NCERT Textbook: पाठ 13 - मानवीय करुणा की दिव्या चमक, क्षितिज II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 13 - मानवीय करुणा की दिव्या चमक, क्षितिज II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


l
osZ'oj n;ky lDlsuk dk tUe lu~~ 1927 esa f”kyk
cLrh] mÙkj izns'k esa gqvkA mudh mPp f'k{kk bykgkckn
fo'ofo|ky; ls gqbZA os vè;kid] vkdk'kok.kh esa lgk;d
izksM~;wlj] fnueku esa milaiknd vkSj ijkx osQ laiknd
jgsA lu~~ 1983 esa mudk vkdfLed fuèku gks x;kA
losZ'oj cgqeq[kh izfrHkk osQ lkfgR;dkj FksA os dfo]
dgkuhdkj] miU;kldkj] fucaèkdkj vkSj ukVddkj FksA losZ'oj
dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµdkB dh ?kafV;k¡] oqQvkuks unh]
taxy dk nnZ] [kw¡fV;ksa ij V¡xs yksx (dfork&laxzg)_
ikxy oqQÙkksa dk elhgk] lks;k gqvk ty (miU;kl)_
yM+kbZ (dgkuh&laxzg)_ cdjh (ukVd)_ HkkSa HkkSa [kkSa [kkSa]
crwrk dk twrk] yk[k dh ukd (cky lkfgR;)A pjps
vkSj pj[ks muosQ ys[kksa dk laxzg gSA [k¡wfV;ksa ij V¡xs yksx
ij mUgsa lkfgR; vdknseh dk iqjLdkj feykA
losZ'oj dh igpku eè;oxhZ; vkdka{kkvksa osQ ys[kd
osQ :i esa dh tkrh gSA eè;oxhZ; thou dh egRokdka{kkvksa]
liuksa] la?k"kZ] 'kks"k.k] grk'kk vkSj oqqaQBk dk fp=k.k muosQ
lkfgR; esa feyrk gSA losZ'oj th LraHkdkj Fks vkSj pjps
vkSj pj[ks uke ls fnueku esa tks LraHk fy[krs Fks mlesa
csckd lp dgus dk lkgl fn[krk gSA mudh vfHkO;fDr
esa lgtrk vkSj LokHkkfodrk gSA
losZ'oj
n;ky
lDlsuk
13
Page 2


l
osZ'oj n;ky lDlsuk dk tUe lu~~ 1927 esa f”kyk
cLrh] mÙkj izns'k esa gqvkA mudh mPp f'k{kk bykgkckn
fo'ofo|ky; ls gqbZA os vè;kid] vkdk'kok.kh esa lgk;d
izksM~;wlj] fnueku esa milaiknd vkSj ijkx osQ laiknd
jgsA lu~~ 1983 esa mudk vkdfLed fuèku gks x;kA
losZ'oj cgqeq[kh izfrHkk osQ lkfgR;dkj FksA os dfo]
dgkuhdkj] miU;kldkj] fucaèkdkj vkSj ukVddkj FksA losZ'oj
dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµdkB dh ?kafV;k¡] oqQvkuks unh]
taxy dk nnZ] [kw¡fV;ksa ij V¡xs yksx (dfork&laxzg)_
ikxy oqQÙkksa dk elhgk] lks;k gqvk ty (miU;kl)_
yM+kbZ (dgkuh&laxzg)_ cdjh (ukVd)_ HkkSa HkkSa [kkSa [kkSa]
crwrk dk twrk] yk[k dh ukd (cky lkfgR;)A pjps
vkSj pj[ks muosQ ys[kksa dk laxzg gSA [k¡wfV;ksa ij V¡xs yksx
ij mUgsa lkfgR; vdknseh dk iqjLdkj feykA
losZ'oj dh igpku eè;oxhZ; vkdka{kkvksa osQ ys[kd
osQ :i esa dh tkrh gSA eè;oxhZ; thou dh egRokdka{kkvksa]
liuksa] la?k"kZ] 'kks"k.k] grk'kk vkSj oqqaQBk dk fp=k.k muosQ
lkfgR; esa feyrk gSA losZ'oj th LraHkdkj Fks vkSj pjps
vkSj pj[ks uke ls fnueku esa tks LraHk fy[krs Fks mlesa
csckd lp dgus dk lkgl fn[krk gSA mudh vfHkO;fDr
esa lgtrk vkSj LokHkkfodrk gSA
losZ'oj
n;ky
