfèkdkj gS] vc ge dgha Hkh tk ldrs gSaA vc
gesa cl dk bar”kkj ugha djuk iM+rkA eq>s irk gS fd tc eSaus lkbfdy
pykuk 'kq: fd;k rks yksx I
+
kQfCr;k¡ dlrs FksA ysfdu eSaus ml ij dksbZ
è;ku ugha fn;kA¸
iQkfrek ,d ekè;fed LowQy esa i<+krh gSa vkSj mUgsa lkbfdy pykus dk
,slk pko yxk gS fd gj 'kke vkèkk ?kaVs osQ fy, fdjk, ij lkbfdy ysrh
gSaA ,d u;h lkbfdy [kjhnus dh mudh gSfl;r ugha gSA iQkfrek us crk;k
fdµ¶lkbfdy pykus esa ,d [kkl rjg dh vk”kknh gSA geas fdlh ij
fuHkZj ugha jguk iM+rkA eSa dHkh bls ugha NksM¡+
w
xhA¸ tehyk] iQkfrek vkSj
mudh fe=k vodUuhµbu lcdh mez 20 o"kZ osQ vklikl gS vkSj bUgksaus
vius leqnk; dh vusd ;qofr;ksa dks lkbfdy pykuk fl[kk;k gSA
bl f”kys esa lkbfdy dh èkwe eph gqbZ gSA bldh iz'kaldksa esa gSa efgyk
[ksfrgj e”knwj] iRFkj [knkuksa esa e”knwjh djusokyh vkSjrsa vkSj xk¡oksa esa dke
djusokyh uls±A ckyokM+h vkSj vk¡xuokM+h dk;ZdrkZ] cs'kdherh iRFkjksa dks
rjk'kus esa yxh vkSjrsa vkSj LowQy dh vè;kfidk,¡ Hkh lkbfdy dk tedj
bLrseky dj jgh gSaA xzke lsfodk,¡ vkSj nksigj dk Hkkstu igq¡pkusokyh
vkSjrsa Hkh ihNs ugha gSaA lcls cM+h la[;k mu yksxksa dh gS tks vHkh uolk{kj
gqbZ gSaA ftl fdlh uolk{kj vFkok u;h&u;h lkbfdy pykusokyh efgyk
ls eSaus ckrphr dh] mlus lkbfdy pykus vkSj viuh O;fDrxr vk”kknh
osQ chp ,d lhèkk lacaèk crk;kA
lkbfdy vkanksyu dh ,d vxqvk dk dguk gS] ¶eq[; ckr ;g gS fd
bl vkanksyu us efgykvksa dks cgqr vkRefo'okl iznku fd;kA egRoiw.kZ ;g
2020-21
Page 3


74 olar Hkkx 3
tgk¡ ifg;k gS
Mqdks^bZ (rfeyukMq)% lkbfdy pykuk ,d lkekftd vkanksyu gS\ oqQN
vthc&lh ckr gSµgS u! ysfdu pkSadus dh ckr ugha gSA iqMqdks^bZ f”kys
dh g”kkjksa uolk{kj xzkeh.k efgykvksa osQ fy, ;g vc vke ckr gSA vius
fiNM+siu ij ykr ekjus] viuk fojksèk O;Dr djus vkSj mu ”kathjksa dks
rksM+us dk ftuesa os tdM+s gq, gSa] dksbZ&u&dksbZ rjhdk yksx fudky gh ysrs
gSaA dHkh&dHkh ;s rjhosQ vthcks&xjhc gksrs gSaA
Hkkjr osQ lokZfèkd xjhc f”kyksa esa ls ,d gS iqMqdks^bZA fiNys fnuksa ;gk¡
dh  xzkeh.k  efgykvksa  us  viuh
Lokèkhurk] vk”kknh vkSj xfr'khyrk dks
vfHkO;Dr djus osQ fy, izrhd osQ :i
esa lkbfdy dks pquk gSA muesa ls
vfèkdka'k uolk{kj FkhaA vxj ge nl
o"kZ ls de mez dh yM+fd;ksa dks vyx
dj nsa rks bldk vFkZ ;g gksxk fd ;gk¡
xzkeh.k efgykvksa osQ ,d&pkSFkkbZ fgLls
us lkbfdy pykuk lh[k fy;k gS vkSj
