NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3 - दोहे, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3 - दोहे, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


fcgkjh dk tUe 1595 esa Xokfy;j esa gqvk FkkA tc fcgkjh lkr&vkB lky osQ
gh Fks rHkh buosQ firk vksjNk pys vk, tgk¡ fcgkjh us vkpk;Z osQ'konkl ls
dkO; f'k{kk ikbZA ;gha fcgkjh jghe osQ laioZQ esa vk,A fcgkjh us vius thou
osQ oqQN o"kZ t;iqj esa Hkh fcrk,A fcgkjh jfld tho Fks ij budh jfldrk
ukxfjd thou dh jfldrk FkhA mudk LoHkko fouksnh vkSj O;aX;fiz; FkkA
1663 esa budk nsgkolku gqvkA fcgkjh dh ,d gh jpuk ^lrlbZ* miyCèk
gS ftlesa muosQ yxHkx 700 nksgs lax`ghr gSaA
yksd Kku vkSj 'kkL=k Kku osQ lkFk gh fcgkjh dk dkO; Kku Hkh vPNk FkkA
jhfr dk mUgsa Hkjiwj Kku FkkA bUgksaus vfèkd o.;Z lkexzh  Ük`axkj ls yh gSA
budh dfork  Ük`axkj jl dh gS blfy, uk;d] ukf;dk ;k ukf;dh dh os
ps"Vk,¡ ftUgsa gko dgrs gSa] buesa i;kZIr ek=kk esa feyrh gSaA fcgkjh dh Hkk"kk
cgqr oqQN 'kq¼ czt gS ij gS og lkfgfR;dA budh Hkk"kk esa iwohZ iz;ksx Hkh
feyrs gSaA cqansy[kaM eas vfèkd fnuksa rd jgus osQ dkj.k cqansy[kaMh 'kCnksa dk
iz;ksx feyuk Hkh LokHkkfod gSA
fcgkjh
(1595-1663)
Page 2


fcgkjh dk tUe 1595 esa Xokfy;j esa gqvk FkkA tc fcgkjh lkr&vkB lky osQ
gh Fks rHkh buosQ firk vksjNk pys vk, tgk¡ fcgkjh us vkpk;Z osQ'konkl ls
dkO; f'k{kk ikbZA ;gha fcgkjh jghe osQ laioZQ esa vk,A fcgkjh us vius thou
osQ oqQN o"kZ t;iqj esa Hkh fcrk,A fcgkjh jfld tho Fks ij budh jfldrk
ukxfjd thou dh jfldrk FkhA mudk LoHkko fouksnh vkSj O;aX;fiz; FkkA
1663 esa budk nsgkolku gqvkA fcgkjh dh ,d gh jpuk ^lrlbZ* miyCèk
gS ftlesa muosQ yxHkx 700 nksgs lax`ghr gSaA
yksd Kku vkSj 'kkL=k Kku osQ lkFk gh fcgkjh dk dkO; Kku Hkh vPNk FkkA
jhfr dk mUgsa Hkjiwj Kku FkkA bUgksaus vfèkd o.;Z lkexzh  Ük`axkj ls yh gSA
budh dfork  Ük`axkj jl dh gS blfy, uk;d] ukf;dk ;k ukf;dh dh os
ps"Vk,¡ ftUgsa gko dgrs gSa] buesa i;kZIr ek=kk esa feyrh gSaA fcgkjh dh Hkk"kk
cgqr oqQN 'kq¼ czt gS ij gS og lkfgfR;dA budh Hkk"kk esa iwohZ iz;ksx Hkh
feyrs gSaA cqansy[kaM eas vfèkd fnuksa rd jgus osQ dkj.k cqansy[kaMh 'kCnksa dk
iz;ksx feyuk Hkh LokHkkfod gSA
fcgkjh
(1595-1663)
14/ Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
ekath] ikSaNh] pedkb] ;qr&izfrHkk tru vusdA
nhj?k thou] fofoèk lq[k] jph ^lrlbZ* ,dAA
fcgkjh us osQoy ,d gh xzaFk dh jpuk dhµ^fcgkjh lrlbZ*A bl xzaFk esa yxHkx
