NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3 - सवैया और कवित्त, क्षितिज II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3 - सवैया और कवित्त, क्षितिज II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


ns
nso
3
;gk¡ ladfyr dfoÙk&loS;ksa esa ,d vksj tgk¡ :i&lkSan;Z dk vkyadkfjd fp=k.k
ns[kus dks feyrk gS] ogha nwljh vksj izse vkSj izÑfr osQ izfr dfo osQ Hkkoksa dh
varjax vfHkO;fDRk HkhA igys loS;s esa o`Q".k osQ jktlh :i lkSan;Z dk o.kZu gS ftlesa
ml ;qx dk lkearh oSHko >ydrk gSA nwljs dfoÙk esa clar dks ckyd :i esa
fn[kkdj izo`Qfr osQ lkFk ,d jkxkRed laca/ dh vfHkO;fDr gqbZ gSA rhljs dfoÙk
esa iwf.kZek dh jkr esa pk¡n&rkjksa ls Hkjs vkdk'k dh vkHkk dk o.kZu gSA pk¡nuh jkr dh
dkafr dks n'kkZus osQ fy, nso nwèk esa isQu tSls ikjn'khZ ¯cc dke esa ysrs gSa] tks mudh
dkO;&oqQ'kyrk dk ifjpk;d gSA
o dk tUe bVkok (m-iz-) esa lu~ 1673 esa gqvk FkkA
mudk iwjk uke nsonÙk f}osnh FkkA nso osQ vusd vkJ;nkrkvksa
esa vkSjaxtsc osQ iq=k vkte'kkg Hkh Fks ijarq nso dks lcls
vfèkd larks"k vkSj lEeku mudh dfork osQ xq.kxzkgh vkJ;nkrk
Hkksxhyky ls izkIr gqvkA mUgksaus mudh dfork ij jh>dj
yk[kksa dh laifÙk nku dhA muosQ dkO; xzaFkksa dh la[;k 52
ls 72 rd ekuh tkrh gSA muesa ls jlfoykl] Hkkofoykl]
dkO;jlk;u] Hkokuhfoykl vkfn nso osQ izeq[k xzaFk ekus
tkrs gSaA mudh e`R;q lu~ 1767 esa gqbZA
nso jhfrdky osQ izeq[k dfo gSaA jhfrdkyhu dfork dk
lacaèk njckjksa] vkJ;nkrkvksa ls Fkk bl dkj.k mlesa njckjh
laLÑfr dk fp=k.k vfèkd gqvk gSA nso Hkh blls vNwrs ugha
Fks ¯drq os bl izHkko ls tc&tc Hkh eqDr gq,] mUgksaus izse
vkSj lkSan;Z osQ lgt fp=k [khapsA vkyadkfjdrk vkSj  Ük`axkfjdrk
muosQ dkO; dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,¡ gaSA 'kCnksa dh vko`fÙk osQ
tfj, u;k lkSan;Z iSnk djosQ mUgksaus lqanj èofu fp=k izLrqr
fd, gSaA
Page 2


ns
nso
3
;gk¡ ladfyr dfoÙk&loS;ksa esa ,d vksj tgk¡ :i&lkSan;Z dk vkyadkfjd fp=k.k
ns[kus dks feyrk gS] ogha nwljh vksj izse vkSj izÑfr osQ izfr dfo osQ Hkkoksa dh
varjax vfHkO;fDRk HkhA igys loS;s esa o`Q".k osQ jktlh :i lkSan;Z dk o.kZu gS ftlesa
ml ;qx dk lkearh oSHko >ydrk gSA nwljs dfoÙk esa clar dks ckyd :i esa
fn[kkdj izo`Qfr osQ lkFk ,d jkxkRed laca/ dh vfHkO;fDr gqbZ gSA rhljs dfoÙk
esa iwf.kZek dh jkr esa pk¡n&rkjksa ls Hkjs vkdk'k dh vkHkk dk o.kZu gSA pk¡nuh jkr dh
dkafr dks n'kkZus osQ fy, nso nwèk esa isQu tSls ikjn'khZ ¯cc dke esa ysrs gSa] tks mudh
dkO;&oqQ'kyrk dk ifjpk;d gSA
o dk tUe bVkok (m-iz-) esa lu~ 1673 esa gqvk FkkA
mudk iwjk uke nsonÙk f}osnh FkkA nso osQ vusd vkJ;nkrkvksa
esa vkSjaxtsc osQ iq=k vkte'kkg Hkh Fks ijarq nso dks lcls
vfèkd larks"k vkSj lEeku mudh dfork osQ xq.kxzkgh vkJ;nkrk
Hkksxhyky ls izkIr gqvkA mUgksaus mudh dfork ij jh>dj
yk[kksa dh laifÙk nku dhA muosQ dkO; xzaFkksa dh la[;k 52