bu efgykvksa esa ls lÙkj g”kkj ls Hkh
vfèkd  efgykvksa  us  ^izn'kZu  ,oa
izfr;ksfxrk* tSls lkoZtfud dk;ZØeksa esa
cM+s xoZ osQ lkFk vius u, dkS'ky dk
13
iq
2020-21
tgk¡ ifg;k gS            75
izn'kZu fd;k vkSj vHkh Hkh muesa lkbfdy pykus dh bPNk tkjh gSA ogk¡
blosQ fy, dbZ ^izf'k{k.k f'kfoj* py jgs gSaA
xzkeh.k iqMqdks^bZ osQ eq[; bykdksa esa vR;ar :f<+oknh i`"BHkwfe ls vkb±
;qok eqfLye yM+fd;k¡ lM+dksa ls viuh lkbfdyksa ij tkrh gqbZ fn[kkbZ nsrh
gSaA tehyk choh uked ,d ;qorh us ftlus lkbfdy pykuk 'kq: fd;k
gS] eq>ls dgkµ¶;g esjk vfèkdkj gS] vc ge dgha Hkh tk ldrs gSaA vc
gesa cl dk bar”kkj ugha djuk iM+rkA eq>s irk gS fd tc eSaus lkbfdy
pykuk 'kq: fd;k rks yksx I
+
kQfCr;k¡ dlrs FksA ysfdu eSaus ml ij dksbZ
è;ku ugha fn;kA¸
iQkfrek ,d ekè;fed LowQy esa i<+krh gSa vkSj mUgsa lkbfdy pykus dk
,slk pko yxk gS fd gj 'kke vkèkk ?kaVs osQ fy, fdjk, ij lkbfdy ysrh
gSaA ,d u;h lkbfdy [kjhnus dh mudh gSfl;r ugha gSA iQkfrek us crk;k
fdµ¶lkbfdy pykus esa ,d [kkl rjg dh vk”kknh gSA geas fdlh ij
fuHkZj ugha jguk iM+rkA eSa dHkh bls ugha NksM¡+
w
xhA¸ tehyk] iQkfrek vkSj
mudh fe=k vodUuhµbu lcdh mez 20 o"kZ osQ vklikl gS vkSj bUgksaus
vius leqnk; dh vusd ;qofr;ksa dks lkbfdy pykuk fl[kk;k gSA
bl f”kys esa lkbfdy dh èkwe eph gqbZ gSA bldh iz'kaldksa esa gSa efgyk
[ksfrgj e”knwj] iRFkj [knkuksa esa e”knwjh djusokyh vkSjrsa vkSj xk¡oksa esa dke
djusokyh uls±A ckyokM+h vkSj vk¡xuokM+h dk;ZdrkZ] cs'kdherh iRFkjksa dks
rjk'kus esa yxh vkSjrsa vkSj LowQy dh vè;kfidk,¡ Hkh lkbfdy dk tedj
bLrseky dj jgh gSaA xzke lsfodk,¡ vkSj nksigj dk Hkkstu igq¡pkusokyh
vkSjrsa Hkh ihNs ugha gSaA lcls cM+h la[;k mu yksxksa dh gS tks vHkh uolk{kj
gqbZ gSaA ftl fdlh uolk{kj vFkok u;h&u;h lkbfdy pykusokyh efgyk
ls eSaus ckrphr dh] mlus lkbfdy pykus vkSj viuh O;fDrxr vk”kknh
osQ chp ,d lhèkk lacaèk crk;kA
lkbfdy vkanksyu dh ,d vxqvk dk dguk gS] ¶eq[; ckr ;g gS fd
bl vkanksyu us efgykvksa dks cgqr vkRefo'okl iznku fd;kA egRoiw.kZ ;g
2020-21
76 olar Hkkx 3
gS fd blus iq#"kksa ij mudh fuHkZjrk de dj nh gSA vc ge izk;% ns[krs
gSa fd dksbZ vkSjr viuh lkbfdy ij pkj fdyksehVj rd dh nwjh vklkuh
ls r; dj ikuh ykus tkrh gSA dHkh&dHkh lkFk esa mlosQ cPps Hkh gksrs gSaA
;gk¡ rd fd lkbfdy ls nwljs LFkkuksa ls lkeku <ksus dh O;oLFkk Hkh [kqn
