NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3 - चिठियो में यूरोप, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

कक्षा - 8 हिन्दी (Class 8 Hindi) by VP Classes

Class 8 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3 - चिठियो में यूरोप, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


nwokZ/16
fpf_;ksa esa ;wjksi
22 ekpZ 89
;wxksLykfo;k] usfolkn
fiz; uhyw] 'ks:] dowQ] iw=kd vkSj rqe lcdh eEeh
rqe lcdks [kwc I;kjA
vkt ;gk¡ igq¡ps ,d g 
+
Ýrk gks x;kA ekSle vPNk py jgk gSA ;gk¡ clar vk jgk gSA lkjs isM+
uaxs [kM+s gSa_ ,d viuh fo|k tSlk isM+ gS tks gjk gS] ,d vkSj tks u, lky ij ?kj&?kj yxk;k
tkrk gSA fiQj Hkh iwQy vk jgs gSaA ,d uhys vkSj cSaxuh jax dk iwQy gS tks vius ;gk¡ dh l- IksQn
oqQeqnuh tSls gksrs gSaA oqQN yky] oqQN ihysA [kq'kcw ugha gksrhA vkt brokj gSµlks ,d cts [kkuk
[kkdj vk, vkSj fy[kus cSB x,A vkt geus tks [kkuk [kk;k og ;ksxVZ ls 'kq: gqvkµtSlk
vkblozQhe di gksrk gS oSlk cM+s di esaA jkst lwi gksrk gSA mlesa lisQn lse tSlhµ;gk¡ dh chu
yach vkSj iryh gksrh gSµcjcVh tSlhA fiQj vkblozQheA ;gh rhu dkslZ jkst lqcg 'kke gksrs gSaA
[kkrs [kkrs mdrkgV gks jgh gSA
dHkh&dHkh pkoy gksrk gSµ LV~;w ;kuh
djh osQ lkFk [kkus osQ fy,A ,d fnu
[kjs flosQ fpYys tSlh ,d feBkbZ vkbZ
mlesa [k^h csjh dk xwnk Hkjk FkkA lsob;k¡
ikuh esa mcyh&lwi esa jgrh gSaA vkSj
czsMA lqcg czsM cVj] ekeZysM (tsyh)
;k 'kgnA 30 xzke dh NksVh&NksVh
IykfLVd fMfc;ksa esaA
'kgj osQ chp ^nwuk* (Danube)
unh cgrh gSA ;g ;wjksi osQ dbZ ns'kksa
esa cgrh gSA uD'ks esa ns[kksxs rks fey
tk,xh] ^ussfolkn* (NOVISAD)
rhljk ikB
2020-21
Page 2