ls 72 rd ekuh tkrh gSA muesa ls jlfoykl] Hkkofoykl]
dkO;jlk;u] Hkokuhfoykl vkfn nso osQ izeq[k xzaFk ekus
tkrs gSaA mudh e`R;q lu~ 1767 esa gqbZA
nso jhfrdky osQ izeq[k dfo gSaA jhfrdkyhu dfork dk
lacaèk njckjksa] vkJ;nkrkvksa ls Fkk bl dkj.k mlesa njckjh
laLÑfr dk fp=k.k vfèkd gqvk gSA nso Hkh blls vNwrs ugha
Fks ¯drq os bl izHkko ls tc&tc Hkh eqDr gq,] mUgksaus izse
vkSj lkSan;Z osQ lgt fp=k [khapsA vkyadkfjdrk vkSj  Ük`axkfjdrk
muosQ dkO; dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,¡ gaSA 'kCnksa dh vko`fÙk osQ
tfj, u;k lkSan;Z iSnk djosQ mUgksaus lqanj èofu fp=k izLrqr
fd, gSaA
f{kfrt
20
loS;k
ik¡;fu  uwiqj  eatq  ctaS] dfV ¯oQfdfu oSQ èkqfu dh eèkqjkbZA
lk¡ojs  vax  ylS  iV  ihr] fg;s  gqylS  cueky  lqgkbZA
ekFks  fdjhV  cM+s n`x papy] ean  g¡lh   eq[kpan  tqUgkbZA
tS  tx&eafnj&nhid  lqanj] Jhcztnwyg   ^nso*   lgkbZAA
Page 3


ns
nso
3
;gk¡ ladfyr dfoÙk&loS;ksa esa ,d vksj tgk¡ :i&lkSan;Z dk vkyadkfjd fp=k.k
ns[kus dks feyrk gS] ogha nwljh vksj izse vkSj izÑfr osQ izfr dfo osQ Hkkoksa dh
varjax vfHkO;fDRk HkhA igys loS;s esa o`Q".k osQ jktlh :i lkSan;Z dk o.kZu gS ftlesa
ml ;qx dk lkearh oSHko >ydrk gSA nwljs dfoÙk esa clar dks ckyd :i esa
fn[kkdj izo`Qfr osQ lkFk ,d jkxkRed laca/ dh vfHkO;fDr gqbZ gSA rhljs dfoÙk
esa iwf.kZek dh jkr esa pk¡n&rkjksa ls Hkjs vkdk'k dh vkHkk dk o.kZu gSA pk¡nuh jkr dh
dkafr dks n'kkZus osQ fy, nso nwèk esa isQu tSls ikjn'khZ ¯cc dke esa ysrs gSa] tks mudh
dkO;&oqQ'kyrk dk ifjpk;d gSA
o dk tUe bVkok (m-iz-) esa lu~ 1673 esa gqvk FkkA
mudk iwjk uke nsonÙk f}osnh FkkA nso osQ vusd vkJ;nkrkvksa
esa vkSjaxtsc osQ iq=k vkte'kkg Hkh Fks ijarq nso dks lcls
vfèkd larks"k vkSj lEeku mudh dfork osQ xq.kxzkgh vkJ;nkrk
Hkksxhyky ls izkIr gqvkA mUgksaus mudh dfork ij jh>dj
yk[kksa dh laifÙk nku dhA muosQ dkO; xzaFkksa dh la[;k 52
ls 72 rd ekuh tkrh gSA muesa ls jlfoykl] Hkkofoykl]
dkO;jlk;u] Hkokuhfoykl vkfn nso osQ izeq[k xzaFk ekus
tkrs gSaA mudh e`R;q lu~ 1767 esa gqbZA
nso jhfrdky osQ izeq[k dfo gSaA jhfrdkyhu dfork dk
lacaèk njckjksa] vkJ;nkrkvksa ls Fkk bl dkj.k mlesa njckjh
laLÑfr dk fp=k.k vfèkd gqvk gSA nso Hkh blls vNwrs ugha
Fks ¯drq os bl izHkko ls tc&tc Hkh eqDr gq,] mUgksaus izse
vkSj lkSan;Z osQ lgt fp=k [khapsA vkyadkfjdrk vkSj  Ük`axkfjdrk
muosQ dkO; dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,¡ gaSA 'kCnksa dh vko`fÙk osQ
tfj, u;k lkSan;Z iSnk djosQ mUgksaus lqanj èofu fp=k izLrqr
fd, gSaA
f{kfrt
20
loS;k
ik¡;fu  uwiqj  eatq  ctaS] dfV ¯oQfdfu oSQ èkqfu dh eèkqjkbZA
lk¡ojs  vax  ylS  iV  ihr] fg;s  gqylS  cueky  lqgkbZA
ekFks  fdjhV  cM+s n`x papy] ean  g¡lh   eq[kpan  tqUgkbZA
tS  tx&eafnj&nhid  lqanj] Jhcztnwyg   ^nso*   lgkbZAA
nso
21
dfoÙk
Mkj nzqe iyuk fcNkSuk uo iYyo osQ]