gh dh tk ldrh gSA ysfdu ;dhu ekfu,] tc bUgksaus lkbfdy pykuk
'kq: fd;k rks bu ij yksxksa us tedj izgkj fd;k ftls bUgsa >syuk iM+kA
xanh&xanh fVIif.k;k¡ dh xb± ysfdu èkhjs&èkhjs lkbfdy pykus dks lkekftd
LohÑfr feyhA blfy, efgykvksa us bls viuk fy;kA
lkbfdy izf'k{k.k f'kfoj ns[kuk ,d vlkèkkj.k vuqHko gSA fdykoqQ#fp
xk¡o esa lHkh lkbfdy lh[kusokyh efgyk,¡ jfookj dks bd_h gqbZ FkhaA
lkbfdy pykus osQ vkanksyu osQ leFkZu esa ,sls vkosx ns[kdj dksbZ Hkh gSjku
gq, fcuk ugha jg ldrkA mUgsa bls lh[kuk gh gSA lkbfdy us mUgsa iq#"kksa
}kjk Fkksis x, nk;js osQ vanj jks”kejkZ dh f?klh&fiVh ppkZ ls ckgj fudyus
dk jkLrk fn[kk;kA ;s
uo&lkbfdy pkyd xkus
Hkh xkrh gSaA mu xkuksa esa
lkbfdy pykus dks
izksRlkgu fn;k x;k gSA
buesa ls ,d xkus dh
iafDr dk Hkko gSµ^vks
cfguk]   vk   lh[kas
lkbfdy] ?kwesa le; osQ
ifg, lax---*
ftUgsa lkbfdy pykus
dk izf'k{k.k fey pqdk
gS muesa ls cgqr cM+h
la[;k esa lkbfdy lh[k
2020-21
Page 4


74 olar Hkkx 3
tgk¡ ifg;k gS
Mqdks^bZ (rfeyukMq)% lkbfdy pykuk ,d lkekftd vkanksyu gS\ oqQN
vthc&lh ckr gSµgS u! ysfdu pkSadus dh ckr ugha gSA iqMqdks^bZ f”kys
dh g”kkjksa uolk{kj xzkeh.k efgykvksa osQ fy, ;g vc vke ckr gSA vius
fiNM+siu ij ykr ekjus] viuk fojksèk O;Dr djus vkSj mu ”kathjksa dks
rksM+us dk ftuesa os tdM+s gq, gSa] dksbZ&u&dksbZ rjhdk yksx fudky gh ysrs
gSaA dHkh&dHkh ;s rjhosQ vthcks&xjhc gksrs gSaA
Hkkjr osQ lokZfèkd xjhc f”kyksa esa ls ,d gS iqMqdks^bZA fiNys fnuksa ;gk¡
dh  xzkeh.k  efgykvksa  us  viuh
Lokèkhurk] vk”kknh vkSj xfr'khyrk dks
vfHkO;Dr djus osQ fy, izrhd osQ :i
esa lkbfdy dks pquk gSA muesa ls
vfèkdka'k uolk{kj FkhaA vxj ge nl
o"kZ ls de mez dh yM+fd;ksa dks vyx
dj nsa rks bldk vFkZ ;g gksxk fd ;gk¡
xzkeh.k efgykvksa osQ ,d&pkSFkkbZ fgLls
us lkbfdy pykuk lh[k fy;k gS vkSj
bu efgykvksa esa ls lÙkj g”kkj ls Hkh
vfèkd  efgykvksa  us  ^izn'kZu  ,oa
izfr;ksfxrk* tSls lkoZtfud dk;ZØeksa esa
cM+s xoZ osQ lkFk vius u, dkS'ky dk
13
iq
2020-21
tgk¡ ifg;k gS            75
izn'kZu fd;k vkSj vHkh Hkh muesa lkbfdy pykus dh bPNk tkjh gSA ogk¡
blosQ fy, dbZ ^izf'k{k.k f'kfoj* py jgs gSaA
xzkeh.k iqMqdks^bZ osQ eq[; bykdksa esa vR;ar :f<+oknh i`"BHkwfe ls vkb±
;qok eqfLye yM+fd;k¡ lM+dksa ls viuh lkbfdyksa ij tkrh gqbZ fn[kkbZ nsrh