nwokZ/16
fpf_;ksa esa ;wjksi
22 ekpZ 89
;wxksLykfo;k] usfolkn
fiz; uhyw] 'ks:] dowQ] iw=kd vkSj rqe lcdh eEeh
rqe lcdks [kwc I;kjA
vkt ;gk¡ igq¡ps ,d g 
+
Ýrk gks x;kA ekSle vPNk py jgk gSA ;gk¡ clar vk jgk gSA lkjs isM+
uaxs [kM+s gSa_ ,d viuh fo|k tSlk isM+ gS tks gjk gS] ,d vkSj tks u, lky ij ?kj&?kj yxk;k
tkrk gSA fiQj Hkh iwQy vk jgs gSaA ,d uhys vkSj cSaxuh jax dk iwQy gS tks vius ;gk¡ dh l- IksQn
oqQeqnuh tSls gksrs gSaA oqQN yky] oqQN ihysA [kq'kcw ugha gksrhA vkt brokj gSµlks ,d cts [kkuk
[kkdj vk, vkSj fy[kus cSB x,A vkt geus tks [kkuk [kk;k og ;ksxVZ ls 'kq: gqvkµtSlk
vkblozQhe di gksrk gS oSlk cM+s di esaA jkst lwi gksrk gSA mlesa lisQn lse tSlhµ;gk¡ dh chu
yach vkSj iryh gksrh gSµcjcVh tSlhA fiQj vkblozQheA ;gh rhu dkslZ jkst lqcg 'kke gksrs gSaA
[kkrs [kkrs mdrkgV gks jgh gSA
dHkh&dHkh pkoy gksrk gSµ LV~;w ;kuh
djh osQ lkFk [kkus osQ fy,A ,d fnu
[kjs flosQ fpYys tSlh ,d feBkbZ vkbZ
mlesa [k^h csjh dk xwnk Hkjk FkkA lsob;k¡
ikuh esa mcyh&lwi esa jgrh gSaA vkSj
czsMA lqcg czsM cVj] ekeZysM (tsyh)
;k 'kgnA 30 xzke dh NksVh&NksVh
IykfLVd fMfc;ksa esaA
'kgj osQ chp ^nwuk* (Danube)
unh cgrh gSA ;g ;wjksi osQ dbZ ns'kksa
esa cgrh gSA uD'ks esa ns[kksxs rks fey
tk,xh] ^ussfolkn* (NOVISAD)
rhljk ikB
2020-21
 fpf_;ksa esa ;wjksi/17
'kgj Hkh fey tk,xkA geus rqe yksxksa osQ
fy, bVyh osQ flDosQ] ;gk¡ osQ flDosQ]
,d flDdk b.Mksusf'k;k dk & ekWfj'kl
dh oqQN fVdVsa bd_s fd, gSaA ph”ksa ;gk¡
cgqr egaxh gSa & yksx dgrs gSa er [kjhnks!
jks”k ck”kkj ls xqtjrs gSa rks rqe yksxksa dh
;kn vkrh gS cPpksa dks ns[kdjA
tks unh gS mlesa cM+s&cM+s ;k=kh tgkt
pyrs gSaA bl ns'k osQ Hkh vkSj gaxjh osQ HkhA
dy geus ns[ksA ;gk¡ iqQVckWy cgqr [ksyrs
gSaA 14 ls 20 vizSy rd ;gk¡ fo'o Vscy
Vsful pSfEi;uf'ki gksus okyh gSA ,dk/
jks”k ns[ksaxsA ck”kkj esa 20&20 eafty] 10&10
eafty dh fcfYaMxsa gSaA ;gk¡ bl 'kgj esa
g”kkjksa o"kks± igys vk, Hkkjrh;ksa dh larkusa
gSa & ;wjksih; ekywe gksrs gSaA ;gha dh os'kHkw"kk]
Hkk"kkA yM+osQ LosQfVax osQ cgqr 'kkSdhu gSaA gekjs dejs dh f[kM+dh ls [ksy osQ eSnku fn[krs gSaA
bl le; ,d eSnku esa iqQVckWy eSp gks jgk gSA ,d Vhe dh onhZ lI
+
ksQn gS nwljs dh ykyA eSnku
;gk¡ ls yxHkx vk/k iQyk±x nwj gS ij gekjk dejk ik¡poha eafty ij gS& blfy, lkiQ fn[krk
gSA dejs dh f[kM+dh dejs osQ cjkcj m¡Qph vkSj pkSM+h gSA vc ge yksx 22 gks x, gaS & 17 ns'kA
ekYVk] ekjh'kl] esfDldks] cksyhfo;k] ukbthfj;k] ekyh] vaxksyk] caxykns'k] viQxkfuLrku]
bftIV] tkWMZu] b.Mksusf'k;k] Hkkjr] phu] dksfj;k] FkkbySaMA usiky dk ,d yM+dk nqHkkf"k;k gS
Vad izlkn <dkyA dy ge yksx 'kgj ls ckgj ,d ikWYVªh iQkeZ ns[kus tk,¡xs & ;wfuoflZVh dh
cl lsA
dy nksigj geus 'kknh ikVhZ osQ ckn ?kj tk jgh ,d nqYgu Hkh ns[kh] viuh f[kM+dh lsA
lI
+
ksQn diM+s igus Fkh] uhps ls mQij rdA lj ij lI
+
ksQn Vksih tSlh fn[k jgh FkhA ipklsd yksx
FksA vkxs osQ gky ckn dh fp_h esa fy[ksaxsA rqe yksx xkSre ls ,jksxzke e¡xk dj gedks fp_h
fy[kukA rqe lcdks I;kjA vPNs ls jguk rkfd ek¡ dks rdyhI
+
kQ u gksA
rqEgkjk ikik
µlksenÙk
2020-21
Page 3


