NCERT Textbook पाठ 4 - तुम कब जाओगे अतिथि, स्पर्श, हिन्दी, कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 9

Created by: Trisha Vashisht

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook पाठ 4 - तुम कब जाओगे अतिथि, स्पर्श, हिन्दी, कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk/35
'kjn tks'kh
(1931 - 1991)
'kjn tks'kh dk tUe eè; izns'k osQ mTtSu 'kgj esa 21 ebZ 1931 dks gqvkA budk cpiu dbZ
'kgjksa esa chrkA oqQN le; rd ;g ljdkjh ukSdjh esa jgs] fiQj bUgksaus ys[ku dks gh vkthfodk
osQ :i esa viuk fy;kA bUgksaus vkjaHk esa oqQN dgkfu;k¡ fy[kha] fiQj iwjh rjg O;aX;&ys[ku gh
djus yxsA bUgksaus O;aX; ys[k] O;aX; miU;kl] O;aX; dkWye osQ vfrfjDr gkL;&O;aX;iw.kZ
èkkjkokfgdksa dh iVdFkk,¡ vkSj laokn Hkh fy[ksA fganh O;aX; dks izfr"Bk fnykus okys izeq[k
O;aX;dkjksa esa 'kjn tks'kh Hkh ,d gSaA
'kjn tks'kh dh izeq[k O;aX;&Ñfr;k¡ gSa % ifjØek] fdlh cgkus] thi ij lokj bfYy;k¡]
fryLe] jgk fdukjs cSB] nwljh lrg] izfrfnuA nks O;aX; ukVd gSa % vaèkksa dk gkFkh vkSj ,d Fkk
xèkkA ,d miU;kl gS % eSa] eSa] osQoy eSa] mI
+
kZQ deyeq[k ch-,-A
'kjn tks'kh dh Hkk"kk vR;ar ljy vkSj lgt gSA eqgkojksa vkSj gkl&ifjgkl dk gydk Li'kZ
nsdj bUgksaus viuh jpukvksa dks vfèkd jkspd cuk;k gSA èkeZ] vè;kRe] jktuhfr] lkekftd
thou] O;fDrxr vkpj.k] oqQN Hkh 'kjn tks'kh dh iSuh u”kj ls cp ugha ldk gSA bUgksaus viuh
O;aX;&jpukvksa esa lekt esa ikbZ tkus okyh lHkh folaxfr;ksa dk csckd fp=k.k fd;k gSA ikBd
bl fp=k.k dks i<+dj pfdr Hkh gksrk gS vkSj cgqr oqQN lkspus dks foo'k HkhA
izLrqr ikB ^rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk* esa 'kjn tks'kh us ,sls O;fDr;ksa dh [kcj yh gS] tks
vius fdlh ifjfpr ;k fj'rsnkj osQ ?kj fcuk dksbZ iwoZ lwpuk fn, pys vkrs gSa vkSj fiQj tkus
dk uke gh ugha ysrs] Hkys gh mudk fVosQ jguk es”kcku ij fdruk gh Hkkjh D;ksa u iM+ssA
vPNk vfrfFk dkSu gksrk gS\ og] tks igys ls vius vkus dh lwpuk nsdj vk, vkSj
,d&nks fnu esgekuh djkosQ fonk gks tk, ;k og] ftlosQ vkxeu osQ ckn es”kcku og lc
lkspus dks foo'k gks tk,] tks bl ikB osQ es”kcku fujarj lksprs jgsA
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rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk/35
'kjn tks'kh
(1931 - 1991)
'kjn tks'kh dk tUe eè; izns'k osQ mTtSu 'kgj esa 21 ebZ 1931 dks gqvkA budk cpiu dbZ
'kgjksa esa chrkA oqQN le; rd ;g ljdkjh ukSdjh esa jgs] fiQj bUgksaus ys[ku dks gh vkthfodk
osQ :i esa viuk fy;kA bUgksaus vkjaHk esa oqQN dgkfu;k¡ fy[kha] fiQj iwjh rjg O;aX;&ys[ku gh
djus yxsA bUgksaus O;aX; ys[k] O;aX; miU;kl] O;aX; dkWye osQ vfrfjDr gkL;&O;aX;iw.kZ
èkkjkokfgdksa dh iVdFkk,¡ vkSj laokn Hkh fy[ksA fganh O;aX; dks izfr"Bk fnykus okys izeq[k
O;aX;dkjksa esa 'kjn tks'kh Hkh ,d gSaA
'kjn tks'kh dh izeq[k O;aX;&Ñfr;k¡ gSa % ifjØek] fdlh cgkus] thi ij lokj bfYy;k¡]
fryLe] jgk fdukjs cSB] nwljh lrg] izfrfnuA nks O;aX; ukVd gSa % vaèkksa dk gkFkh vkSj ,d Fkk