lDlsuk
13
f{kfrt
84
laLej.k Le`fr;ksa ls curk gS vkSj Le`fr;ksa dh fo'oluh;rk mls egÙoiw.kZ cukrh
gSA I
+
kQknj dkfey cqYosQ ij fy[kk losZ'oj dk ;g laLej.k bl dlkSVh ij [kjk
mrjrk gSA vius dks Hkkjrh; dgus okys I
+
kQknj cqYosQ tUes rks csfYt;e (;wjksi)
osQ jSElpSiy 'kgj esa tks fxjtksa] iknfj;ksa] èkeZxq#vksa vkSj larksa dh Hkwfe dgh tkrh
gS ijarq mUgksaus viuh deZHkwfe cuk;k Hkkjr dksA I
+
kQknj cqYosQ ,d laU;klh Fks ijarq
ikjaifjd vFkZ esa ughaA losZ'oj dk I
+
kQknj cqYosQ ls varjax lacaèk Fkk ftldh >yd
gesa bl laLej.k esa feyrh gSA ys[kd dk ekuuk gS fd tc rd jkedFkk gS] bl
fons'kh Hkkjrh; lkèkq dks ;kn fd;k tk,xk rFkk mUgas ¯gnh Hkk"kk vkSj cksfy;ksa osQ
vxkèk izse dk mnkgj.k ekuk tk,xkA
Page 3


l
osZ'oj n;ky lDlsuk dk tUe lu~~ 1927 esa f”kyk
cLrh] mÙkj izns'k esa gqvkA mudh mPp f'k{kk bykgkckn
fo'ofo|ky; ls gqbZA os vè;kid] vkdk'kok.kh esa lgk;d
izksM~;wlj] fnueku esa milaiknd vkSj ijkx osQ laiknd
jgsA lu~~ 1983 esa mudk vkdfLed fuèku gks x;kA
losZ'oj cgqeq[kh izfrHkk osQ lkfgR;dkj FksA os dfo]
dgkuhdkj] miU;kldkj] fucaèkdkj vkSj ukVddkj FksA losZ'oj
dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµdkB dh ?kafV;k¡] oqQvkuks unh]
taxy dk nnZ] [kw¡fV;ksa ij V¡xs yksx (dfork&laxzg)_
ikxy oqQÙkksa dk elhgk] lks;k gqvk ty (miU;kl)_
yM+kbZ (dgkuh&laxzg)_ cdjh (ukVd)_ HkkSa HkkSa [kkSa [kkSa]
crwrk dk twrk] yk[k dh ukd (cky lkfgR;)A pjps
vkSj pj[ks muosQ ys[kksa dk laxzg gSA [k¡wfV;ksa ij V¡xs yksx
ij mUgsa lkfgR; vdknseh dk iqjLdkj feykA
losZ'oj dh igpku eè;oxhZ; vkdka{kkvksa osQ ys[kd
osQ :i esa dh tkrh gSA eè;oxhZ; thou dh egRokdka{kkvksa]
liuksa] la?k"kZ] 'kks"k.k] grk'kk vkSj oqqaQBk dk fp=k.k muosQ
lkfgR; esa feyrk gSA losZ'oj th LraHkdkj Fks vkSj pjps
vkSj pj[ks uke ls fnueku esa tks LraHk fy[krs Fks mlesa
csckd lp dgus dk lkgl fn[krk gSA mudh vfHkO;fDr
esa lgtrk vkSj LokHkkfodrk gSA
losZ'oj
n;ky
lDlsuk
13
f{kfrt
84
laLej.k Le`fr;ksa ls curk gS vkSj Le`fr;ksa dh fo'oluh;rk mls egÙoiw.kZ cukrh
gSA I
+
kQknj dkfey cqYosQ ij fy[kk losZ'oj dk ;g laLej.k bl dlkSVh ij [kjk
mrjrk gSA vius dks Hkkjrh; dgus okys I
+
kQknj cqYosQ tUes rks csfYt;e (;wjksi)
osQ jSElpSiy 'kgj esa tks fxjtksa] iknfj;ksa] èkeZxq#vksa vkSj larksa dh Hkwfe dgh tkrh
gS ijarq mUgksaus viuh deZHkwfe cuk;k Hkkjr dksA I
+
kQknj cqYosQ ,d laU;klh Fks ijarq
ikjaifjd vFkZ esa ughaA losZ'oj dk I
+
kQknj cqYosQ ls varjax lacaèk Fkk ftldh >yd
gesa bl laLej.k esa feyrh gSA ys[kd dk ekuuk gS fd tc rd jkedFkk gS] bl
fons'kh Hkkjrh; lkèkq dks ;kn fd;k tk,xk rFkk mUgas ¯gnh Hkk"kk vkSj cksfy;ksa osQ