lkr lkS nksgs gSaA
nksgk tSls NksVs ls Nan esa xgjh vFkZO;atuk osQ dkj.k dgk tkrk gS fd
fcgkjh xkxj esa lkxj Hkjus esa fuiq.k FksA muosQ nksgksa osQ vFkZxkaHkh;Z dks ns[kdj
dgk tkrk gSµ
lrlS;k osQ nksgjs] T;ksa ukod osQ rhjA
ns[ku esa NksVs yxS] ?kko djsa xaHkhjAA
fcgkjh dh cztHkk"kk ekud cztHkk"kk gSA lrlbZ esa eq[;r% izse vkSj HkfDr
osQ lkjxfHkZr nksgs gSaA blesa vusd nksgs uhfr lacaèkh gSaA ;gk¡ lrlbZ osQ oqQN nksgs
fn, tk jgs gSaA
fcgkjh eq[; :i ls  Ük`axkjijd nksgksa osQ fy, tkus tkrs gSa] ¯drq mUgksaus
yksd&O;ogkj] uhfr Kku vkfn fo"k;ksa ij Hkh fy[kk gSA ladfyr nksgksa esa lHkh
izdkj dh NVk,¡ gSaA bu nksgksa ls vkidks Kkr gksxk fd fcgkjh de&ls&de 'kCnksa
esa vfèkd&ls&vfèkd vFkZ Hkjus dh dyk esa fuiq.k gaSA
Page 3


fcgkjh dk tUe 1595 esa Xokfy;j esa gqvk FkkA tc fcgkjh lkr&vkB lky osQ
gh Fks rHkh buosQ firk vksjNk pys vk, tgk¡ fcgkjh us vkpk;Z osQ'konkl ls
dkO; f'k{kk ikbZA ;gha fcgkjh jghe osQ laioZQ esa vk,A fcgkjh us vius thou
osQ oqQN o"kZ t;iqj esa Hkh fcrk,A fcgkjh jfld tho Fks ij budh jfldrk
ukxfjd thou dh jfldrk FkhA mudk LoHkko fouksnh vkSj O;aX;fiz; FkkA
1663 esa budk nsgkolku gqvkA fcgkjh dh ,d gh jpuk ^lrlbZ* miyCèk
gS ftlesa muosQ yxHkx 700 nksgs lax`ghr gSaA
yksd Kku vkSj 'kkL=k Kku osQ lkFk gh fcgkjh dk dkO; Kku Hkh vPNk FkkA
jhfr dk mUgsa Hkjiwj Kku FkkA bUgksaus vfèkd o.;Z lkexzh  Ük`axkj ls yh gSA
budh dfork  Ük`axkj jl dh gS blfy, uk;d] ukf;dk ;k ukf;dh dh os
ps"Vk,¡ ftUgsa gko dgrs gSa] buesa i;kZIr ek=kk esa feyrh gSaA fcgkjh dh Hkk"kk
cgqr oqQN 'kq¼ czt gS ij gS og lkfgfR;dA budh Hkk"kk esa iwohZ iz;ksx Hkh
feyrs gSaA cqansy[kaM eas vfèkd fnuksa rd jgus osQ dkj.k cqansy[kaMh 'kCnksa dk
iz;ksx feyuk Hkh LokHkkfod gSA
fcgkjh
(1595-1663)
14/ Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
ekath] ikSaNh] pedkb] ;qr&izfrHkk tru vusdA
nhj?k thou] fofoèk lq[k] jph ^lrlbZ* ,dAA
fcgkjh us osQoy ,d gh xzaFk dh jpuk dhµ^fcgkjh lrlbZ*A bl xzaFk esa yxHkx
lkr lkS nksgs gSaA
nksgk tSls NksVs ls Nan esa xgjh vFkZO;atuk osQ dkj.k dgk tkrk gS fd
fcgkjh xkxj esa lkxj Hkjus esa fuiq.k FksA muosQ nksgksa osQ vFkZxkaHkh;Z dks ns[kdj
dgk tkrk gSµ
lrlS;k osQ nksgjs] T;ksa ukod osQ rhjA
ns[ku esa NksVs yxS] ?kko djsa xaHkhjAA
fcgkjh dh cztHkk"kk ekud cztHkk"kk gSA lrlbZ esa eq[;r% izse vkSj HkfDr
osQ lkjxfHkZr nksgs gSaA blesa vusd nksgs uhfr lacaèkh gSaA ;gk¡ lrlbZ osQ oqQN nksgs