gSaA tehyk choh uked ,d ;qorh us ftlus lkbfdy pykuk 'kq: fd;k
gS] eq>ls dgkµ¶;g esjk vfèkdkj gS] vc ge dgha Hkh tk ldrs gSaA vc
gesa cl dk bar”kkj ugha djuk iM+rkA eq>s irk gS fd tc eSaus lkbfdy
pykuk 'kq: fd;k rks yksx I
+
kQfCr;k¡ dlrs FksA ysfdu eSaus ml ij dksbZ
è;ku ugha fn;kA¸
iQkfrek ,d ekè;fed LowQy esa i<+krh gSa vkSj mUgsa lkbfdy pykus dk
,slk pko yxk gS fd gj 'kke vkèkk ?kaVs osQ fy, fdjk, ij lkbfdy ysrh
gSaA ,d u;h lkbfdy [kjhnus dh mudh gSfl;r ugha gSA iQkfrek us crk;k
fdµ¶lkbfdy pykus esa ,d [kkl rjg dh vk”kknh gSA geas fdlh ij
fuHkZj ugha jguk iM+rkA eSa dHkh bls ugha NksM¡+
w
xhA¸ tehyk] iQkfrek vkSj
mudh fe=k vodUuhµbu lcdh mez 20 o"kZ osQ vklikl gS vkSj bUgksaus
vius leqnk; dh vusd ;qofr;ksa dks lkbfdy pykuk fl[kk;k gSA
bl f”kys esa lkbfdy dh èkwe eph gqbZ gSA bldh iz'kaldksa esa gSa efgyk
[ksfrgj e”knwj] iRFkj [knkuksa esa e”knwjh djusokyh vkSjrsa vkSj xk¡oksa esa dke
djusokyh uls±A ckyokM+h vkSj vk¡xuokM+h dk;ZdrkZ] cs'kdherh iRFkjksa dks
rjk'kus esa yxh vkSjrsa vkSj LowQy dh vè;kfidk,¡ Hkh lkbfdy dk tedj
bLrseky dj jgh gSaA xzke lsfodk,¡ vkSj nksigj dk Hkkstu igq¡pkusokyh
vkSjrsa Hkh ihNs ugha gSaA lcls cM+h la[;k mu yksxksa dh gS tks vHkh uolk{kj
gqbZ gSaA ftl fdlh uolk{kj vFkok u;h&u;h lkbfdy pykusokyh efgyk
ls eSaus ckrphr dh] mlus lkbfdy pykus vkSj viuh O;fDrxr vk”kknh
osQ chp ,d lhèkk lacaèk crk;kA
lkbfdy vkanksyu dh ,d vxqvk dk dguk gS] ¶eq[; ckr ;g gS fd
bl vkanksyu us efgykvksa dks cgqr vkRefo'okl iznku fd;kA egRoiw.kZ ;g
2020-21
76 olar Hkkx 3
gS fd blus iq#"kksa ij mudh fuHkZjrk de dj nh gSA vc ge izk;% ns[krs
gSa fd dksbZ vkSjr viuh lkbfdy ij pkj fdyksehVj rd dh nwjh vklkuh
ls r; dj ikuh ykus tkrh gSA dHkh&dHkh lkFk esa mlosQ cPps Hkh gksrs gSaA
;gk¡ rd fd lkbfdy ls nwljs LFkkuksa ls lkeku <ksus dh O;oLFkk Hkh [kqn
gh dh tk ldrh gSA ysfdu ;dhu ekfu,] tc bUgksaus lkbfdy pykuk
'kq: fd;k rks bu ij yksxksa us tedj izgkj fd;k ftls bUgsa >syuk iM+kA
xanh&xanh fVIif.k;k¡ dh xb± ysfdu èkhjs&èkhjs lkbfdy pykus dks lkekftd
LohÑfr feyhA blfy, efgykvksa us bls viuk fy;kA
lkbfdy izf'k{k.k f'kfoj ns[kuk ,d vlkèkkj.k vuqHko gSA fdykoqQ#fp
xk¡o esa lHkh lkbfdy lh[kusokyh efgyk,¡ jfookj dks bd_h gqbZ FkhaA
lkbfdy pykus osQ vkanksyu osQ leFkZu esa ,sls vkosx ns[kdj dksbZ Hkh gSjku