nwokZ/16
fpf_;ksa esa ;wjksi
22 ekpZ 89
;wxksLykfo;k] usfolkn
fiz; uhyw] 'ks:] dowQ] iw=kd vkSj rqe lcdh eEeh
rqe lcdks [kwc I;kjA
vkt ;gk¡ igq¡ps ,d g 
+
Ýrk gks x;kA ekSle vPNk py jgk gSA ;gk¡ clar vk jgk gSA lkjs isM+
uaxs [kM+s gSa_ ,d viuh fo|k tSlk isM+ gS tks gjk gS] ,d vkSj tks u, lky ij ?kj&?kj yxk;k
tkrk gSA fiQj Hkh iwQy vk jgs gSaA ,d uhys vkSj cSaxuh jax dk iwQy gS tks vius ;gk¡ dh l- IksQn
oqQeqnuh tSls gksrs gSaA oqQN yky] oqQN ihysA [kq'kcw ugha gksrhA vkt brokj gSµlks ,d cts [kkuk
[kkdj vk, vkSj fy[kus cSB x,A vkt geus tks [kkuk [kk;k og ;ksxVZ ls 'kq: gqvkµtSlk
vkblozQhe di gksrk gS oSlk cM+s di esaA jkst lwi gksrk gSA mlesa lisQn lse tSlhµ;gk¡ dh chu
yach vkSj iryh gksrh gSµcjcVh tSlhA fiQj vkblozQheA ;gh rhu dkslZ jkst lqcg 'kke gksrs gSaA
[kkrs [kkrs mdrkgV gks jgh gSA
dHkh&dHkh pkoy gksrk gSµ LV~;w ;kuh
djh osQ lkFk [kkus osQ fy,A ,d fnu
[kjs flosQ fpYys tSlh ,d feBkbZ vkbZ
mlesa [k^h csjh dk xwnk Hkjk FkkA lsob;k¡
ikuh esa mcyh&lwi esa jgrh gSaA vkSj
czsMA lqcg czsM cVj] ekeZysM (tsyh)
;k 'kgnA 30 xzke dh NksVh&NksVh
IykfLVd fMfc;ksa esaA
'kgj osQ chp ^nwuk* (Danube)
unh cgrh gSA ;g ;wjksi osQ dbZ ns'kksa
esa cgrh gSA uD'ks esa ns[kksxs rks fey
tk,xh] ^ussfolkn* (NOVISAD)
rhljk ikB
2020-21
 fpf_;ksa esa ;wjksi/17
'kgj Hkh fey tk,xkA geus rqe yksxksa osQ
fy, bVyh osQ flDosQ] ;gk¡ osQ flDosQ]
,d flDdk b.Mksusf'k;k dk & ekWfj'kl
dh oqQN fVdVsa bd_s fd, gSaA ph”ksa ;gk¡
cgqr egaxh gSa & yksx dgrs gSa er [kjhnks!
jks”k ck”kkj ls xqtjrs gSa rks rqe yksxksa dh
;kn vkrh gS cPpksa dks ns[kdjA
tks unh gS mlesa cM+s&cM+s ;k=kh tgkt
pyrs gSaA bl ns'k osQ Hkh vkSj gaxjh osQ HkhA
dy geus ns[ksA ;gk¡ iqQVckWy cgqr [ksyrs
gSaA 14 ls 20 vizSy rd ;gk¡ fo'o Vscy
Vsful pSfEi;uf'ki gksus okyh gSA ,dk/
jks”k ns[ksaxsA ck”kkj esa 20&20 eafty] 10&10
eafty dh fcfYaMxsa gSaA ;gk¡ bl 'kgj esa
g”kkjksa o"kks± igys vk, Hkkjrh;ksa dh larkusa
gSa & ;wjksih; ekywe gksrs gSaA ;gha dh os'kHkw"kk]
Hkk"kkA yM+osQ LosQfVax osQ cgqr 'kkSdhu gSaA gekjs dejs dh f[kM+dh ls [ksy osQ eSnku fn[krs gSaA
bl le; ,d eSnku esa iqQVckWy eSp gks jgk gSA ,d Vhe dh onhZ lI
+
ksQn gS nwljs dh ykyA eSnku
;gk¡ ls yxHkx vk/k iQyk±x nwj gS ij gekjk dejk ik¡poha eafty ij gS& blfy, lkiQ fn[krk
gSA dejs dh f[kM+dh dejs osQ cjkcj m¡Qph vkSj pkSM+h gSA vc ge yksx 22 gks x, gaS & 17 ns'kA
ekYVk] ekjh'kl] esfDldks] cksyhfo;k] ukbthfj;k] ekyh] vaxksyk] caxykns'k] viQxkfuLrku]
bftIV] tkWMZu] b.Mksusf'k;k] Hkkjr] phu] dksfj;k] FkkbySaMA usiky dk ,d yM+dk nqHkkf"k;k gS
Vad izlkn <dkyA dy ge yksx 'kgj ls ckgj ,d ikWYVªh iQkeZ ns[kus tk,¡xs & ;wfuoflZVh dh
cl lsA
dy nksigj geus 'kknh ikVhZ osQ ckn ?kj tk jgh ,d nqYgu Hkh ns[kh] viuh f[kM+dh lsA
lI
+
ksQn diM+s igus Fkh] uhps ls mQij rdA lj ij lI
+
ksQn Vksih tSlh fn[k jgh FkhA ipklsd yksx
FksA vkxs osQ gky ckn dh fp_h esa fy[ksaxsA rqe yksx xkSre ls ,jksxzke e¡xk dj gedks fp_h
fy[kukA rqe lcdks I;kjA vPNs ls jguk rkfd ek¡ dks rdyhI
+
kQ u gksA
rqEgkjk ikik
µlksenÙk
2020-21
nwokZ/18
vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
g
+
Ýrk & lIrkg
mdrkgV & cspSuh] v/hjrk
nqHkkf"k;k & nks Hkk"kk,¡ tkuusokyk
eè;LFk tks mu
Hkk"kkvksa osQ cksyusokys
nks O;fDr;ksa dh okrkZ
osQ volj ij ,d
dks nwljs dk vfHkizk;
le>k,
fo|k tSlk isM+ & i=k ys[kd dk laosQr
eksjia[kh dh vksj gSA
;ksxVZ & ngh tSlk [kkus dk ,d
inkFkZ
cjcVh & ,d iryh yach iQyh
[kjk fldk & [kwc vPNh rjg fldk
gqvk] djkjk
fpYyk & [kkus dh ph”k
ipklsd & yxHkx ipkl (la[;k)
iQyk±x & nwjh dk ,d eki
,jksxzke & fons'k Hksts tkus okyh fp_h
1- i=k osQ vk/kj ij
bl i=k osQ vk/kj ij uhps fn, x, iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nks µ
(d) bl i=k dk ys[kd fdl 'kgj@ns'k dh ;k=kk ij x;k Fkk\
([k) ml ns'k esa dkSu&dkSu ls [ksy&[ksys tkrs gSa\ ogk¡
dkSu&lk [ksy lcls vf/d yksdfiz; gS\
(x) ml ns'k osQ oqQN [kk| inkFkks± osQ uke crkvksA
(?k) ys[kd us ;g D;ksa dgk fd ¶vPNs ls jguk rkfd ek¡  dks
rdyhIk
+
Q u gks\¸
2- i=k ls vkxs
(d) Hkkjrh; [kkus dh oqQN ph”ksa tSls&pkoy] lsob;k¡]
feBkb;k¡ ;wjksi esa vyx <ax ls [kkbZ tkrh gSaA
D;k Hkkjr esa ;s ph”ksa vyx&vyx <ax@rjhdksa ls
cukbZ vkSj [kkbZ tkrh gSa\ irk djks vkSj crkvksA
2020-21
Page 4