fn, tk jgs gSaA
fcgkjh eq[; :i ls  Ük`axkjijd nksgksa osQ fy, tkus tkrs gSa] ¯drq mUgksaus
yksd&O;ogkj] uhfr Kku vkfn fo"k;ksa ij Hkh fy[kk gSA ladfyr nksgksa esa lHkh
izdkj dh NVk,¡ gSaA bu nksgksa ls vkidks Kkr gksxk fd fcgkjh de&ls&de 'kCnksa
esa vfèkd&ls&vfèkd vFkZ Hkjus dh dyk esa fuiq.k gaSA
nksgs / 15
nksgs
lksgr  vks<Sa+  ihrq  iVq  L;ke]  lykSuSa  xkrA
eukS  uhyefu&lSy  ij  vkriq  ij~;kS  izHkkrAA
dgykus  ,dr  clr  vfg  e;wj]  e`x  ck?kA
txrq  rikscu  lkS  fd;kS  nhj?k&nk?k  funk?kAA
crjl&ykyp  yky  dh  eqjyh  èkjh  yqdkbA
lkSag  djSa  HkkSaguq  g¡lS]  nSu  dgSa  ufV  tkbAA
dgr] uVr] jh>r] f[k>r] feyr] f[kyr] yft;krA
Hkjs  HkkSu  eSa  djr  gSa  uSuuq  gha  lc  ckrAA
cSfB jgh vfr l?ku cu] iSfB lnu&ru ek¡gA
nsf[k  nqigjh  tsB  dh  Nk¡gkSa  pkgfr  Nk¡gAA
dkxn ij fy[kr u cur] dgr l¡nslq ytkrA
dfggS lcq rsjkS fg;kS] esjs fg; dh ckrAA
izxV Hk, f}tjkt&oqQy] lqcl cls czt vkbA
esjs  gjkS  dysl  lc]  osQlo osQlojkbAA
tiekyk]  NkiSa]  fryd  ljS  u  ,dkS  dkeqA
eu&dk¡pS  ukpS  c`Fkk]  lk¡pS  jk¡pS  jkeqAA
 lanHkZ % fcgkjh jRukdj] txUukFknkl jRukdj
Page 4


fcgkjh dk tUe 1595 esa Xokfy;j esa gqvk FkkA tc fcgkjh lkr&vkB lky osQ
gh Fks rHkh buosQ firk vksjNk pys vk, tgk¡ fcgkjh us vkpk;Z osQ'konkl ls
dkO; f'k{kk ikbZA ;gha fcgkjh jghe osQ laioZQ esa vk,A fcgkjh us vius thou
osQ oqQN o"kZ t;iqj esa Hkh fcrk,A fcgkjh jfld tho Fks ij budh jfldrk
ukxfjd thou dh jfldrk FkhA mudk LoHkko fouksnh vkSj O;aX;fiz; FkkA
1663 esa budk nsgkolku gqvkA fcgkjh dh ,d gh jpuk ^lrlbZ* miyCèk
gS ftlesa muosQ yxHkx 700 nksgs lax`ghr gSaA
yksd Kku vkSj 'kkL=k Kku osQ lkFk gh fcgkjh dk dkO; Kku Hkh vPNk FkkA
jhfr dk mUgsa Hkjiwj Kku FkkA bUgksaus vfèkd o.;Z lkexzh  Ük`axkj ls yh gSA
budh dfork  Ük`axkj jl dh gS blfy, uk;d] ukf;dk ;k ukf;dh dh os
ps"Vk,¡ ftUgsa gko dgrs gSa] buesa i;kZIr ek=kk esa feyrh gSaA fcgkjh dh Hkk"kk
cgqr oqQN 'kq¼ czt gS ij gS og lkfgfR;dA budh Hkk"kk esa iwohZ iz;ksx Hkh
feyrs gSaA cqansy[kaM eas vfèkd fnuksa rd jgus osQ dkj.k cqansy[kaMh 'kCnksa dk
iz;ksx feyuk Hkh LokHkkfod gSA
fcgkjh
(1595-1663)
14/ Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
ekath] ikSaNh] pedkb] ;qr&izfrHkk tru vusdA
nhj?k thou] fofoèk lq[k] jph ^lrlbZ* ,dAA
fcgkjh us osQoy ,d gh xzaFk dh jpuk dhµ^fcgkjh lrlbZ*A bl xzaFk esa yxHkx
lkr lkS nksgs gSaA
nksgk tSls NksVs ls Nan esa xgjh vFkZO;atuk osQ dkj.k dgk tkrk gS fd