xèkkA ,d miU;kl gS % eSa] eSa] osQoy eSa] mI
+
kZQ deyeq[k ch-,-A
'kjn tks'kh dh Hkk"kk vR;ar ljy vkSj lgt gSA eqgkojksa vkSj gkl&ifjgkl dk gydk Li'kZ
nsdj bUgksaus viuh jpukvksa dks vfèkd jkspd cuk;k gSA èkeZ] vè;kRe] jktuhfr] lkekftd
thou] O;fDrxr vkpj.k] oqQN Hkh 'kjn tks'kh dh iSuh u”kj ls cp ugha ldk gSA bUgksaus viuh
O;aX;&jpukvksa esa lekt esa ikbZ tkus okyh lHkh folaxfr;ksa dk csckd fp=k.k fd;k gSA ikBd
bl fp=k.k dks i<+dj pfdr Hkh gksrk gS vkSj cgqr oqQN lkspus dks foo'k HkhA
izLrqr ikB ^rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk* esa 'kjn tks'kh us ,sls O;fDr;ksa dh [kcj yh gS] tks
vius fdlh ifjfpr ;k fj'rsnkj osQ ?kj fcuk dksbZ iwoZ lwpuk fn, pys vkrs gSa vkSj fiQj tkus
dk uke gh ugha ysrs] Hkys gh mudk fVosQ jguk es”kcku ij fdruk gh Hkkjh D;ksa u iM+ssA
vPNk vfrfFk dkSu gksrk gS\ og] tks igys ls vius vkus dh lwpuk nsdj vk, vkSj
,d&nks fnu esgekuh djkosQ fonk gks tk, ;k og] ftlosQ vkxeu osQ ckn es”kcku og lc
lkspus dks foo'k gks tk,] tks bl ikB osQ es”kcku fujarj lksprs jgsA
36/Li'kZ
rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk
vkt rqEgkjs vkxeu osQ prqFkZ fnol ij ;g iz'u ckj&ckj eu esa ?kqeM+ jgk gSµ
rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk\
rqe tgk¡ cSBs fuLladksp flxjsV dk èkqvk¡ isaQd jgs gks] mlosQ Bhd lkeus ,d
oSQysaMj gSA ns[k jgs gks uk! bldh rkjh[ksa viuh lhek esa uezrk ls iQM+iQM+krh jgrh
gSaA foxr nks fnuksa ls eSa rqEgsa fn[kkdj rkjh[ksa cny jgk g¡wA rqe tkurs gks] vxj rqEgsa
fglkc yxkuk vkrk gS fd ;g pkSFkk fnu gS] rqEgkjs lrr vkfrF; dk pkSFkk Hkkjh
fnu! ij rqEgkjs tkus dh dksbZ laHkkouk izrhr ugha gksrhA yk[kksa ehy yach ;k=kk djus
osQ ckn os nksuksa ,LVªkWukV~l Hkh brus le; pk¡n ij ugha jQosQ Fks] ftrus le; rqe
,d NksVh&lh ;k=kk dj esjs ?kj vk, gksA rqe vius Hkkjh pj.k&deyksa dh Nki esjh
”kehu ij vafdr dj pqosQ] rqeus ,d varjax futh lacaèk eq>ls LFkkfir dj fy;k]
rqeus esjh vkfFkZd lhekvksa dh cSatuh p^ku ns[k yh_ rqe esjh dkI
+
kQh fe^h [kksn
pqosQA vc rqe ykSV tkvks] vfrfFk! rqEgkjs tkus osQ fy, ;g mPp le; vFkkZr
gkbZVkbe gSA D;k rqEgsa rqEgkjh i`Foh ugha iqdkjrh\
ml fnu tc rqe vk, Fks] esjk ân; fdlh vKkr vk'kadk ls èkM+d mBk FkkA
vanj&gh&vanj dgha esjk cVqvk dk¡i x;kA mlosQ ckotwn ,d Lusg&Hkhxh eqldjkgV
osQ lkFk eSa rqels xys feyk Fkk vkSj esjh iRuh us rqEgsa lknj ueLrs dh FkhA rqEgkjs
lEeku esa vks vfrfFk] geus jkr osQ Hkkstu dks ,dk,d mPp&eè;e oxZ osQ fMuj
esa cny fn;k FkkA rqEgsa Lej.k gksxk fd nks lfC”k;ksa vkSj jk;rs osQ vykok geus
ehBk Hkh cuk;k FkkA bl lkjs mRlkg vkSj yxu osQ ewy esa ,d vk'kk FkhA vk'kk
Page 3


rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk/35
'kjn tks'kh
(1931 - 1991)
'kjn tks'kh dk tUe eè; izns'k osQ mTtSu 'kgj esa 21 ebZ 1931 dks gqvkA budk cpiu dbZ
'kgjksa esa chrkA oqQN le; rd ;g ljdkjh ukSdjh esa jgs] fiQj bUgksaus ys[ku dks gh vkthfodk