nwokZ/16
fpf_;ksa esa ;wjksi
22 ekpZ 89
;wxksLykfo;k] usfolkn
fiz; uhyw] 'ks:] dowQ] iw=kd vkSj rqe lcdh eEeh
rqe lcdks [kwc I;kjA
vkt ;gk¡ igq¡ps ,d g 
+
Ýrk gks x;kA ekSle vPNk py jgk gSA ;gk¡ clar vk jgk gSA lkjs isM+
uaxs [kM+s gSa_ ,d viuh fo|k tSlk isM+ gS tks gjk gS] ,d vkSj tks u, lky ij ?kj&?kj yxk;k
tkrk gSA fiQj Hkh iwQy vk jgs gSaA ,d uhys vkSj cSaxuh jax dk iwQy gS tks vius ;gk¡ dh l- IksQn
oqQeqnuh tSls gksrs gSaA oqQN yky] oqQN ihysA [kq'kcw ugha gksrhA vkt brokj gSµlks ,d cts [kkuk
[kkdj vk, vkSj fy[kus cSB x,A vkt geus tks [kkuk [kk;k og ;ksxVZ ls 'kq: gqvkµtSlk
vkblozQhe di gksrk gS oSlk cM+s di esaA jkst lwi gksrk gSA mlesa lisQn lse tSlhµ;gk¡ dh chu
yach vkSj iryh gksrh gSµcjcVh tSlhA fiQj vkblozQheA ;gh rhu dkslZ jkst lqcg 'kke gksrs gSaA
[kkrs [kkrs mdrkgV gks jgh gSA
dHkh&dHkh pkoy gksrk gSµ LV~;w ;kuh
djh osQ lkFk [kkus osQ fy,A ,d fnu
[kjs flosQ fpYys tSlh ,d feBkbZ vkbZ
mlesa [k^h csjh dk xwnk Hkjk FkkA lsob;k¡
ikuh esa mcyh&lwi esa jgrh gSaA vkSj
czsMA lqcg czsM cVj] ekeZysM (tsyh)
;k 'kgnA 30 xzke dh NksVh&NksVh
IykfLVd fMfc;ksa esaA
'kgj osQ chp ^nwuk* (Danube)
unh cgrh gSA ;g ;wjksi osQ dbZ ns'kksa
esa cgrh gSA uD'ks esa ns[kksxs rks fey
tk,xh] ^ussfolkn* (NOVISAD)
rhljk ikB
2020-21
 fpf_;ksa esa ;wjksi/17
'kgj Hkh fey tk,xkA geus rqe yksxksa osQ
fy, bVyh osQ flDosQ] ;gk¡ osQ flDosQ]
,d flDdk b.Mksusf'k;k dk & ekWfj'kl
dh oqQN fVdVsa bd_s fd, gSaA ph”ksa ;gk¡
cgqr egaxh gSa & yksx dgrs gSa er [kjhnks!
jks”k ck”kkj ls xqtjrs gSa rks rqe yksxksa dh
;kn vkrh gS cPpksa dks ns[kdjA
tks unh gS mlesa cM+s&cM+s ;k=kh tgkt
pyrs gSaA bl ns'k osQ Hkh vkSj gaxjh osQ HkhA
dy geus ns[ksA ;gk¡ iqQVckWy cgqr [ksyrs
gSaA 14 ls 20 vizSy rd ;gk¡ fo'o Vscy
Vsful pSfEi;uf'ki gksus okyh gSA ,dk/
jks”k ns[ksaxsA ck”kkj esa 20&20 eafty] 10&10
eafty dh fcfYaMxsa gSaA ;gk¡ bl 'kgj esa
g”kkjksa o"kks± igys vk, Hkkjrh;ksa dh larkusa
gSa & ;wjksih; ekywe gksrs gSaA ;gha dh os'kHkw"kk]
Hkk"kkA yM+osQ LosQfVax osQ cgqr 'kkSdhu gSaA gekjs dejs dh f[kM+dh ls [ksy osQ eSnku fn[krs gSaA
bl le; ,d eSnku esa iqQVckWy eSp gks jgk gSA ,d Vhe dh onhZ lI
+
ksQn gS nwljs dh ykyA eSnku
;gk¡ ls yxHkx vk/k iQyk±x nwj gS ij gekjk dejk ik¡poha eafty ij gS& blfy, lkiQ fn[krk
gSA dejs dh f[kM+dh dejs osQ cjkcj m¡Qph vkSj pkSM+h gSA vc ge yksx 22 gks x, gaS & 17 ns'kA
ekYVk] ekjh'kl] esfDldks] cksyhfo;k] ukbthfj;k] ekyh] vaxksyk] caxykns'k] viQxkfuLrku]
bftIV] tkWMZu] b.Mksusf'k;k] Hkkjr] phu] dksfj;k] FkkbySaMA usiky dk ,d yM+dk nqHkkf"k;k gS
Vad izlkn <dkyA dy ge yksx 'kgj ls ckgj ,d ikWYVªh iQkeZ ns[kus tk,¡xs & ;wfuoflZVh dh
cl lsA
dy nksigj geus 'kknh ikVhZ osQ ckn ?kj tk jgh ,d nqYgu Hkh ns[kh] viuh f[kM+dh lsA
lI
+
ksQn diM+s igus Fkh] uhps ls mQij rdA lj ij lI