vxkèk izse dk mnkgj.k ekuk tk,xkA
losZ'oj n;ky lDlsuk
85
ekuoh; d#.kk dh fnO; ped
I
+
kQknj dks ”kgjckn ls ugha ejuk pkfg, FkkA ftldh jxksa esa nwljksa osQ fy, feBkl Hkjs ve`r
osQ vfrfjDr vkSj oqQN ugha Fkk mlosQ fy, bl ”kgj dk foèkku D;ksa gks\ ;g loky fdl
bZ'oj ls iwNsa\ izHkq dh vkLFkk gh ftldk vfLrRo FkkA og nsg dh bl ;kruk dh ijh{kk
mez dh vkf[kjh nsgjh ij D;ksa ns\ ,d yach] iknjh osQ lI
+
ksQn pksxs ls <dh vko`Qfr lkeus
gSµxksjk jax] lI
+
ksQn >k¡b± ekjrh Hkwjh nk<+h] uhyh vk¡[ksa&ck¡gsa [kksy xys yxkus dks vkrqjA
bruh eerk] bruk viuRo bl lkèkq esa vius gj ,d fiz;tu osQ fy, meM+rk jgrk FkkA
eSa iSarhl lky ls bldk lk{kh FkkA rc Hkh tc og bykgkckn esa Fks vkSj rc Hkh tc og
fnYyh vkrs FksA vkt mu ck¡gksa dk nckc eSa viuh Nkrh ij eglwl djrk g¡wA
I
+
kQknj dks ;kn djuk ,d mnkl 'kkar laxhr dks lquus tSlk gSA mudks ns[kuk djQ.kk
osQ fueZy ty esa Luku djus tSlk Fkk vkSj muls ckr djuk deZ osQ ladYi ls Hkjuk FkkA
eq>s ^ifjey* osQ os fnu ;kn vkrs gSa tc ge lc ,d ikfjokfjd fj'rs esa c¡èks tSls Fks
ftlosQ cM+s I
+
kQknj cqYosQ FksA gekjs g¡lh&e”kkd esa og fufyZIr 'kkfey jgrs] gekjh xksf"B;ksa
esa og xaHkhj cgl djrs] gekjh jpukvksa ij csckd jk; vkSj lq>ko nsrs vkSj gekjs ?kjksa
osQ fdlh Hkh mRlo vkSj laLdkj esa og cM+s HkkbZ vkSj iqjksfgr tSls [kM+s gks gesa vius
vk'kh"kksa ls Hkj nsrsA eq>s viuk cPpk vkSj I
+
kQknj dk mlosQ eq[k esa igyh ckj vUu Mkyuk
;kn vkrk gS vkSj uhyh vk¡[kksa dh ped esa rSjrk okRlY; HkhµtSls fdlh m¡QpkbZ ij
nsonkjQ dh Nk;k esa [kM+s gksaA
dgk¡ ls 'kq: djsa! bykgkckn dh lM+dksa ij I
+
kQknj dh lkbfdy pyrh nh[k jgh gSA
og gekjs ikl vkdj jQdrh gS] eqldjkrs gq, mrjrs gSa] ^nsf[k,&nsf[k, eSaus mls i<+ fy;k
gS vkSj eSa dguk pkgrk gw¡---* mudks ozQksèk esa dHkh ugha ns[kk] vkos'k esa ns[kk gS vkSj eerk
rFkk I;kj esa yckyc Nydrk eglwl fd;k gSA vdlj mUgsa ns[kdj yxrk fd csfY”k;e
esa bathfu;fjax osQ vafre o"kZ esa ig¡qpdj muosQ eu esa laU;klh cuus dh bPNk oSQls tkx
xbZ tcfd ?kj Hkjk&iwjk Fkkµnks HkkbZ] ,d cfgu] ek¡] firk lHkh FksA
Page 4


l
osZ'oj n;ky lDlsuk dk tUe lu~~ 1927 esa f”kyk
cLrh] mÙkj izns'k esa gqvkA mudh mPp f'k{kk bykgkckn
fo'ofo|ky; ls gqbZA os vè;kid] vkdk'kok.kh esa lgk;d
izksM~;wlj] fnueku esa milaiknd vkSj ijkx osQ laiknd
jgsA lu~~ 1983 esa mudk vkdfLed fuèku gks x;kA
losZ'oj cgqeq[kh izfrHkk osQ lkfgR;dkj FksA os dfo]
dgkuhdkj] miU;kldkj] fucaèkdkj vkSj ukVddkj FksA losZ'oj
dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµdkB dh ?kafV;k¡] oqQvkuks unh]
taxy dk nnZ] [kw¡fV;ksa ij V¡xs yksx (dfork&laxzg)_