lqeu ¯>xwyk lksgS ru Nfc Hkkjh nSA
iou >wykoS] osQdh&dhj crjkoSa ^nso*]
dksfdy gykoS&gqylkoS dj rkjh nSAA
iwfjr ijkx lksa mrkjks djS jkbZ uksu]
oaQtdyh ukf;dk yrku flj lkjh nSA
enu eghi tw dks ckyd clar rkfg]
izkrfg  txkor  xqykc  pVdkjh  nSAA
Page 4


ns
nso
3
;gk¡ ladfyr dfoÙk&loS;ksa esa ,d vksj tgk¡ :i&lkSan;Z dk vkyadkfjd fp=k.k
ns[kus dks feyrk gS] ogha nwljh vksj izse vkSj izÑfr osQ izfr dfo osQ Hkkoksa dh
varjax vfHkO;fDRk HkhA igys loS;s esa o`Q".k osQ jktlh :i lkSan;Z dk o.kZu gS ftlesa
ml ;qx dk lkearh oSHko >ydrk gSA nwljs dfoÙk esa clar dks ckyd :i esa
fn[kkdj izo`Qfr osQ lkFk ,d jkxkRed laca/ dh vfHkO;fDr gqbZ gSA rhljs dfoÙk
esa iwf.kZek dh jkr esa pk¡n&rkjksa ls Hkjs vkdk'k dh vkHkk dk o.kZu gSA pk¡nuh jkr dh
dkafr dks n'kkZus osQ fy, nso nwèk esa isQu tSls ikjn'khZ ¯cc dke esa ysrs gSa] tks mudh
dkO;&oqQ'kyrk dk ifjpk;d gSA
o dk tUe bVkok (m-iz-) esa lu~ 1673 esa gqvk FkkA
mudk iwjk uke nsonÙk f}osnh FkkA nso osQ vusd vkJ;nkrkvksa
esa vkSjaxtsc osQ iq=k vkte'kkg Hkh Fks ijarq nso dks lcls
vfèkd larks"k vkSj lEeku mudh dfork osQ xq.kxzkgh vkJ;nkrk
Hkksxhyky ls izkIr gqvkA mUgksaus mudh dfork ij jh>dj
yk[kksa dh laifÙk nku dhA muosQ dkO; xzaFkksa dh la[;k 52
ls 72 rd ekuh tkrh gSA muesa ls jlfoykl] Hkkofoykl]
dkO;jlk;u] Hkokuhfoykl vkfn nso osQ izeq[k xzaFk ekus
tkrs gSaA mudh e`R;q lu~ 1767 esa gqbZA
nso jhfrdky osQ izeq[k dfo gSaA jhfrdkyhu dfork dk
lacaèk njckjksa] vkJ;nkrkvksa ls Fkk bl dkj.k mlesa njckjh
laLÑfr dk fp=k.k vfèkd gqvk gSA nso Hkh blls vNwrs ugha
Fks ¯drq os bl izHkko ls tc&tc Hkh eqDr gq,] mUgksaus izse
vkSj lkSan;Z osQ lgt fp=k [khapsA vkyadkfjdrk vkSj  Ük`axkfjdrk
muosQ dkO; dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,¡ gaSA 'kCnksa dh vko`fÙk osQ
tfj, u;k lkSan;Z iSnk djosQ mUgksaus lqanj èofu fp=k izLrqr
fd, gSaA
f{kfrt
20
loS;k
ik¡;fu  uwiqj  eatq  ctaS] dfV ¯oQfdfu oSQ èkqfu dh eèkqjkbZA
lk¡ojs  vax  ylS  iV  ihr] fg;s  gqylS  cueky  lqgkbZA
ekFks  fdjhV  cM+s n`x papy] ean  g¡lh   eq[kpan  tqUgkbZA
tS  tx&eafnj&nhid  lqanj] Jhcztnwyg   ^nso*   lgkbZAA
nso
21
dfoÙk
Mkj nzqe iyuk fcNkSuk uo iYyo osQ]
lqeu ¯>xwyk lksgS ru Nfc Hkkjh nSA
iou >wykoS] osQdh&dhj crjkoSa ^nso*]
dksfdy gykoS&gqylkoS dj rkjh nSAA
iwfjr ijkx lksa mrkjks djS jkbZ uksu]
oaQtdyh ukf;dk yrku flj lkjh nSA
enu eghi tw dks ckyd clar rkfg]
izkrfg  txkor  xqykc  pVdkjh  nSAA
f{kfrt
22
dfoÙk
iQfVd flykfu lkSa lqèkkj~;kS lqèkk eafnj]
mnfèk nfèk dks lks vfèkdkb mexs veanA
ckgj rs Hkhrj ykSa Hkhfr u fn[kS, ^nso*]
nwèk dks lks isQu iSQY;ks vk¡xu iQjlcanA
rkjk lh rjQfu rkesa Bk<+h f>yfeyh gksfr]
eksfru dh tksfr feY;ks efYydk dks edjanA
vkjlh ls vacj esa vkHkk lh mtkjh yxS]
I;kjh jkfèkdk dks izfr¯cc lks yxr panAA
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