osQ :i esa viuk fy;kA bUgksaus vkjaHk esa oqQN dgkfu;k¡ fy[kha] fiQj iwjh rjg O;aX;&ys[ku gh
djus yxsA bUgksaus O;aX; ys[k] O;aX; miU;kl] O;aX; dkWye osQ vfrfjDr gkL;&O;aX;iw.kZ
èkkjkokfgdksa dh iVdFkk,¡ vkSj laokn Hkh fy[ksA fganh O;aX; dks izfr"Bk fnykus okys izeq[k
O;aX;dkjksa esa 'kjn tks'kh Hkh ,d gSaA
'kjn tks'kh dh izeq[k O;aX;&Ñfr;k¡ gSa % ifjØek] fdlh cgkus] thi ij lokj bfYy;k¡]
fryLe] jgk fdukjs cSB] nwljh lrg] izfrfnuA nks O;aX; ukVd gSa % vaèkksa dk gkFkh vkSj ,d Fkk
xèkkA ,d miU;kl gS % eSa] eSa] osQoy eSa] mI
+
kZQ deyeq[k ch-,-A
'kjn tks'kh dh Hkk"kk vR;ar ljy vkSj lgt gSA eqgkojksa vkSj gkl&ifjgkl dk gydk Li'kZ
nsdj bUgksaus viuh jpukvksa dks vfèkd jkspd cuk;k gSA èkeZ] vè;kRe] jktuhfr] lkekftd
thou] O;fDrxr vkpj.k] oqQN Hkh 'kjn tks'kh dh iSuh u”kj ls cp ugha ldk gSA bUgksaus viuh
O;aX;&jpukvksa esa lekt esa ikbZ tkus okyh lHkh folaxfr;ksa dk csckd fp=k.k fd;k gSA ikBd
bl fp=k.k dks i<+dj pfdr Hkh gksrk gS vkSj cgqr oqQN lkspus dks foo'k HkhA
izLrqr ikB ^rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk* esa 'kjn tks'kh us ,sls O;fDr;ksa dh [kcj yh gS] tks
vius fdlh ifjfpr ;k fj'rsnkj osQ ?kj fcuk dksbZ iwoZ lwpuk fn, pys vkrs gSa vkSj fiQj tkus
dk uke gh ugha ysrs] Hkys gh mudk fVosQ jguk es”kcku ij fdruk gh Hkkjh D;ksa u iM+ssA
vPNk vfrfFk dkSu gksrk gS\ og] tks igys ls vius vkus dh lwpuk nsdj vk, vkSj
,d&nks fnu esgekuh djkosQ fonk gks tk, ;k og] ftlosQ vkxeu osQ ckn es”kcku og lc
lkspus dks foo'k gks tk,] tks bl ikB osQ es”kcku fujarj lksprs jgsA
36/Li'kZ
rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk
vkt rqEgkjs vkxeu osQ prqFkZ fnol ij ;g iz'u ckj&ckj eu esa ?kqeM+ jgk gSµ
rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk\
rqe tgk¡ cSBs fuLladksp flxjsV dk èkqvk¡ isaQd jgs gks] mlosQ Bhd lkeus ,d
oSQysaMj gSA ns[k jgs gks uk! bldh rkjh[ksa viuh lhek esa uezrk ls iQM+iQM+krh jgrh
gSaA foxr nks fnuksa ls eSa rqEgsa fn[kkdj rkjh[ksa cny jgk g¡wA rqe tkurs gks] vxj rqEgsa
fglkc yxkuk vkrk gS fd ;g pkSFkk fnu gS] rqEgkjs lrr vkfrF; dk pkSFkk Hkkjh
fnu! ij rqEgkjs tkus dh dksbZ laHkkouk izrhr ugha gksrhA yk[kksa ehy yach ;k=kk djus
osQ ckn os nksuksa ,LVªkWukV~l Hkh brus le; pk¡n ij ugha jQosQ Fks] ftrus le; rqe
,d NksVh&lh ;k=kk dj esjs ?kj vk, gksA rqe vius Hkkjh pj.k&deyksa dh Nki esjh
”kehu ij vafdr dj pqosQ] rqeus ,d varjax futh lacaèk eq>ls LFkkfir dj fy;k]
rqeus esjh vkfFkZd lhekvksa dh cSatuh p^ku ns[k yh_ rqe esjh dkI
+
kQh fe^h [kksn
pqosQA vc rqe ykSV tkvks] vfrfFk! rqEgkjs tkus osQ fy, ;g mPp le; vFkkZr
gkbZVkbe gSA D;k rqEgsa rqEgkjh i`Foh ugha iqdkjrh\
ml fnu tc rqe vk, Fks] esjk ân; fdlh vKkr vk'kadk ls èkM+d mBk FkkA
vanj&gh&vanj dgha esjk cVqvk dk¡i x;kA mlosQ ckotwn ,d Lusg&Hkhxh eqldjkgV
osQ lkFk eSa rqels xys feyk Fkk vkSj esjh iRuh us rqEgsa lknj ueLrs dh FkhA rqEgkjs