ikxy oqQÙkksa dk elhgk] lks;k gqvk ty (miU;kl)_
yM+kbZ (dgkuh&laxzg)_ cdjh (ukVd)_ HkkSa HkkSa [kkSa [kkSa]
crwrk dk twrk] yk[k dh ukd (cky lkfgR;)A pjps
vkSj pj[ks muosQ ys[kksa dk laxzg gSA [k¡wfV;ksa ij V¡xs yksx
ij mUgsa lkfgR; vdknseh dk iqjLdkj feykA
losZ'oj dh igpku eè;oxhZ; vkdka{kkvksa osQ ys[kd
osQ :i esa dh tkrh gSA eè;oxhZ; thou dh egRokdka{kkvksa]
liuksa] la?k"kZ] 'kks"k.k] grk'kk vkSj oqqaQBk dk fp=k.k muosQ
lkfgR; esa feyrk gSA losZ'oj th LraHkdkj Fks vkSj pjps
vkSj pj[ks uke ls fnueku esa tks LraHk fy[krs Fks mlesa
csckd lp dgus dk lkgl fn[krk gSA mudh vfHkO;fDr
esa lgtrk vkSj LokHkkfodrk gSA
losZ'oj
n;ky
lDlsuk
13
f{kfrt
84
laLej.k Le`fr;ksa ls curk gS vkSj Le`fr;ksa dh fo'oluh;rk mls egÙoiw.kZ cukrh
gSA I
+
kQknj dkfey cqYosQ ij fy[kk losZ'oj dk ;g laLej.k bl dlkSVh ij [kjk
mrjrk gSA vius dks Hkkjrh; dgus okys I
+
kQknj cqYosQ tUes rks csfYt;e (;wjksi)
osQ jSElpSiy 'kgj esa tks fxjtksa] iknfj;ksa] èkeZxq#vksa vkSj larksa dh Hkwfe dgh tkrh
gS ijarq mUgksaus viuh deZHkwfe cuk;k Hkkjr dksA I
+
kQknj cqYosQ ,d laU;klh Fks ijarq
ikjaifjd vFkZ esa ughaA losZ'oj dk I
+
kQknj cqYosQ ls varjax lacaèk Fkk ftldh >yd
gesa bl laLej.k esa feyrh gSA ys[kd dk ekuuk gS fd tc rd jkedFkk gS] bl
fons'kh Hkkjrh; lkèkq dks ;kn fd;k tk,xk rFkk mUgas ¯gnh Hkk"kk vkSj cksfy;ksa osQ
vxkèk izse dk mnkgj.k ekuk tk,xkA
losZ'oj n;ky lDlsuk
85
ekuoh; d#.kk dh fnO; ped
I
+
kQknj dks ”kgjckn ls ugha ejuk pkfg, FkkA ftldh jxksa esa nwljksa osQ fy, feBkl Hkjs ve`r
osQ vfrfjDr vkSj oqQN ugha Fkk mlosQ fy, bl ”kgj dk foèkku D;ksa gks\ ;g loky fdl
bZ'oj ls iwNsa\ izHkq dh vkLFkk gh ftldk vfLrRo FkkA og nsg dh bl ;kruk dh ijh{kk
mez dh vkf[kjh nsgjh ij D;ksa ns\ ,d yach] iknjh osQ lI
+
ksQn pksxs ls <dh vko`Qfr lkeus
gSµxksjk jax] lI
+
ksQn >k¡b± ekjrh Hkwjh nk<+h] uhyh vk¡[ksa&ck¡gsa [kksy xys yxkus dks vkrqjA
bruh eerk] bruk viuRo bl lkèkq esa vius gj ,d fiz;tu osQ fy, meM+rk jgrk FkkA
eSa iSarhl lky ls bldk lk{kh FkkA rc Hkh tc og bykgkckn esa Fks vkSj rc Hkh tc og
fnYyh vkrs FksA vkt mu ck¡gksa dk nckc eSa viuh Nkrh ij eglwl djrk g¡wA
I
+
kQknj dks ;kn djuk ,d mnkl 'kkar laxhr dks lquus tSlk gSA mudks ns[kuk djQ.kk
osQ fueZy ty esa Luku djus tSlk Fkk vkSj muls ckr djuk deZ osQ ladYi ls Hkjuk FkkA
eq>s ^ifjey* osQ os fnu ;kn vkrs gSa tc ge lc ,d ikfjokfjd fj'rs esa c¡èks tSls Fks
ftlosQ cM+s I
+
kQknj cqYosQ FksA gekjs g¡lh&e”kkd esa og fufyZIr 'kkfey jgrs] gekjh xksf"B;ksa
esa og xaHkhj cgl djrs] gekjh jpukvksa ij csckd jk; vkSj lq>ko nsrs vkSj gekjs ?kjksa