+
ksQn Vksih tSlh fn[k jgh FkhA ipklsd yksx
FksA vkxs osQ gky ckn dh fp_h esa fy[ksaxsA rqe yksx xkSre ls ,jksxzke e¡xk dj gedks fp_h
fy[kukA rqe lcdks I;kjA vPNs ls jguk rkfd ek¡ dks rdyhI
+
kQ u gksA
rqEgkjk ikik
µlksenÙk
2020-21
nwokZ/18
vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
g
+
Ýrk & lIrkg
mdrkgV & cspSuh] v/hjrk
nqHkkf"k;k & nks Hkk"kk,¡ tkuusokyk
eè;LFk tks mu
Hkk"kkvksa osQ cksyusokys
nks O;fDr;ksa dh okrkZ
osQ volj ij ,d
dks nwljs dk vfHkizk;
le>k,
fo|k tSlk isM+ & i=k ys[kd dk laosQr
eksjia[kh dh vksj gSA
;ksxVZ & ngh tSlk [kkus dk ,d
inkFkZ
cjcVh & ,d iryh yach iQyh
[kjk fldk & [kwc vPNh rjg fldk
gqvk] djkjk
fpYyk & [kkus dh ph”k
ipklsd & yxHkx ipkl (la[;k)
iQyk±x & nwjh dk ,d eki
,jksxzke & fons'k Hksts tkus okyh fp_h
1- i=k osQ vk/kj ij
bl i=k osQ vk/kj ij uhps fn, x, iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nks µ
(d) bl i=k dk ys[kd fdl 'kgj@ns'k dh ;k=kk ij x;k Fkk\
([k) ml ns'k esa dkSu&dkSu ls [ksy&[ksys tkrs gSa\ ogk¡
dkSu&lk [ksy lcls vf/d yksdfiz; gS\
(x) ml ns'k osQ oqQN [kk| inkFkks± osQ uke crkvksA
(?k) ys[kd us ;g D;ksa dgk fd ¶vPNs ls jguk rkfd ek¡  dks
rdyhIk
+
Q u gks\¸
2- i=k ls vkxs
(d) Hkkjrh; [kkus dh oqQN ph”ksa tSls&pkoy] lsob;k¡]
feBkb;k¡ ;wjksi esa vyx <ax ls [kkbZ tkrh gSaA
D;k Hkkjr esa ;s ph”ksa vyx&vyx <ax@rjhdksa ls
cukbZ vkSj [kkbZ tkrh gSa\ irk djks vkSj crkvksA
2020-21
 fpf_;ksa esa ;wjksi/19
([k) nwuk unh ;wjksi osQ dbZ ns'kksa esa cgrh gSA Hkkjr esa Hkh vusd ,slh ufn;k¡ gSa tks dbZ jkT;ksa
osQ chp cgrh gSaA ,slh oqQN ufn;ksa osQ uke fy[kksA ;g Hkh irk djks fd os dkSu&dkSu ls
jkT;ksa esa ls gksdj cgrh gaSA
unh dk uke jkT;ksa osQ uke
----------------------- -----------------------
----------------------- -----------------------
----------------------- -----------------------
3- ekSle vkSj Írq,¡
i=k esa fy[kk x;k gS fd ¶ekSle vPNk py jgk gSA ;gk¡ clar vk jgk gSA¸
Hkkjr osQ vyx&vyx Hkkxksa esa Hkh vyx&vyx rjg dk ekSle jgrk gSA lky Hkj vyx&vyx
Írq,¡ viuk izHkko fn[kkrh gSaA vc rqe crkvks fd rqEgkjs izns'k eas lky Hkj ekSle oSQlk jgrk gS\
4- [kku&iku
(d) vius izns'k dh oqQN [kkus&ihus dh ph”kksa osQ uke crkvksA
([k) vius euilan O;atu dks cukus dk rjhdk irk djks vkSj fy[kksA
lkexzh &
fof/ &
5- bd_k djus dk 'kkSd
blh iqLrd osQ fdlh ikB esa gS fd oqQN yksxksa dks dksbZ [kkl oLrq bd_k
djus dk 'kkSd gksrk gSA oqQN yksx xqfM+;k] iqLrosaQ] fp=k rks oqQN yksx
Mkd&fVdV bd_s djrs gSaA
(i) ;fn rqEgsa Hkh dksbZ ph”k bd_k djus dk 'kkSd gS rks mlosQ ckjs
esa vius lkfFk;ksa dks crkvksA
(ii) vius ;k vius fdlh ifjfpr osQ ckjs esa fy[kks tks bl rjg dh
ph”ksa bd_k djrk gksA rqe bu ph”kksa osQ ckjs esa fy[k ldrs gksµ
(d) mUgsa dkSu&lh ph”k bd_k djus dk 'kkSd gS\
2020-21
Page 5