fcgkjh xkxj esa lkxj Hkjus esa fuiq.k FksA muosQ nksgksa osQ vFkZxkaHkh;Z dks ns[kdj
dgk tkrk gSµ
lrlS;k osQ nksgjs] T;ksa ukod osQ rhjA
ns[ku esa NksVs yxS] ?kko djsa xaHkhjAA
fcgkjh dh cztHkk"kk ekud cztHkk"kk gSA lrlbZ esa eq[;r% izse vkSj HkfDr
osQ lkjxfHkZr nksgs gSaA blesa vusd nksgs uhfr lacaèkh gSaA ;gk¡ lrlbZ osQ oqQN nksgs
fn, tk jgs gSaA
fcgkjh eq[; :i ls  Ük`axkjijd nksgksa osQ fy, tkus tkrs gSa] ¯drq mUgksaus
yksd&O;ogkj] uhfr Kku vkfn fo"k;ksa ij Hkh fy[kk gSA ladfyr nksgksa esa lHkh
izdkj dh NVk,¡ gSaA bu nksgksa ls vkidks Kkr gksxk fd fcgkjh de&ls&de 'kCnksa
esa vfèkd&ls&vfèkd vFkZ Hkjus dh dyk esa fuiq.k gaSA
nksgs / 15
nksgs
lksgr  vks<Sa+  ihrq  iVq  L;ke]  lykSuSa  xkrA
eukS  uhyefu&lSy  ij  vkriq  ij~;kS  izHkkrAA
dgykus  ,dr  clr  vfg  e;wj]  e`x  ck?kA
txrq  rikscu  lkS  fd;kS  nhj?k&nk?k  funk?kAA
crjl&ykyp  yky  dh  eqjyh  èkjh  yqdkbA
lkSag  djSa  HkkSaguq  g¡lS]  nSu  dgSa  ufV  tkbAA
dgr] uVr] jh>r] f[k>r] feyr] f[kyr] yft;krA
Hkjs  HkkSu  eSa  djr  gSa  uSuuq  gha  lc  ckrAA
cSfB jgh vfr l?ku cu] iSfB lnu&ru ek¡gA
nsf[k  nqigjh  tsB  dh  Nk¡gkSa  pkgfr  Nk¡gAA
dkxn ij fy[kr u cur] dgr l¡nslq ytkrA
dfggS lcq rsjkS fg;kS] esjs fg; dh ckrAA
izxV Hk, f}tjkt&oqQy] lqcl cls czt vkbA
esjs  gjkS  dysl  lc]  osQlo osQlojkbAA
tiekyk]  NkiSa]  fryd  ljS  u  ,dkS  dkeqA
eu&dk¡pS  ukpS  c`Fkk]  lk¡pS  jk¡pS  jkeqAA
 lanHkZ % fcgkjh jRukdj] txUukFknkl jRukdj
16/ Li'kZ
iz'u&vH;kl
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nhft,µ
1- Nk;k Hkh dc Nk;k <w¡<+us yxrh gS\
2- fcgkjh dh ukf;dk ;g D;ksa dgrh gS ^dfggS lcq rsjkS fg;kS]  esjs fg; dh ckr*µLi"V dhft,A
3- lPps eu eas jke clrs gSaµnksgs osQ lanHkkZuqlkj Li"V dhft,A
4- xksfi;k¡ JhÑ".k dh ck¡lqjh D;ksa fNik ysrh gSa\
5- fcgkjh dfo us lHkh dh mifLFkfr esa Hkh oSQls ckr dh tk ldrh gS] bldk o.kZu fdl izdkj fd;k gS\
vius 'kCnksa esa fyf[k,A
([k) fuEufyf[kr dk Hkko Li"V dhft,µ
1- eukS uhyefu&lSy ij vkriq ij~;kS izHkkrA
2- txrq rikscu lkS fd;kS nhj?k&nk?k funk?kA
3- tiekyk] NkiSa] fryd ljS u ,dkS dkeqA
eu&dk¡pS ukpS c`Fkk] lk¡pS jk¡pS jkeqAA
;ksX;rk foLRkkj
1- lrlS;k osQ nksgjs] T;ksa ukod osQ rhjA
ns[ku esa NksVs yxS] ?kko djsa xaHkhjAA
vè;kid dh enn ls fcgkjh fo"k;d bl nksgs dks le>us dk iz;kl djsaA bl nksgs ls fcgkjh dh Hkk"kk lacaèkh
fdl fo'ks"krk dk irk pyrk gS\
ifj;kstuk dk;Z