lEeku esa vks vfrfFk] geus jkr osQ Hkkstu dks ,dk,d mPp&eè;e oxZ osQ fMuj
esa cny fn;k FkkA rqEgsa Lej.k gksxk fd nks lfC”k;ksa vkSj jk;rs osQ vykok geus
ehBk Hkh cuk;k FkkA bl lkjs mRlkg vkSj yxu osQ ewy esa ,d vk'kk FkhA vk'kk
rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk/37
Fkh fd nwljs fnu fdlh jsy ls ,d 'kkunkj esgekuuok”kh dh Nki vius ân; esa
ys rqe pys tkvksxsA ge rqels jQdus osQ fy, vkxzg djsaxs] exj rqe ugha ekuksxs
vkSj ,d vPNs vfrfFk dh rjg pys tkvksxsA ij ,slk ugha gqvk! nwljs fnu Hkh rqe
viuh vfrfFk&lqyHk eqldku fy, ?kj esa gh cus jgsA geus viuh ihM+k ih yh vkSj
izlUu cus jgsA Lokxr&lRdkj osQ ftl mPp fcanq ij ge rqEgsa ys tk pqosQ Fks] ogk¡
ls uhps mrj geus fiQj nksigj osQ Hkkstu dks yap dh xfjek iznku dh vkSj jkf=k
dks rqEgsa flusek fn[kk;kA gekjs lRdkj dk ;g vkf[kjh Nksj gS] ftlls vkxs ge
foQlh osQ fy, ugha c<s+A blosQ rqjar ckn HkkoHkhuh fonkbZ dk og Hkhxk gqvk {k.k
vk tkuk pkfg, Fkk] tc rqe fonk gksrs vkSj ge rqEgsa LVs'ku rd NksM+us tkrsA ij
rqeus ,slk ugha fd;kA
rhljs fnu dh lqcg rqeus eq>ls dgk] ¶eSa èkksch dks diM+s nsuk pkgrk gw¡A¸
;g vk?kkr vizR;kf'kr Fkk vkSj bldh pksV ekfeZd FkhA rqEgkjs lkehI; dh osyk
,dk,d ;ksa jcj dh rjg f[kap tk,xh] bldk eq>s vuqeku u FkkA igyh ckj eq>s
yxk fd vfrfFk lnSo nsork ugha gksrk] og ekuo vkSj FkksMs+ va'kkas esa jk{kl Hkh gks
ldrk gSA
¶fdlh ykW.Mªh ij ns nsrs gSa] tYnh èkqy tk,¡xsA¸ eSaus dgkA eu&gh&eu ,d
fo'okl iy jgk Fkk fd rqEgsa tYnh tkuk gSA
¶dgk¡ gS ykW.Mªh\¸
¶pyks pyrs gSaA¸ eSaus dgk vkSj viuh lgt cfu;ku ij vkSipkfjd oqQrkZ
Mkyus yxkA
¶dgk¡ tk jgs gSa\¸ iRuh us iwNkA
¶buosQ diM+s ykW.Mªh ij nsus gSaA¸ eSaus dgkA
esjh iRuh dh vk¡[ksa ,dk,d cM+h&cM+h gks xb±A vkt ls oqQN cjl iwoZ mudh
,slh vk¡[ksa ns[k eSaus vius vosQysiu dh ;k=kk lekIr dj fcLrj [kksy fn;k FkkA
ij vc tc os gh vk¡[ksa cM+h gksrh gSa rks eu NksVk gksus yxrk gSA os bl vk'kadk
vkSj Hk; ls cM+h gqbZ Fkha fd vfrfFk vfèkd fnuksa BgjsxkA
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rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk/35
'kjn tks'kh
(1931 - 1991)
'kjn tks'kh dk tUe eè; izns'k osQ mTtSu 'kgj esa 21 ebZ 1931 dks gqvkA budk cpiu dbZ
'kgjksa esa chrkA oqQN le; rd ;g ljdkjh ukSdjh esa jgs] fiQj bUgksaus ys[ku dks gh vkthfodk
osQ :i esa viuk fy;kA bUgksaus vkjaHk esa oqQN dgkfu;k¡ fy[kha] fiQj iwjh rjg O;aX;&ys[ku gh
djus yxsA bUgksaus O;aX; ys[k] O;aX; miU;kl] O;aX; dkWye osQ vfrfjDr gkL;&O;aX;iw.kZ
èkkjkokfgdksa dh iVdFkk,¡ vkSj laokn Hkh fy[ksA fganh O;aX; dks izfr"Bk fnykus okys izeq[k
O;aX;dkjksa esa 'kjn tks'kh Hkh ,d gSaA
'kjn tks'kh dh izeq[k O;aX;&Ñfr;k¡ gSa % ifjØek] fdlh cgkus] thi ij lokj bfYy;k¡]
fryLe] jgk fdukjs cSB] nwljh lrg] izfrfnuA nks O;aX; ukVd gSa % vaèkksa dk gkFkh vkSj ,d Fkk
xèkkA ,d miU;kl gS % eSa] eSa] osQoy eSa] mI
+
kZQ deyeq[k ch-,-A