nwokZ/16
fpf_;ksa esa ;wjksi
22 ekpZ 89
;wxksLykfo;k] usfolkn
fiz; uhyw] 'ks:] dowQ] iw=kd vkSj rqe lcdh eEeh
rqe lcdks [kwc I;kjA
vkt ;gk¡ igq¡ps ,d g 
+
Ýrk gks x;kA ekSle vPNk py jgk gSA ;gk¡ clar vk jgk gSA lkjs isM+
uaxs [kM+s gSa_ ,d viuh fo|k tSlk isM+ gS tks gjk gS] ,d vkSj tks u, lky ij ?kj&?kj yxk;k
tkrk gSA fiQj Hkh iwQy vk jgs gSaA ,d uhys vkSj cSaxuh jax dk iwQy gS tks vius ;gk¡ dh l- IksQn
oqQeqnuh tSls gksrs gSaA oqQN yky] oqQN ihysA [kq'kcw ugha gksrhA vkt brokj gSµlks ,d cts [kkuk
[kkdj vk, vkSj fy[kus cSB x,A vkt geus tks [kkuk [kk;k og ;ksxVZ ls 'kq: gqvkµtSlk
vkblozQhe di gksrk gS oSlk cM+s di esaA jkst lwi gksrk gSA mlesa lisQn lse tSlhµ;gk¡ dh chu
yach vkSj iryh gksrh gSµcjcVh tSlhA fiQj vkblozQheA ;gh rhu dkslZ jkst lqcg 'kke gksrs gSaA
[kkrs [kkrs mdrkgV gks jgh gSA
dHkh&dHkh pkoy gksrk gSµ LV~;w ;kuh
djh osQ lkFk [kkus osQ fy,A ,d fnu
[kjs flosQ fpYys tSlh ,d feBkbZ vkbZ
mlesa [k^h csjh dk xwnk Hkjk FkkA lsob;k¡
ikuh esa mcyh&lwi esa jgrh gSaA vkSj
czsMA lqcg czsM cVj] ekeZysM (tsyh)
;k 'kgnA 30 xzke dh NksVh&NksVh
IykfLVd fMfc;ksa esaA
'kgj osQ chp ^nwuk* (Danube)
unh cgrh gSA ;g ;wjksi osQ dbZ ns'kksa
esa cgrh gSA uD'ks esa ns[kksxs rks fey
tk,xh] ^ussfolkn* (NOVISAD)
rhljk ikB
2020-21
 fpf_;ksa esa ;wjksi/17
'kgj Hkh fey tk,xkA geus rqe yksxksa osQ
fy, bVyh osQ flDosQ] ;gk¡ osQ flDosQ]
,d flDdk b.Mksusf'k;k dk & ekWfj'kl
dh oqQN fVdVsa bd_s fd, gSaA ph”ksa ;gk¡
cgqr egaxh gSa & yksx dgrs gSa er [kjhnks!
jks”k ck”kkj ls xqtjrs gSa rks rqe yksxksa dh
;kn vkrh gS cPpksa dks ns[kdjA
tks unh gS mlesa cM+s&cM+s ;k=kh tgkt
pyrs gSaA bl ns'k osQ Hkh vkSj gaxjh osQ HkhA
dy geus ns[ksA ;gk¡ iqQVckWy cgqr [ksyrs
gSaA 14 ls 20 vizSy rd ;gk¡ fo'o Vscy
Vsful pSfEi;uf'ki gksus okyh gSA ,dk/
jks”k ns[ksaxsA ck”kkj esa 20&20 eafty] 10&10
eafty dh fcfYaMxsa gSaA ;gk¡ bl 'kgj esa
g”kkjksa o"kks± igys vk, Hkkjrh;ksa dh larkusa
gSa & ;wjksih; ekywe gksrs gSaA ;gha dh os'kHkw"kk]
Hkk"kkA yM+osQ LosQfVax osQ cgqr 'kkSdhu gSaA gekjs dejs dh f[kM+dh ls [ksy osQ eSnku fn[krs gSaA
bl le; ,d eSnku esa iqQVckWy eSp gks jgk gSA ,d Vhe dh onhZ lI
+
ksQn gS nwljs dh ykyA eSnku
;gk¡ ls yxHkx vk/k iQyk±x nwj gS ij gekjk dejk ik¡poha eafty ij gS& blfy, lkiQ fn[krk
gSA dejs dh f[kM+dh dejs osQ cjkcj m¡Qph vkSj pkSM+h gSA vc ge yksx 22 gks x, gaS & 17 ns'kA
ekYVk] ekjh'kl] esfDldks] cksyhfo;k] ukbthfj;k] ekyh] vaxksyk] caxykns'k] viQxkfuLrku]
bftIV] tkWMZu] b.Mksusf'k;k] Hkkjr] phu] dksfj;k] FkkbySaMA usiky dk ,d yM+dk nqHkkf"k;k gS