1- fcgkjh dfo osQ fo"k; esa tkudkjh ,df=kr dhft, vkSj ifj;kstuk iqfLrdk esa yxkb,A
'kCnkFkZ vkSj fVIif.k;k¡
lksgr & vPNk yxuk
ihrq & ihyk
iVq & diM+k
uhyefu&lSy & uhyef.k dk ioZr
vkriq & èkwi
vfg & lk¡i
rikscu & og ou tgk¡ riLoh jgrs gSa
Page 5


fcgkjh dk tUe 1595 esa Xokfy;j esa gqvk FkkA tc fcgkjh lkr&vkB lky osQ
gh Fks rHkh buosQ firk vksjNk pys vk, tgk¡ fcgkjh us vkpk;Z osQ'konkl ls
dkO; f'k{kk ikbZA ;gha fcgkjh jghe osQ laioZQ esa vk,A fcgkjh us vius thou
osQ oqQN o"kZ t;iqj esa Hkh fcrk,A fcgkjh jfld tho Fks ij budh jfldrk
ukxfjd thou dh jfldrk FkhA mudk LoHkko fouksnh vkSj O;aX;fiz; FkkA
1663 esa budk nsgkolku gqvkA fcgkjh dh ,d gh jpuk ^lrlbZ* miyCèk
gS ftlesa muosQ yxHkx 700 nksgs lax`ghr gSaA
yksd Kku vkSj 'kkL=k Kku osQ lkFk gh fcgkjh dk dkO; Kku Hkh vPNk FkkA
jhfr dk mUgsa Hkjiwj Kku FkkA bUgksaus vfèkd o.;Z lkexzh  Ük`axkj ls yh gSA
budh dfork  Ük`axkj jl dh gS blfy, uk;d] ukf;dk ;k ukf;dh dh os
ps"Vk,¡ ftUgsa gko dgrs gSa] buesa i;kZIr ek=kk esa feyrh gSaA fcgkjh dh Hkk"kk
cgqr oqQN 'kq¼ czt gS ij gS og lkfgfR;dA budh Hkk"kk esa iwohZ iz;ksx Hkh
feyrs gSaA cqansy[kaM eas vfèkd fnuksa rd jgus osQ dkj.k cqansy[kaMh 'kCnksa dk
iz;ksx feyuk Hkh LokHkkfod gSA
fcgkjh
(1595-1663)
14/ Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
ekath] ikSaNh] pedkb] ;qr&izfrHkk tru vusdA
nhj?k thou] fofoèk lq[k] jph ^lrlbZ* ,dAA
fcgkjh us osQoy ,d gh xzaFk dh jpuk dhµ^fcgkjh lrlbZ*A bl xzaFk esa yxHkx
lkr lkS nksgs gSaA
nksgk tSls NksVs ls Nan esa xgjh vFkZO;atuk osQ dkj.k dgk tkrk gS fd
fcgkjh xkxj esa lkxj Hkjus esa fuiq.k FksA muosQ nksgksa osQ vFkZxkaHkh;Z dks ns[kdj
dgk tkrk gSµ
lrlS;k osQ nksgjs] T;ksa ukod osQ rhjA
ns[ku esa NksVs yxS] ?kko djsa xaHkhjAA
fcgkjh dh cztHkk"kk ekud cztHkk"kk gSA lrlbZ esa eq[;r% izse vkSj HkfDr
osQ lkjxfHkZr nksgs gSaA blesa vusd nksgs uhfr lacaèkh gSaA ;gk¡ lrlbZ osQ oqQN nksgs
fn, tk jgs gSaA
fcgkjh eq[; :i ls  Ük`axkjijd nksgksa osQ fy, tkus tkrs gSa] ¯drq mUgksaus
yksd&O;ogkj] uhfr Kku vkfn fo"k;ksa ij Hkh fy[kk gSA ladfyr nksgksa esa lHkh
izdkj dh NVk,¡ gSaA bu nksgksa ls vkidks Kkr gksxk fd fcgkjh de&ls&de 'kCnksa
esa vfèkd&ls&vfèkd vFkZ Hkjus dh dyk esa fuiq.k gaSA
nksgs / 15
nksgs
lksgr  vks<Sa+  ihrq  iVq  L;ke]  lykSuSa  xkrA
eukS  uhyefu&lSy  ij  vkriq  ij~;kS  izHkkrAA
dgykus  ,dr  clr  vfg  e;wj]  e`x  ck?kA