osQ fdlh Hkh mRlo vkSj laLdkj esa og cM+s HkkbZ vkSj iqjksfgr tSls [kM+s gks gesa vius
vk'kh"kksa ls Hkj nsrsA eq>s viuk cPpk vkSj I
+
kQknj dk mlosQ eq[k esa igyh ckj vUu Mkyuk
;kn vkrk gS vkSj uhyh vk¡[kksa dh ped esa rSjrk okRlY; HkhµtSls fdlh m¡QpkbZ ij
nsonkjQ dh Nk;k esa [kM+s gksaA
dgk¡ ls 'kq: djsa! bykgkckn dh lM+dksa ij I
+
kQknj dh lkbfdy pyrh nh[k jgh gSA
og gekjs ikl vkdj jQdrh gS] eqldjkrs gq, mrjrs gSa] ^nsf[k,&nsf[k, eSaus mls i<+ fy;k
gS vkSj eSa dguk pkgrk gw¡---* mudks ozQksèk esa dHkh ugha ns[kk] vkos'k esa ns[kk gS vkSj eerk
rFkk I;kj esa yckyc Nydrk eglwl fd;k gSA vdlj mUgsa ns[kdj yxrk fd csfY”k;e
esa bathfu;fjax osQ vafre o"kZ esa ig¡qpdj muosQ eu esa laU;klh cuus dh bPNk oSQls tkx
xbZ tcfd ?kj Hkjk&iwjk Fkkµnks HkkbZ] ,d cfgu] ek¡] firk lHkh FksA
f{kfrt
86
¶vkidks vius ns'k dh ;kn vkrh gS\¸
¶esjk ns'k rks vc Hkkjr gSA¸
¶eSa tUeHkwfe dh iwN jgk g¡w\¸
¶gk¡ vkrh gSA cgqr laqnj gS esjh tUeHkwfeµjsElpSiyA¸
¶?kj esa fdlh dh ;kn\¸
¶ek¡ dh ;kn vkrh gSµcgqr ;kn vkrh gSA¸
fiQj vdlj ek¡ dh Le`fr esa Mwc tkrs ns[kk gSA mudh ek¡ dh fpf_;k¡ vdlj muosQ
ikl vkrh FkhaA vius vfHkUUk fe=k MkW- j?kqoa'k dks og mu fpf_;ksa dks fn[kkrs FksA firk vkSj
Hkkb;ksa osQ fy, cgqr yxko eu esa ugha FkkA firk O;olk;h FksA ,d HkkbZ ogha iknjh gks x;k
gSA ,d HkkbZ dke djrk gS] mldk ifjokj gSA cgu l[r vkSj f”kíh FkhA cgqr nsj ls mlus
'kknh dhA I
+
kQknj dks ,dkèk ckj mldh 'kknh dh ¯prk O;Dr djrs mu fnuksa ns[kk FkkA Hkkjr
esa cl tkus osQ ckn nks ;k rhu ckj vius ifjokj ls feyus Hkkjr ls csfY”k;e x, FksA
¶ysfdu eSa rks laU;klh gw¡A¸
¶vki lc NksM+dj D;ksa pys vk,\¸
¶izHkq dh bPNk FkhA¸ og ckydksa
dh lh ljyrk ls eqldjkdj dgrs]
¶ek¡ us cpiu esa gh ?kksf"kr dj fn;k
Fkk fd yM+dk gkFk ls x;kA vkSj lpeqp
bathfu;fjax osQ vafre o"kZ dh i<+kbZ
NksM+ I
+
kQknj cqYosQ laU;klh gksus tc èkeZ
xqjQ osQ ikl x, vkSj dgk fd eSa
laU;kl ysuk pkgrk g¡w rFkk ,d 'krZ
j[kh (laU;kl ysrs le; laU;kl pkgus
okyk 'krZ j[k ldrk gS) fd eSa Hkkjr
tkm¡QxkA¸
¶Hkkjr tkus dh ckr D;ksa mBh\¸
¶ugha tkurk] cl eu esa ;g FkkA¸
mudh 'krZ eku yh xbZ vkSj og
Hkkjr vk x,A igys ^ftlsV la?k* esa nks
lky iknfj;ksa osQ chp èkekZpkj dh i<+kbZ
dhA fiQj 9&10 o"kZ nkftZ¯yx esa i<+rs
I
+
kQknj dkfey cqYosQ
Page 5


l
osZ'oj n;ky lDlsuk dk tUe lu~~ 1927 esa f”kyk
cLrh] mÙkj izns'k esa gqvkA mudh mPp f'k{kk bykgkckn
fo'ofo|ky; ls gqbZA os vè;kid] vkdk'kok.kh esa lgk;d
izksM~;wlj] fnueku esa milaiknd vkSj ijkx osQ laiknd
jgsA lu~~ 1983 esa mudk vkdfLed fuèku gks x;kA
losZ'oj cgqeq[kh izfrHkk osQ lkfgR;dkj FksA os dfo]