gq, fcuk ugha jg ldrkA mUgsa bls lh[kuk gh gSA lkbfdy us mUgsa iq#"kksa
}kjk Fkksis x, nk;js osQ vanj jks”kejkZ dh f?klh&fiVh ppkZ ls ckgj fudyus
dk jkLrk fn[kk;kA ;s
uo&lkbfdy pkyd xkus
Hkh xkrh gSaA mu xkuksa esa
lkbfdy pykus dks
izksRlkgu fn;k x;k gSA
buesa ls ,d xkus dh
iafDr dk Hkko gSµ^vks
cfguk]   vk   lh[kas
lkbfdy] ?kwesa le; osQ
ifg, lax---*
ftUgsa lkbfdy pykus
dk izf'k{k.k fey pqdk
gS muesa ls cgqr cM+h
la[;k esa lkbfdy lh[k
2020-21
tgk¡ ifg;k gS            77
pqdh efgyk,¡ vHkh u;h&u;h lkbfdy lh[kusokyh efgykvksa dks Hkjiwj
lg;ksx nsrh gSaA muesa ;gk¡ u osQoy lh[kus&fl[kkus dh bPNk fn[kkbZ nsrh
gS_ cfYd muosQ chp ;g mRlkg Hkh fn[kkbZ nsrk gS fd lHkh efgykvksa dks
lkbfdy pykuk lh[kuk pkfg,A
1992 esa varjkZ"Vªh; efgyk fnol osQ ckn vc ;g f”kyk dHkh Hkh
igys tSlk ugha gks ldrkA gSaMy ij >afM;k¡ yxk,] ?kafV;k¡ ctkrs gq,
lkbfdy ij lokj 1500 efgykvksa us iqMqdks^bZ esa rwI
+
kQku yk fn;kA efgykvksa
dh lkbfdy pykus dh bl rS;kjh us ;gk¡ jgusokyksa dks gDdk&cDdk dj
fn;kA
bl lkjs ekeys ij iq#"kksa dh D;k jk; Fkh\ blosQ i{k esa ^vkj- lkbfdYl*
osQ ekfyd dks rks jguk gh FkkA bl vosQys Mhyj osQ ;gk¡ ysMh”k lkbfdy dh
fcØh esa lky Hkj osQ vanj dkiQh o`f¼ gqbZA ekuk tk ldrk gS fd bl vk¡dM+s
dks nks dkj.kksa ls de djosQ vk¡dk x;kA igyh ckr rks ;g gS fdµ<sj lkjh
efgykvksa us tks ysMh”k lkbfdy dk bar”kkj ugha dj ldrh Fkha] tsaV~l
lkbfdysa [kjhnus yxhaA nwljs] ml Mhyj us cM+h lroZQrk osQ lkFk ;g tkudkjh
eq>s nh Fkhµmls yxk fd eSa fcØh dj foHkkx dk dksbZ vkneh gw¡A
oqQfnfe vUukeykbZ dh fpyfpykrh èkwi esa ,d vn~Hkqr n`'; dh rjg
iRFkj osQ [knkuksa esa nkSM+rh&Hkkxrh ckbZl o"khZ; euksjeuh dks yksxksa us lkbfdy
fl[kykrs ns[kkA mlus eq>s crk;kµ¶gekjk bykdk eq[; 'kgj ls dVk gqvk
gSA ;gk¡ tks lkbfdy pykuk tkurs gSa mudh xfr'khyrk c<+ tkrh gSA¸
lkbfdy pykus osQ cgqr fuf'pr vkfFkZd fufgrkFkZ FksA blls vk; esa
o`f¼ gqbZ gSA ;gk¡ dh oqQN efgyk,¡ vxy&cxy osQ xk¡oksa esa o`Qf"k lacaèkh
vFkok vU; mRikn csp vkrh gSaA lkbfdy dh otg ls clksa osQ bar”kkj esa
O;; gksus okyk mudk le; cp tkrk gSA [kjkc ifjogu O;oLFkk okys
LFkkuksa osQ fy, rks ;g cgqr egRoiw.kZ gSA nwljs] blls bUgsa bruk le; fey
tkrk gS fd ;s vius lkeku cspus ij ”;knk è;ku osaQfnzr dj ikrh gaSA
2020-21
Page 5


74 olar Hkkx 3