'kjn tks'kh dh Hkk"kk vR;ar ljy vkSj lgt gSA eqgkojksa vkSj gkl&ifjgkl dk gydk Li'kZ
nsdj bUgksaus viuh jpukvksa dks vfèkd jkspd cuk;k gSA èkeZ] vè;kRe] jktuhfr] lkekftd
thou] O;fDrxr vkpj.k] oqQN Hkh 'kjn tks'kh dh iSuh u”kj ls cp ugha ldk gSA bUgksaus viuh
O;aX;&jpukvksa esa lekt esa ikbZ tkus okyh lHkh folaxfr;ksa dk csckd fp=k.k fd;k gSA ikBd
bl fp=k.k dks i<+dj pfdr Hkh gksrk gS vkSj cgqr oqQN lkspus dks foo'k HkhA
izLrqr ikB ^rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk* esa 'kjn tks'kh us ,sls O;fDr;ksa dh [kcj yh gS] tks
vius fdlh ifjfpr ;k fj'rsnkj osQ ?kj fcuk dksbZ iwoZ lwpuk fn, pys vkrs gSa vkSj fiQj tkus
dk uke gh ugha ysrs] Hkys gh mudk fVosQ jguk es”kcku ij fdruk gh Hkkjh D;ksa u iM+ssA
vPNk vfrfFk dkSu gksrk gS\ og] tks igys ls vius vkus dh lwpuk nsdj vk, vkSj
,d&nks fnu esgekuh djkosQ fonk gks tk, ;k og] ftlosQ vkxeu osQ ckn es”kcku og lc
lkspus dks foo'k gks tk,] tks bl ikB osQ es”kcku fujarj lksprs jgsA
36/Li'kZ
rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk
vkt rqEgkjs vkxeu osQ prqFkZ fnol ij ;g iz'u ckj&ckj eu esa ?kqeM+ jgk gSµ
rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk\
rqe tgk¡ cSBs fuLladksp flxjsV dk èkqvk¡ isaQd jgs gks] mlosQ Bhd lkeus ,d
oSQysaMj gSA ns[k jgs gks uk! bldh rkjh[ksa viuh lhek esa uezrk ls iQM+iQM+krh jgrh
gSaA foxr nks fnuksa ls eSa rqEgsa fn[kkdj rkjh[ksa cny jgk g¡wA rqe tkurs gks] vxj rqEgsa
fglkc yxkuk vkrk gS fd ;g pkSFkk fnu gS] rqEgkjs lrr vkfrF; dk pkSFkk Hkkjh
fnu! ij rqEgkjs tkus dh dksbZ laHkkouk izrhr ugha gksrhA yk[kksa ehy yach ;k=kk djus
osQ ckn os nksuksa ,LVªkWukV~l Hkh brus le; pk¡n ij ugha jQosQ Fks] ftrus le; rqe
,d NksVh&lh ;k=kk dj esjs ?kj vk, gksA rqe vius Hkkjh pj.k&deyksa dh Nki esjh
”kehu ij vafdr dj pqosQ] rqeus ,d varjax futh lacaèk eq>ls LFkkfir dj fy;k]
rqeus esjh vkfFkZd lhekvksa dh cSatuh p^ku ns[k yh_ rqe esjh dkI
+
kQh fe^h [kksn
pqosQA vc rqe ykSV tkvks] vfrfFk! rqEgkjs tkus osQ fy, ;g mPp le; vFkkZr
gkbZVkbe gSA D;k rqEgsa rqEgkjh i`Foh ugha iqdkjrh\
ml fnu tc rqe vk, Fks] esjk ân; fdlh vKkr vk'kadk ls èkM+d mBk FkkA
vanj&gh&vanj dgha esjk cVqvk dk¡i x;kA mlosQ ckotwn ,d Lusg&Hkhxh eqldjkgV
osQ lkFk eSa rqels xys feyk Fkk vkSj esjh iRuh us rqEgsa lknj ueLrs dh FkhA rqEgkjs
lEeku esa vks vfrfFk] geus jkr osQ Hkkstu dks ,dk,d mPp&eè;e oxZ osQ fMuj
esa cny fn;k FkkA rqEgsa Lej.k gksxk fd nks lfC”k;ksa vkSj jk;rs osQ vykok geus
ehBk Hkh cuk;k FkkA bl lkjs mRlkg vkSj yxu osQ ewy esa ,d vk'kk FkhA vk'kk
rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk/37
Fkh fd nwljs fnu fdlh jsy ls ,d 'kkunkj esgekuuok”kh dh Nki vius ân; esa
ys rqe pys tkvksxsA ge rqels jQdus osQ fy, vkxzg djsaxs] exj rqe ugha ekuksxs
vkSj ,d vPNs vfrfFk dh rjg pys tkvksxsA ij ,slk ugha gqvk! nwljs fnu Hkh rqe
viuh vfrfFk&lqyHk eqldku fy, ?kj esa gh cus jgsA geus viuh ihM+k ih yh vkSj