Vad izlkn <dkyA dy ge yksx 'kgj ls ckgj ,d ikWYVªh iQkeZ ns[kus tk,¡xs & ;wfuoflZVh dh
cl lsA
dy nksigj geus 'kknh ikVhZ osQ ckn ?kj tk jgh ,d nqYgu Hkh ns[kh] viuh f[kM+dh lsA
lI
+
ksQn diM+s igus Fkh] uhps ls mQij rdA lj ij lI
+
ksQn Vksih tSlh fn[k jgh FkhA ipklsd yksx
FksA vkxs osQ gky ckn dh fp_h esa fy[ksaxsA rqe yksx xkSre ls ,jksxzke e¡xk dj gedks fp_h
fy[kukA rqe lcdks I;kjA vPNs ls jguk rkfd ek¡ dks rdyhI
+
kQ u gksA
rqEgkjk ikik
µlksenÙk
2020-21
nwokZ/18
vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
g
+
Ýrk & lIrkg
mdrkgV & cspSuh] v/hjrk
nqHkkf"k;k & nks Hkk"kk,¡ tkuusokyk
eè;LFk tks mu
Hkk"kkvksa osQ cksyusokys
nks O;fDr;ksa dh okrkZ
osQ volj ij ,d
dks nwljs dk vfHkizk;
le>k,
fo|k tSlk isM+ & i=k ys[kd dk laosQr
eksjia[kh dh vksj gSA
;ksxVZ & ngh tSlk [kkus dk ,d
inkFkZ
cjcVh & ,d iryh yach iQyh
[kjk fldk & [kwc vPNh rjg fldk
gqvk] djkjk
fpYyk & [kkus dh ph”k
ipklsd & yxHkx ipkl (la[;k)
iQyk±x & nwjh dk ,d eki
,jksxzke & fons'k Hksts tkus okyh fp_h
1- i=k osQ vk/kj ij
bl i=k osQ vk/kj ij uhps fn, x, iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nks µ
(d) bl i=k dk ys[kd fdl 'kgj@ns'k dh ;k=kk ij x;k Fkk\
([k) ml ns'k esa dkSu&dkSu ls [ksy&[ksys tkrs gSa\ ogk¡
dkSu&lk [ksy lcls vf/d yksdfiz; gS\
(x) ml ns'k osQ oqQN [kk| inkFkks± osQ uke crkvksA
(?k) ys[kd us ;g D;ksa dgk fd ¶vPNs ls jguk rkfd ek¡  dks
rdyhIk
+
Q u gks\¸
2- i=k ls vkxs
(d) Hkkjrh; [kkus dh oqQN ph”ksa tSls&pkoy] lsob;k¡]
feBkb;k¡ ;wjksi esa vyx <ax ls [kkbZ tkrh gSaA
D;k Hkkjr esa ;s ph”ksa vyx&vyx <ax@rjhdksa ls
cukbZ vkSj [kkbZ tkrh gSa\ irk djks vkSj crkvksA
2020-21
 fpf_;ksa esa ;wjksi/19
([k) nwuk unh ;wjksi osQ dbZ ns'kksa esa cgrh gSA Hkkjr esa Hkh vusd ,slh ufn;k¡ gSa tks dbZ jkT;ksa
osQ chp cgrh gSaA ,slh oqQN ufn;ksa osQ uke fy[kksA ;g Hkh irk djks fd os dkSu&dkSu ls
jkT;ksa esa ls gksdj cgrh gaSA
unh dk uke jkT;ksa osQ uke
----------------------- -----------------------
----------------------- -----------------------
----------------------- -----------------------
3- ekSle vkSj Írq,¡
i=k esa fy[kk x;k gS fd ¶ekSle vPNk py jgk gSA ;gk¡ clar vk jgk gSA¸
Hkkjr osQ vyx&vyx Hkkxksa esa Hkh vyx&vyx rjg dk ekSle jgrk gSA lky Hkj vyx&vyx
Írq,¡ viuk izHkko fn[kkrh gSaA vc rqe crkvks fd rqEgkjs izns'k eas lky Hkj ekSle oSQlk jgrk gS\
4- [kku&iku
(d) vius izns'k dh oqQN [kkus&ihus dh ph”kksa osQ uke crkvksA
([k) vius euilan O;atu dks cukus dk rjhdk irk djks vkSj fy[kksA