tgk¡ ifg;k gS
Mqdks^bZ (rfeyukMq)% lkbfdy pykuk ,d lkekftd vkanksyu gS\ oqQN
vthc&lh ckr gSµgS u! ysfdu pkSadus dh ckr ugha gSA iqMqdks^bZ f”kys
dh g”kkjksa uolk{kj xzkeh.k efgykvksa osQ fy, ;g vc vke ckr gSA vius
fiNM+siu ij ykr ekjus] viuk fojksèk O;Dr djus vkSj mu ”kathjksa dks
rksM+us dk ftuesa os tdM+s gq, gSa] dksbZ&u&dksbZ rjhdk yksx fudky gh ysrs
gSaA dHkh&dHkh ;s rjhosQ vthcks&xjhc gksrs gSaA
Hkkjr osQ lokZfèkd xjhc f”kyksa esa ls ,d gS iqMqdks^bZA fiNys fnuksa ;gk¡
dh  xzkeh.k  efgykvksa  us  viuh
Lokèkhurk] vk”kknh vkSj xfr'khyrk dks
vfHkO;Dr djus osQ fy, izrhd osQ :i
esa lkbfdy dks pquk gSA muesa ls
vfèkdka'k uolk{kj FkhaA vxj ge nl
o"kZ ls de mez dh yM+fd;ksa dks vyx
dj nsa rks bldk vFkZ ;g gksxk fd ;gk¡
xzkeh.k efgykvksa osQ ,d&pkSFkkbZ fgLls
us lkbfdy pykuk lh[k fy;k gS vkSj
bu efgykvksa esa ls lÙkj g”kkj ls Hkh
vfèkd  efgykvksa  us  ^izn'kZu  ,oa
izfr;ksfxrk* tSls lkoZtfud dk;ZØeksa esa
cM+s xoZ osQ lkFk vius u, dkS'ky dk
13
iq
2020-21
tgk¡ ifg;k gS            75
izn'kZu fd;k vkSj vHkh Hkh muesa lkbfdy pykus dh bPNk tkjh gSA ogk¡
blosQ fy, dbZ ^izf'k{k.k f'kfoj* py jgs gSaA
xzkeh.k iqMqdks^bZ osQ eq[; bykdksa esa vR;ar :f<+oknh i`"BHkwfe ls vkb±
;qok eqfLye yM+fd;k¡ lM+dksa ls viuh lkbfdyksa ij tkrh gqbZ fn[kkbZ nsrh
gSaA tehyk choh uked ,d ;qorh us ftlus lkbfdy pykuk 'kq: fd;k
gS] eq>ls dgkµ¶;g esjk vfèkdkj gS] vc ge dgha Hkh tk ldrs gSaA vc
gesa cl dk bar”kkj ugha djuk iM+rkA eq>s irk gS fd tc eSaus lkbfdy
pykuk 'kq: fd;k rks yksx I
+
kQfCr;k¡ dlrs FksA ysfdu eSaus ml ij dksbZ
è;ku ugha fn;kA¸
iQkfrek ,d ekè;fed LowQy esa i<+krh gSa vkSj mUgsa lkbfdy pykus dk
,slk pko yxk gS fd gj 'kke vkèkk ?kaVs osQ fy, fdjk, ij lkbfdy ysrh
gSaA ,d u;h lkbfdy [kjhnus dh mudh gSfl;r ugha gSA iQkfrek us crk;k
fdµ¶lkbfdy pykus esa ,d [kkl rjg dh vk”kknh gSA geas fdlh ij
fuHkZj ugha jguk iM+rkA eSa dHkh bls ugha NksM¡+
w
xhA¸ tehyk] iQkfrek vkSj
mudh fe=k vodUuhµbu lcdh mez 20 o"kZ osQ vklikl gS vkSj bUgksaus
vius leqnk; dh vusd ;qofr;ksa dks lkbfdy pykuk fl[kk;k gSA
bl f”kys esa lkbfdy dh èkwe eph gqbZ gSA bldh iz'kaldksa esa gSa efgyk
[ksfrgj e”knwj] iRFkj [knkuksa esa e”knwjh djusokyh vkSjrsa vkSj xk¡oksa esa dke
djusokyh uls±A ckyokM+h vkSj vk¡xuokM+h dk;ZdrkZ] cs'kdherh iRFkjksa dks