izlUu cus jgsA Lokxr&lRdkj osQ ftl mPp fcanq ij ge rqEgsa ys tk pqosQ Fks] ogk¡
ls uhps mrj geus fiQj nksigj osQ Hkkstu dks yap dh xfjek iznku dh vkSj jkf=k
dks rqEgsa flusek fn[kk;kA gekjs lRdkj dk ;g vkf[kjh Nksj gS] ftlls vkxs ge
foQlh osQ fy, ugha c<s+A blosQ rqjar ckn HkkoHkhuh fonkbZ dk og Hkhxk gqvk {k.k
vk tkuk pkfg, Fkk] tc rqe fonk gksrs vkSj ge rqEgsa LVs'ku rd NksM+us tkrsA ij
rqeus ,slk ugha fd;kA
rhljs fnu dh lqcg rqeus eq>ls dgk] ¶eSa èkksch dks diM+s nsuk pkgrk gw¡A¸
;g vk?kkr vizR;kf'kr Fkk vkSj bldh pksV ekfeZd FkhA rqEgkjs lkehI; dh osyk
,dk,d ;ksa jcj dh rjg f[kap tk,xh] bldk eq>s vuqeku u FkkA igyh ckj eq>s
yxk fd vfrfFk lnSo nsork ugha gksrk] og ekuo vkSj FkksMs+ va'kkas esa jk{kl Hkh gks
ldrk gSA
¶fdlh ykW.Mªh ij ns nsrs gSa] tYnh èkqy tk,¡xsA¸ eSaus dgkA eu&gh&eu ,d
fo'okl iy jgk Fkk fd rqEgsa tYnh tkuk gSA
¶dgk¡ gS ykW.Mªh\¸
¶pyks pyrs gSaA¸ eSaus dgk vkSj viuh lgt cfu;ku ij vkSipkfjd oqQrkZ
Mkyus yxkA
¶dgk¡ tk jgs gSa\¸ iRuh us iwNkA
¶buosQ diM+s ykW.Mªh ij nsus gSaA¸ eSaus dgkA
esjh iRuh dh vk¡[ksa ,dk,d cM+h&cM+h gks xb±A vkt ls oqQN cjl iwoZ mudh
,slh vk¡[ksa ns[k eSaus vius vosQysiu dh ;k=kk lekIr dj fcLrj [kksy fn;k FkkA
ij vc tc os gh vk¡[ksa cM+h gksrh gSa rks eu NksVk gksus yxrk gSA os bl vk'kadk
vkSj Hk; ls cM+h gqbZ Fkha fd vfrfFk vfèkd fnuksa BgjsxkA
38/Li'kZ
vkSj vk'kadk fuewZy ugha Fkh] vfrfFk! rqe tk ugha jgsA ykW.Mªh ij fn, diMs+
èkqydj vk x, vkSj rqe ;gha gksA rqEgkjs Hkjde 'kjhj ls lyoVsa iM+h pknj cnyh
tk pqdh vkSj rqe ;gha gksA rqEgsa ns[kdj iwQV iM+usokyh eqldjkgV èkhjs&èkhjs iQhdh
iM+dj vc yqIr gks xbZ gSA Bgkdksa osQ jaxhu xqCckjs] tks dy rd bl dejs osQ
vkdk'k esa mM+rs Fks] vc fn[kkbZ ugha iM+rsA ckrphr dh mNyrh gqbZ xsan ppkZ osQ
{ks=k osQ lHkh dksuyksa ls VIis [kkdj fiQj lsaVj esa vkdj pqi iM+h gSA vc bls u
rqe fgyk jgs gks] u eSaA dy ls eSa miU;kl i<+ jgk gw¡ vkSj rqe fiQYeh if=kdk osQ
iUus iyV jgs gksA 'kCnksa dk ysu&nsu feV x;k vkSj ppkZ osQ fo"k; pqd x,A
ifjokj] cPps] ukSdjh] fiQYe] jktuhfr] fj'rsnkjh] rcknys] iqjkus nksLr] ifjokj&fu;kstu]
e¡gxkbZ] lkfgR; vkSj ;gk¡ rd fd vk¡[k ekj&ekjdj geus iqjkuh iszfedkvksa dk Hkh
f”kØ dj fy;k vkSj vc ,d pqIih gSA lkSgknZ vc 'kuS%&'kuS% cksfj;r esa :ikarfjr
gks jgk gSA Hkkouk,¡ xkfy;ksa dk Lo:i xzg.k dj jgh gSa] ij rqe tk ugha jgsA fdl
vn`'; xksan ls rqEgkjk O;fDrRo ;gk¡ fpid x;k gS] eSa bl Hksn dks lifjokj ugha
le> ik jgk gw¡A ckj&ckj ;g
iz'u mB jgk gSµ rqe dc tkvksxs]
vfrfFk\
dy iRuh us èkhjs ls iwNk Fkk]
¶dc rd fVosaQxs ;s\¸
eSaus oaQèks mpdk fn,] ¶D;k
dg ldrk gw¡!¸
¶eSa rks vkt f[kpM+h cuk
jgh gw¡A gydh jgsxhA¸
¶cukvksA¸
lRdkj dh mQ"ek lekIr gks
jgh FkhA fMuj ls pys Fks] f[kpM+h
ij vk x,A vc Hkh vxj rqe
Page 5


rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk/35
'kjn tks'kh
(1931 - 1991)