lkexzh &
fof/ &
5- bd_k djus dk 'kkSd
blh iqLrd osQ fdlh ikB esa gS fd oqQN yksxksa dks dksbZ [kkl oLrq bd_k
djus dk 'kkSd gksrk gSA oqQN yksx xqfM+;k] iqLrosaQ] fp=k rks oqQN yksx
Mkd&fVdV bd_s djrs gSaA
(i) ;fn rqEgsa Hkh dksbZ ph”k bd_k djus dk 'kkSd gS rks mlosQ ckjs
esa vius lkfFk;ksa dks crkvksA
(ii) vius ;k vius fdlh ifjfpr osQ ckjs esa fy[kks tks bl rjg dh
ph”ksa bd_k djrk gksA rqe bu ph”kksa osQ ckjs esa fy[k ldrs gksµ
(d) mUgsa dkSu&lh ph”k bd_k djus dk 'kkSd gS\
2020-21
nwokZ/20
([k) os bUgsa dgk¡&dgk¡ ls bd_k djrs gSa\
(x) muosQ bl 'kkSd dh 'kq#vkr oSQls gqbZ\
(?k) os bd_h dh xbZ ph”kksa dks oSQls l¡Hkkydj j[krs gSa\
(Ä) bu ph”kksa dks bd_k djus vkSj j[kus eas dkSu&dkSu lh leL;k,¡ gksrh gSa\
6- isM+&ikS/ksa osQ uke
bl i=k esa ys[kd us vyx&vyx rjg osQ isM+&ikS/ksa dk f”kozQ fd;k gSA irk yxkvks] os dkSu ls
isM+&ikS/s gks ldrs gSaA bl dke osQ fy, rqe vius vè;kidksa] vius lkfFk;ksa] iqLrdky; ;k vU;
lk/uksa dh Hkh lgk;rk ys ldrs gksA
laosQr uke
(d) ftls u, lky ij yxkrs@ltkrs gSa ---------------------
([k) l-IksQn oqQeqnuh tSlk uhyk&cSaxuh iwQy ---------------------
(x) yky vkSj ihys iwQy okys ikS/s                         xqykc] lwjteq[kh] oQusj
7- ekufp=k esa
bl i=k esa vusd ns'kksa] 'kgjksa vkSj ufn;ksa dk f”kozQ fd;k x;k gSA uhps fn, x, ekufp=k esa mu
LFkkuksa osQ uke Hkjksµ
8- i=kksa osQ ekè;e
(d) ¶rqe yksx xkSre ls ,jksxzke e¡xkdj gedks fp_h fy[kukA¸
Åij osQ okD; ij è;ku nks vkSj fdlh Mkd?kj esa tkdj irk djks fd ^,jksxzke* fdls dgrs
gSaA lkFk gh ;g Hkh irk djks fd i=k Hkstus osQ fy, ogk¡ dkSu&dkSu ls lkèku miyC/ gSa\
([k) vk/qfud rduhd }kjk Hksts tkus okys i=kksa osQ ckjs esa Hkh tkudkjh izkIr djksA tSlsµbZ&esy]
iSQDl vkfnA
2020-21
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

shortcuts and tricks

,

video lectures

,

कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

,

कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

,

past year papers

,

ppt

,

Exam

,

MCQs

,

Sample Paper

,

Free

,

हिंदी

,

NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3 - चिठियो में यूरोप

,

practice quizzes

,

study material

,

NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3 - चिठियो में यूरोप

,

Extra Questions

,

हिंदी

,

Summary

,

pdf

,

कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3 - चिठियो में यूरोप

,

हिंदी

,

Semester Notes

,

Important questions

,

mock tests for examination

,

Viva Questions

,

Objective type Questions

;