rjk'kus esa yxh vkSjrsa vkSj LowQy dh vè;kfidk,¡ Hkh lkbfdy dk tedj
bLrseky dj jgh gSaA xzke lsfodk,¡ vkSj nksigj dk Hkkstu igq¡pkusokyh
vkSjrsa Hkh ihNs ugha gSaA lcls cM+h la[;k mu yksxksa dh gS tks vHkh uolk{kj
gqbZ gSaA ftl fdlh uolk{kj vFkok u;h&u;h lkbfdy pykusokyh efgyk
ls eSaus ckrphr dh] mlus lkbfdy pykus vkSj viuh O;fDrxr vk”kknh
osQ chp ,d lhèkk lacaèk crk;kA
lkbfdy vkanksyu dh ,d vxqvk dk dguk gS] ¶eq[; ckr ;g gS fd
bl vkanksyu us efgykvksa dks cgqr vkRefo'okl iznku fd;kA egRoiw.kZ ;g
2020-21
76 olar Hkkx 3
gS fd blus iq#"kksa ij mudh fuHkZjrk de dj nh gSA vc ge izk;% ns[krs
gSa fd dksbZ vkSjr viuh lkbfdy ij pkj fdyksehVj rd dh nwjh vklkuh
ls r; dj ikuh ykus tkrh gSA dHkh&dHkh lkFk esa mlosQ cPps Hkh gksrs gSaA
;gk¡ rd fd lkbfdy ls nwljs LFkkuksa ls lkeku <ksus dh O;oLFkk Hkh [kqn
gh dh tk ldrh gSA ysfdu ;dhu ekfu,] tc bUgksaus lkbfdy pykuk
'kq: fd;k rks bu ij yksxksa us tedj izgkj fd;k ftls bUgsa >syuk iM+kA
xanh&xanh fVIif.k;k¡ dh xb± ysfdu èkhjs&èkhjs lkbfdy pykus dks lkekftd
LohÑfr feyhA blfy, efgykvksa us bls viuk fy;kA
lkbfdy izf'k{k.k f'kfoj ns[kuk ,d vlkèkkj.k vuqHko gSA fdykoqQ#fp
xk¡o esa lHkh lkbfdy lh[kusokyh efgyk,¡ jfookj dks bd_h gqbZ FkhaA
lkbfdy pykus osQ vkanksyu osQ leFkZu esa ,sls vkosx ns[kdj dksbZ Hkh gSjku
gq, fcuk ugha jg ldrkA mUgsa bls lh[kuk gh gSA lkbfdy us mUgsa iq#"kksa
}kjk Fkksis x, nk;js osQ vanj jks”kejkZ dh f?klh&fiVh ppkZ ls ckgj fudyus
dk jkLrk fn[kk;kA ;s
uo&lkbfdy pkyd xkus
Hkh xkrh gSaA mu xkuksa esa
lkbfdy pykus dks
izksRlkgu fn;k x;k gSA
buesa ls ,d xkus dh
iafDr dk Hkko gSµ^vks
cfguk]   vk   lh[kas
lkbfdy] ?kwesa le; osQ
ifg, lax---*
ftUgsa lkbfdy pykus
dk izf'k{k.k fey pqdk
gS muesa ls cgqr cM+h
la[;k esa lkbfdy lh[k
2020-21
tgk¡ ifg;k gS            77
pqdh efgyk,¡ vHkh u;h&u;h lkbfdy lh[kusokyh efgykvksa dks Hkjiwj
lg;ksx nsrh gSaA muesa ;gk¡ u osQoy lh[kus&fl[kkus dh bPNk fn[kkbZ nsrh
gS_ cfYd muosQ chp ;g mRlkg Hkh fn[kkbZ nsrk gS fd lHkh efgykvksa dks
lkbfdy pykuk lh[kuk pkfg,A
1992 esa varjkZ"Vªh; efgyk fnol osQ ckn vc ;g f”kyk dHkh Hkh
igys tSlk ugha gks ldrkA gSaMy ij >afM;k¡ yxk,] ?kafV;k¡ ctkrs gq,
lkbfdy ij lokj 1500 efgykvksa us iqMqdks^bZ esa rwI
+
kQku yk fn;kA efgykvksa