'kjn tks'kh dk tUe eè; izns'k osQ mTtSu 'kgj esa 21 ebZ 1931 dks gqvkA budk cpiu dbZ
'kgjksa esa chrkA oqQN le; rd ;g ljdkjh ukSdjh esa jgs] fiQj bUgksaus ys[ku dks gh vkthfodk
osQ :i esa viuk fy;kA bUgksaus vkjaHk esa oqQN dgkfu;k¡ fy[kha] fiQj iwjh rjg O;aX;&ys[ku gh
djus yxsA bUgksaus O;aX; ys[k] O;aX; miU;kl] O;aX; dkWye osQ vfrfjDr gkL;&O;aX;iw.kZ
èkkjkokfgdksa dh iVdFkk,¡ vkSj laokn Hkh fy[ksA fganh O;aX; dks izfr"Bk fnykus okys izeq[k
O;aX;dkjksa esa 'kjn tks'kh Hkh ,d gSaA
'kjn tks'kh dh izeq[k O;aX;&Ñfr;k¡ gSa % ifjØek] fdlh cgkus] thi ij lokj bfYy;k¡]
fryLe] jgk fdukjs cSB] nwljh lrg] izfrfnuA nks O;aX; ukVd gSa % vaèkksa dk gkFkh vkSj ,d Fkk
xèkkA ,d miU;kl gS % eSa] eSa] osQoy eSa] mI
+
kZQ deyeq[k ch-,-A
'kjn tks'kh dh Hkk"kk vR;ar ljy vkSj lgt gSA eqgkojksa vkSj gkl&ifjgkl dk gydk Li'kZ
nsdj bUgksaus viuh jpukvksa dks vfèkd jkspd cuk;k gSA èkeZ] vè;kRe] jktuhfr] lkekftd
thou] O;fDrxr vkpj.k] oqQN Hkh 'kjn tks'kh dh iSuh u”kj ls cp ugha ldk gSA bUgksaus viuh
O;aX;&jpukvksa esa lekt esa ikbZ tkus okyh lHkh folaxfr;ksa dk csckd fp=k.k fd;k gSA ikBd
bl fp=k.k dks i<+dj pfdr Hkh gksrk gS vkSj cgqr oqQN lkspus dks foo'k HkhA
izLrqr ikB ^rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk* esa 'kjn tks'kh us ,sls O;fDr;ksa dh [kcj yh gS] tks
vius fdlh ifjfpr ;k fj'rsnkj osQ ?kj fcuk dksbZ iwoZ lwpuk fn, pys vkrs gSa vkSj fiQj tkus
dk uke gh ugha ysrs] Hkys gh mudk fVosQ jguk es”kcku ij fdruk gh Hkkjh D;ksa u iM+ssA
vPNk vfrfFk dkSu gksrk gS\ og] tks igys ls vius vkus dh lwpuk nsdj vk, vkSj
,d&nks fnu esgekuh djkosQ fonk gks tk, ;k og] ftlosQ vkxeu osQ ckn es”kcku og lc
lkspus dks foo'k gks tk,] tks bl ikB osQ es”kcku fujarj lksprs jgsA
36/Li'kZ
rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk
vkt rqEgkjs vkxeu osQ prqFkZ fnol ij ;g iz'u ckj&ckj eu esa ?kqeM+ jgk gSµ
rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk\
rqe tgk¡ cSBs fuLladksp flxjsV dk èkqvk¡ isaQd jgs gks] mlosQ Bhd lkeus ,d
oSQysaMj gSA ns[k jgs gks uk! bldh rkjh[ksa viuh lhek esa uezrk ls iQM+iQM+krh jgrh
gSaA foxr nks fnuksa ls eSa rqEgsa fn[kkdj rkjh[ksa cny jgk g¡wA rqe tkurs gks] vxj rqEgsa
fglkc yxkuk vkrk gS fd ;g pkSFkk fnu gS] rqEgkjs lrr vkfrF; dk pkSFkk Hkkjh
fnu! ij rqEgkjs tkus dh dksbZ laHkkouk izrhr ugha gksrhA yk[kksa ehy yach ;k=kk djus
osQ ckn os nksuksa ,LVªkWukV~l Hkh brus le; pk¡n ij ugha jQosQ Fks] ftrus le; rqe
,d NksVh&lh ;k=kk dj esjs ?kj vk, gksA rqe vius Hkkjh pj.k&deyksa dh Nki esjh
”kehu ij vafdr dj pqosQ] rqeus ,d varjax futh lacaèk eq>ls LFkkfir dj fy;k]
rqeus esjh vkfFkZd lhekvksa dh cSatuh p^ku ns[k yh_ rqe esjh dkI
+
kQh fe^h [kksn
pqosQA vc rqe ykSV tkvks] vfrfFk! rqEgkjs tkus osQ fy, ;g mPp le; vFkkZr
gkbZVkbe gSA D;k rqEgsa rqEgkjh i`Foh ugha iqdkjrh\
ml fnu tc rqe vk, Fks] esjk ân; fdlh vKkr vk'kadk ls èkM+d mBk FkkA