dgkuhdkj] miU;kldkj] fucaèkdkj vkSj ukVddkj FksA losZ'oj
dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµdkB dh ?kafV;k¡] oqQvkuks unh]
taxy dk nnZ] [kw¡fV;ksa ij V¡xs yksx (dfork&laxzg)_
ikxy oqQÙkksa dk elhgk] lks;k gqvk ty (miU;kl)_
yM+kbZ (dgkuh&laxzg)_ cdjh (ukVd)_ HkkSa HkkSa [kkSa [kkSa]
crwrk dk twrk] yk[k dh ukd (cky lkfgR;)A pjps
vkSj pj[ks muosQ ys[kksa dk laxzg gSA [k¡wfV;ksa ij V¡xs yksx
ij mUgsa lkfgR; vdknseh dk iqjLdkj feykA
losZ'oj dh igpku eè;oxhZ; vkdka{kkvksa osQ ys[kd
osQ :i esa dh tkrh gSA eè;oxhZ; thou dh egRokdka{kkvksa]
liuksa] la?k"kZ] 'kks"k.k] grk'kk vkSj oqqaQBk dk fp=k.k muosQ
lkfgR; esa feyrk gSA losZ'oj th LraHkdkj Fks vkSj pjps
vkSj pj[ks uke ls fnueku esa tks LraHk fy[krs Fks mlesa
csckd lp dgus dk lkgl fn[krk gSA mudh vfHkO;fDr
esa lgtrk vkSj LokHkkfodrk gSA
losZ'oj
n;ky
lDlsuk
13
f{kfrt
84
laLej.k Le`fr;ksa ls curk gS vkSj Le`fr;ksa dh fo'oluh;rk mls egÙoiw.kZ cukrh
gSA I
+
kQknj dkfey cqYosQ ij fy[kk losZ'oj dk ;g laLej.k bl dlkSVh ij [kjk
mrjrk gSA vius dks Hkkjrh; dgus okys I
+
kQknj cqYosQ tUes rks csfYt;e (;wjksi)
osQ jSElpSiy 'kgj esa tks fxjtksa] iknfj;ksa] èkeZxq#vksa vkSj larksa dh Hkwfe dgh tkrh
gS ijarq mUgksaus viuh deZHkwfe cuk;k Hkkjr dksA I
+
kQknj cqYosQ ,d laU;klh Fks ijarq
ikjaifjd vFkZ esa ughaA losZ'oj dk I
+
kQknj cqYosQ ls varjax lacaèk Fkk ftldh >yd
gesa bl laLej.k esa feyrh gSA ys[kd dk ekuuk gS fd tc rd jkedFkk gS] bl
fons'kh Hkkjrh; lkèkq dks ;kn fd;k tk,xk rFkk mUgas ¯gnh Hkk"kk vkSj cksfy;ksa osQ
vxkèk izse dk mnkgj.k ekuk tk,xkA
losZ'oj n;ky lDlsuk
85
ekuoh; d#.kk dh fnO; ped
I
+
kQknj dks ”kgjckn ls ugha ejuk pkfg, FkkA ftldh jxksa esa nwljksa osQ fy, feBkl Hkjs ve`r
osQ vfrfjDr vkSj oqQN ugha Fkk mlosQ fy, bl ”kgj dk foèkku D;ksa gks\ ;g loky fdl
bZ'oj ls iwNsa\ izHkq dh vkLFkk gh ftldk vfLrRo FkkA og nsg dh bl ;kruk dh ijh{kk
mez dh vkf[kjh nsgjh ij D;ksa ns\ ,d yach] iknjh osQ lI
+
ksQn pksxs ls <dh vko`Qfr lkeus
gSµxksjk jax] lI
+
ksQn >k¡b± ekjrh Hkwjh nk<+h] uhyh vk¡[ksa&ck¡gsa [kksy xys yxkus dks vkrqjA
bruh eerk] bruk viuRo bl lkèkq esa vius gj ,d fiz;tu osQ fy, meM+rk jgrk FkkA
eSa iSarhl lky ls bldk lk{kh FkkA rc Hkh tc og bykgkckn esa Fks vkSj rc Hkh tc og
fnYyh vkrs FksA vkt mu ck¡gksa dk nckc eSa viuh Nkrh ij eglwl djrk g¡wA
I
+
kQknj dks ;kn djuk ,d mnkl 'kkar laxhr dks lquus tSlk gSA mudks ns[kuk djQ.kk
osQ fueZy ty esa Luku djus tSlk Fkk vkSj muls ckr djuk deZ osQ ladYi ls Hkjuk FkkA
eq>s ^ifjey* osQ os fnu ;kn vkrs gSa tc ge lc ,d ikfjokfjd fj'rs esa c¡èks tSls Fks