dh lkbfdy pykus dh bl rS;kjh us ;gk¡ jgusokyksa dks gDdk&cDdk dj
fn;kA
bl lkjs ekeys ij iq#"kksa dh D;k jk; Fkh\ blosQ i{k esa ^vkj- lkbfdYl*
osQ ekfyd dks rks jguk gh FkkA bl vosQys Mhyj osQ ;gk¡ ysMh”k lkbfdy dh
fcØh esa lky Hkj osQ vanj dkiQh o`f¼ gqbZA ekuk tk ldrk gS fd bl vk¡dM+s
dks nks dkj.kksa ls de djosQ vk¡dk x;kA igyh ckr rks ;g gS fdµ<sj lkjh
efgykvksa us tks ysMh”k lkbfdy dk bar”kkj ugha dj ldrh Fkha] tsaV~l
lkbfdysa [kjhnus yxhaA nwljs] ml Mhyj us cM+h lroZQrk osQ lkFk ;g tkudkjh
eq>s nh Fkhµmls yxk fd eSa fcØh dj foHkkx dk dksbZ vkneh gw¡A
oqQfnfe vUukeykbZ dh fpyfpykrh èkwi esa ,d vn~Hkqr n`'; dh rjg
iRFkj osQ [knkuksa esa nkSM+rh&Hkkxrh ckbZl o"khZ; euksjeuh dks yksxksa us lkbfdy
fl[kykrs ns[kkA mlus eq>s crk;kµ¶gekjk bykdk eq[; 'kgj ls dVk gqvk
gSA ;gk¡ tks lkbfdy pykuk tkurs gSa mudh xfr'khyrk c<+ tkrh gSA¸
lkbfdy pykus osQ cgqr fuf'pr vkfFkZd fufgrkFkZ FksA blls vk; esa
o`f¼ gqbZ gSA ;gk¡ dh oqQN efgyk,¡ vxy&cxy osQ xk¡oksa esa o`Qf"k lacaèkh
vFkok vU; mRikn csp vkrh gSaA lkbfdy dh otg ls clksa osQ bar”kkj esa
O;; gksus okyk mudk le; cp tkrk gSA [kjkc ifjogu O;oLFkk okys
LFkkuksa osQ fy, rks ;g cgqr egRoiw.kZ gSA nwljs] blls bUgsa bruk le; fey
tkrk gS fd ;s vius lkeku cspus ij ”;knk è;ku osaQfnzr dj ikrh gaSA
2020-21
78 olar Hkkx 3
rhljs] blls ;s vkSj vfèkd bykdksa esa tk ikrh gSaA vafre ckr ;g gS fd
vxj vki pkgsa rks blls vkjke djus dk dkI
+
kQh le; fey ldrk gSA
ftu NksVs mRikndksa dks clksa dk bar”kkj djuk iM+rk Fkk] cl LVkWi rd
igq¡pus osQ fy, Hkh firk] HkkbZ] ifr ;k csVksa ij fuHkZj jguk iM+rk FkkA os
viuk lkeku cspus
osQ fy, oqQN
fxus&pqus xk¡oksa rd gh
tk ikrh FkhaA oqQN dks
iSny gh pyuk iM+rk
FkkA ftuosQ ikl
lkbfdy ugha gS os
vc Hkh iSny gh
tkrh gaSA fiQj mUgsa
cPpksa dh ns[kHkky osQ
fy, ;k ihus dk
ikuh ykus tSls ?kjsyw
dkeksa osQ fy, Hkh
tYnh gh Hkkxdj ?kj
igq¡puk iM+rk FkkA
vc  ftuosQ  ikl
lkbfdysa gSa os lkjk
dke fcuk fdlh
fnDdr osQ dj ysrh
gSaA bldk vFkZ ;g
gqvk fd vc vki fdlh lqulku jkLrs ij Hkh ns[k ldrs gSa fd dksbZ
;qok&ek¡ lkbfdy ij vkxs vius cPps dks cSBk,] ihNs oSQfj;j ij lkeku
ykns pyh tk jgh gSA og vius lkFk ikuh ls Hkjs nks ;k rhu crZu fy,
vius ?kj ;k dke ij tkrh ns[kh tk ldrh gSA
2020-21
Read More
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