txrq  rikscu  lkS  fd;kS  nhj?k&nk?k  funk?kAA
crjl&ykyp  yky  dh  eqjyh  èkjh  yqdkbA
lkSag  djSa  HkkSaguq  g¡lS]  nSu  dgSa  ufV  tkbAA
dgr] uVr] jh>r] f[k>r] feyr] f[kyr] yft;krA
Hkjs  HkkSu  eSa  djr  gSa  uSuuq  gha  lc  ckrAA
cSfB jgh vfr l?ku cu] iSfB lnu&ru ek¡gA
nsf[k  nqigjh  tsB  dh  Nk¡gkSa  pkgfr  Nk¡gAA
dkxn ij fy[kr u cur] dgr l¡nslq ytkrA
dfggS lcq rsjkS fg;kS] esjs fg; dh ckrAA
izxV Hk, f}tjkt&oqQy] lqcl cls czt vkbA
esjs  gjkS  dysl  lc]  osQlo osQlojkbAA
tiekyk]  NkiSa]  fryd  ljS  u  ,dkS  dkeqA
eu&dk¡pS  ukpS  c`Fkk]  lk¡pS  jk¡pS  jkeqAA
 lanHkZ % fcgkjh jRukdj] txUukFknkl jRukdj
16/ Li'kZ
iz'u&vH;kl
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nhft,µ
1- Nk;k Hkh dc Nk;k <w¡<+us yxrh gS\
2- fcgkjh dh ukf;dk ;g D;ksa dgrh gS ^dfggS lcq rsjkS fg;kS]  esjs fg; dh ckr*µLi"V dhft,A
3- lPps eu eas jke clrs gSaµnksgs osQ lanHkkZuqlkj Li"V dhft,A
4- xksfi;k¡ JhÑ".k dh ck¡lqjh D;ksa fNik ysrh gSa\
5- fcgkjh dfo us lHkh dh mifLFkfr esa Hkh oSQls ckr dh tk ldrh gS] bldk o.kZu fdl izdkj fd;k gS\
vius 'kCnksa esa fyf[k,A
([k) fuEufyf[kr dk Hkko Li"V dhft,µ
1- eukS uhyefu&lSy ij vkriq ij~;kS izHkkrA
2- txrq rikscu lkS fd;kS nhj?k&nk?k funk?kA
3- tiekyk] NkiSa] fryd ljS u ,dkS dkeqA
eu&dk¡pS ukpS c`Fkk] lk¡pS jk¡pS jkeqAA
;ksX;rk foLRkkj
1- lrlS;k osQ nksgjs] T;ksa ukod osQ rhjA
ns[ku esa NksVs yxS] ?kko djsa xaHkhjAA
vè;kid dh enn ls fcgkjh fo"k;d bl nksgs dks le>us dk iz;kl djsaA bl nksgs ls fcgkjh dh Hkk"kk lacaèkh
fdl fo'ks"krk dk irk pyrk gS\
ifj;kstuk dk;Z
1- fcgkjh dfo osQ fo"k; esa tkudkjh ,df=kr dhft, vkSj ifj;kstuk iqfLrdk esa yxkb,A
'kCnkFkZ vkSj fVIif.k;k¡
lksgr & vPNk yxuk
ihrq & ihyk
iVq & diM+k
uhyefu&lSy & uhyef.k dk ioZr
vkriq & èkwi
vfg & lk¡i
rikscu & og ou tgk¡ riLoh jgrs gSa
nksgs / 17
nhj?k&nk?k & izpaM rki @ Hk;adj xjeh
funk?k & xzh"e ½rq
crjl & cfr;kus dk lq[k @ ckrphr dk vkuan
yqdkb & Nqikuk
lkSag & 'kiFk
HkkSaguq & HkkSag ls
ufV & euk djuk @ eqoQj tkuk
jh>r & eksfgr gksuk
f[k>r & [kh>uk @ cukoVh xqLlk fn[kkuk
feyr & feyuk
HkkSu &Hkou
l?ku & ?kuk
iSfB & ?kqluk
lnu&ru & Hkou esa
dkxn & dkx”k
l¡nslq & lans'k
fg; & ân;
f}tjkt & (1) panzek (2) czkã.k
lqcl & viuh bPNk ls
osQlo & JhÑ".k
osQlojkb & fcgkjh dfo osQ firk
tiekyk & tius dh ekyk
NkiSa &Nkik
eu&dk¡pS & dPpk eu @ fcuk lPph HkfDr okyk
lk¡pS & lPph HkfDr okyk
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