ftlosQ cM+s I
+
kQknj cqYosQ FksA gekjs g¡lh&e”kkd esa og fufyZIr 'kkfey jgrs] gekjh xksf"B;ksa
esa og xaHkhj cgl djrs] gekjh jpukvksa ij csckd jk; vkSj lq>ko nsrs vkSj gekjs ?kjksa
osQ fdlh Hkh mRlo vkSj laLdkj esa og cM+s HkkbZ vkSj iqjksfgr tSls [kM+s gks gesa vius
vk'kh"kksa ls Hkj nsrsA eq>s viuk cPpk vkSj I
+
kQknj dk mlosQ eq[k esa igyh ckj vUu Mkyuk
;kn vkrk gS vkSj uhyh vk¡[kksa dh ped esa rSjrk okRlY; HkhµtSls fdlh m¡QpkbZ ij
nsonkjQ dh Nk;k esa [kM+s gksaA
dgk¡ ls 'kq: djsa! bykgkckn dh lM+dksa ij I
+
kQknj dh lkbfdy pyrh nh[k jgh gSA
og gekjs ikl vkdj jQdrh gS] eqldjkrs gq, mrjrs gSa] ^nsf[k,&nsf[k, eSaus mls i<+ fy;k
gS vkSj eSa dguk pkgrk gw¡---* mudks ozQksèk esa dHkh ugha ns[kk] vkos'k esa ns[kk gS vkSj eerk
rFkk I;kj esa yckyc Nydrk eglwl fd;k gSA vdlj mUgsa ns[kdj yxrk fd csfY”k;e
esa bathfu;fjax osQ vafre o"kZ esa ig¡qpdj muosQ eu esa laU;klh cuus dh bPNk oSQls tkx
xbZ tcfd ?kj Hkjk&iwjk Fkkµnks HkkbZ] ,d cfgu] ek¡] firk lHkh FksA
f{kfrt
86
¶vkidks vius ns'k dh ;kn vkrh gS\¸
¶esjk ns'k rks vc Hkkjr gSA¸
¶eSa tUeHkwfe dh iwN jgk g¡w\¸
¶gk¡ vkrh gSA cgqr laqnj gS esjh tUeHkwfeµjsElpSiyA¸
¶?kj esa fdlh dh ;kn\¸
¶ek¡ dh ;kn vkrh gSµcgqr ;kn vkrh gSA¸
fiQj vdlj ek¡ dh Le`fr esa Mwc tkrs ns[kk gSA mudh ek¡ dh fpf_;k¡ vdlj muosQ
ikl vkrh FkhaA vius vfHkUUk fe=k MkW- j?kqoa'k dks og mu fpf_;ksa dks fn[kkrs FksA firk vkSj
Hkkb;ksa osQ fy, cgqr yxko eu esa ugha FkkA firk O;olk;h FksA ,d HkkbZ ogha iknjh gks x;k
gSA ,d HkkbZ dke djrk gS] mldk ifjokj gSA cgu l[r vkSj f”kíh FkhA cgqr nsj ls mlus
'kknh dhA I
+
kQknj dks ,dkèk ckj mldh 'kknh dh ¯prk O;Dr djrs mu fnuksa ns[kk FkkA Hkkjr
esa cl tkus osQ ckn nks ;k rhu ckj vius ifjokj ls feyus Hkkjr ls csfY”k;e x, FksA
¶ysfdu eSa rks laU;klh gw¡A¸
¶vki lc NksM+dj D;ksa pys vk,\¸
¶izHkq dh bPNk FkhA¸ og ckydksa
dh lh ljyrk ls eqldjkdj dgrs]
¶ek¡ us cpiu esa gh ?kksf"kr dj fn;k
Fkk fd yM+dk gkFk ls x;kA vkSj lpeqp
bathfu;fjax osQ vafre o"kZ dh i<+kbZ
NksM+ I
+
kQknj cqYosQ laU;klh gksus tc èkeZ
xqjQ osQ ikl x, vkSj dgk fd eSa
laU;kl ysuk pkgrk g¡w rFkk ,d 'krZ
j[kh (laU;kl ysrs le; laU;kl pkgus
okyk 'krZ j[k ldrk gS) fd eSa Hkkjr
tkm¡QxkA¸
¶Hkkjr tkus dh ckr D;ksa mBh\¸
¶ugha tkurk] cl eu esa ;g FkkA¸
mudh 'krZ eku yh xbZ vkSj og
Hkkjr vk x,A igys ^ftlsV la?k* esa nks
lky iknfj;ksa osQ chp èkekZpkj dh i<+kbZ
dhA fiQj 9&10 o"kZ nkftZ¯yx esa i<+rs
I
+
kQknj dkfey cqYosQ
losZ'oj n;ky lDlsuk
87
jgsA dydÙkk (dksydkrk) ls ch-,- fd;k vkSj fiQj bykgkckn ls ,e-,-A mu fnuksa MkW-
èkhjsanz oekZ ¯gnh foHkkx osQ vè;{k FksA 'kksèkizcaèk iz;kx fo'ofo|ky; osQ ¯gnh foHkkx esa
jgdj 1950 esa iwjk fd;kµ^jkedFkk % mRifÙk vkSj fodklA* ^ifjey* esa mlosQ vè;k;
i<+s x, FksA I
+
kQknj us ekrj¯yd osQ izfl¼ ukVd ^Cyw cMZ* dk :ikarj Hkh fd;k gS
^uhyiaNh* osQ uke lsA ckn esa og lasV tsfo;lZ dkWfyt] jk¡ph esa ¯gnh rFkk laLÑr foHkkx
osQ foHkkxkè;{k gks x, vkSj ;gha mUgksaus viuk izfl¼ vaxzs”kh&¯gnh dks'k rS;kj fd;k vkSj
ckbfcy dk vuqokn Hkh---vkSj ogha chekj iM+s] iVuk vk,A fnYyh vk, vkSj pys x,µ47
o"kZ ns'k esa jgdj vkSj 73 o"kZ dh ¯”knxh thdjA
I
+
kQknj cqYosQ ladYi ls laU;klh FksA dHkh&dHkh yxrk gS og eu ls laU;klh ugha FksA
fj'rk cukrs Fks rks rksM+rs ugha FksA nfl;ksa lky ckn feyus osQ ckn Hkh mldh xaèk eglwl
gksrh FkhA og tc Hkh fnYyh vkrs ”k:j feyrsµ[kkstdj] le; fudkydj] xehZ] lnhZ]
cjlkr >sydj feyrs] pkgs nks feuV osQ fy, gh lghA ;g dkSu laU;klh djrk gS\ mudh
¯prk ¯gnh dks jk"VªHkk"kk osQ :i esa ns[kus dh FkhA gj eap ls bldh rdyhI
+
kQ c;ku djrs]
blosQ fy, vdkV~; roZQ nsrsA cl blh ,d loky ij mUgsa >q¡>ykrs ns[kk gS vkSj ¯gnh
okyksa }kjk gh ¯gnh dh mis{kk ij nq[k djrs mUgsa ik;k gSA ?kj&ifjokj osQ ckjs esa] futh
nq[k&rdyhI
+
kQ osQ ckjs esa iwNuk mudk LoHkko Fkk vkSj cM+s ls cM+s nq[k esa muosQ eq[k ls
lkaRouk osQ tknw Hkjs nks 'kCn lquuk ,d ,slh jks'kuh ls Hkj nsrk Fkk tks fdlh xgjh riL;k
ls tuerh gSA ^gj ekSr fn[kkrh gS thou dks u;h jkgA* eq>s viuh iRuh vkSj iq=k dh e`R;q
;kn vk jgh gS vkSj I
+
kQknj osQ 'kCnksa ls >jrh fojy 'kkafr HkhA
vkt og ugha gSA fnYyh esa chekj jgs vkSj irk ugha pykA ck¡gsa [kksydj bl ckj
mUgksaus xys ugha yxk;kA tc ns[kk rc os ck¡gas nksuksa gkFkksa dh lwth m¡xfy;ksa dks my>k,
rkcwr esa ftLe ij iM+h FkhaA tks 'kkafr cjlrh Fkh og psgjs ij fFkj FkhA rjyrk te xbZ
FkhA og 18 vxLr 1982 dh lqcg nl cts dk le; FkkA fnYyh esas d'ehjh xsV osQ
fudylu dczxkg esa mudk rkcwr ,d NksVh&lh uhyh xkM+h esa ls mrkjk x;kA oqQN iknjh]
j?kqoa'k th dk csVk vkSj muosQ ifjtu jkts'ojflag mls mrkj jgs FksA fiQj mls mBkdj ,d
yach l¡djh] mnkl isM+ksa dh ?kuh Nk¡g okyh lM+d ls dczxkg osQ vkf[kjh Nksj rd ys
tk;k x;k tgk¡ èkjrh dh xksn esa lqykus osQ fy, dcz voko~Q eq¡g [kksys ysVh FkhA mQij
djhy dh ?kuh Nk¡g Fkh vkSj pkjksa vksj dczsa vkSj rs”k èkwi osQ o`ÙkA tSusaæ oqQekj] fot;saæ
Lukrd] vftr oqQekj] MkW- fueZyk tSu vkSj elhgh leqnk; osQ yksx] iknjhx.k] muosQ chp
esa xSfjd olu igus bykgkckn osQ izfl¼ foKku&f'k{kd MkW- lR;izdk'k vkSj MkW- j?kqoa'k
Hkh tks vosQys ml l¡djh lM+d dh BaMh mnklh esa cgqr igys ls [kkeks'k nq[k dh fdUgha
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