vanj&gh&vanj dgha esjk cVqvk dk¡i x;kA mlosQ ckotwn ,d Lusg&Hkhxh eqldjkgV
osQ lkFk eSa rqels xys feyk Fkk vkSj esjh iRuh us rqEgsa lknj ueLrs dh FkhA rqEgkjs
lEeku esa vks vfrfFk] geus jkr osQ Hkkstu dks ,dk,d mPp&eè;e oxZ osQ fMuj
esa cny fn;k FkkA rqEgsa Lej.k gksxk fd nks lfC”k;ksa vkSj jk;rs osQ vykok geus
ehBk Hkh cuk;k FkkA bl lkjs mRlkg vkSj yxu osQ ewy esa ,d vk'kk FkhA vk'kk
rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk/37
Fkh fd nwljs fnu fdlh jsy ls ,d 'kkunkj esgekuuok”kh dh Nki vius ân; esa
ys rqe pys tkvksxsA ge rqels jQdus osQ fy, vkxzg djsaxs] exj rqe ugha ekuksxs
vkSj ,d vPNs vfrfFk dh rjg pys tkvksxsA ij ,slk ugha gqvk! nwljs fnu Hkh rqe
viuh vfrfFk&lqyHk eqldku fy, ?kj esa gh cus jgsA geus viuh ihM+k ih yh vkSj
izlUu cus jgsA Lokxr&lRdkj osQ ftl mPp fcanq ij ge rqEgsa ys tk pqosQ Fks] ogk¡
ls uhps mrj geus fiQj nksigj osQ Hkkstu dks yap dh xfjek iznku dh vkSj jkf=k
dks rqEgsa flusek fn[kk;kA gekjs lRdkj dk ;g vkf[kjh Nksj gS] ftlls vkxs ge
foQlh osQ fy, ugha c<s+A blosQ rqjar ckn HkkoHkhuh fonkbZ dk og Hkhxk gqvk {k.k
vk tkuk pkfg, Fkk] tc rqe fonk gksrs vkSj ge rqEgsa LVs'ku rd NksM+us tkrsA ij
rqeus ,slk ugha fd;kA
rhljs fnu dh lqcg rqeus eq>ls dgk] ¶eSa èkksch dks diM+s nsuk pkgrk gw¡A¸
;g vk?kkr vizR;kf'kr Fkk vkSj bldh pksV ekfeZd FkhA rqEgkjs lkehI; dh osyk
,dk,d ;ksa jcj dh rjg f[kap tk,xh] bldk eq>s vuqeku u FkkA igyh ckj eq>s
yxk fd vfrfFk lnSo nsork ugha gksrk] og ekuo vkSj FkksMs+ va'kkas esa jk{kl Hkh gks
ldrk gSA
¶fdlh ykW.Mªh ij ns nsrs gSa] tYnh èkqy tk,¡xsA¸ eSaus dgkA eu&gh&eu ,d
fo'okl iy jgk Fkk fd rqEgsa tYnh tkuk gSA
¶dgk¡ gS ykW.Mªh\¸
¶pyks pyrs gSaA¸ eSaus dgk vkSj viuh lgt cfu;ku ij vkSipkfjd oqQrkZ
Mkyus yxkA
¶dgk¡ tk jgs gSa\¸ iRuh us iwNkA
¶buosQ diM+s ykW.Mªh ij nsus gSaA¸ eSaus dgkA
esjh iRuh dh vk¡[ksa ,dk,d cM+h&cM+h gks xb±A vkt ls oqQN cjl iwoZ mudh
,slh vk¡[ksa ns[k eSaus vius vosQysiu dh ;k=kk lekIr dj fcLrj [kksy fn;k FkkA
ij vc tc os gh vk¡[ksa cM+h gksrh gSa rks eu NksVk gksus yxrk gSA os bl vk'kadk
vkSj Hk; ls cM+h gqbZ Fkha fd vfrfFk vfèkd fnuksa BgjsxkA
38/Li'kZ
vkSj vk'kadk fuewZy ugha Fkh] vfrfFk! rqe tk ugha jgsA ykW.Mªh ij fn, diMs+
èkqydj vk x, vkSj rqe ;gha gksA rqEgkjs Hkjde 'kjhj ls lyoVsa iM+h pknj cnyh
tk pqdh vkSj rqe ;gha gksA rqEgsa ns[kdj iwQV iM+usokyh eqldjkgV èkhjs&èkhjs iQhdh
iM+dj vc yqIr gks xbZ gSA Bgkdksa osQ jaxhu xqCckjs] tks dy rd bl dejs osQ
vkdk'k esa mM+rs Fks] vc fn[kkbZ ugha iM+rsA ckrphr dh mNyrh gqbZ xsan ppkZ osQ
{ks=k osQ lHkh dksuyksa ls VIis [kkdj fiQj lsaVj esa vkdj pqi iM+h gSA vc bls u
rqe fgyk jgs gks] u eSaA dy ls eSa miU;kl i<+ jgk gw¡ vkSj rqe fiQYeh if=kdk osQ
iUus iyV jgs gksA 'kCnksa dk ysu&nsu feV x;k vkSj ppkZ osQ fo"k; pqd x,A
ifjokj] cPps] ukSdjh] fiQYe] jktuhfr] fj'rsnkjh] rcknys] iqjkus nksLr] ifjokj&fu;kstu]
e¡gxkbZ] lkfgR; vkSj ;gk¡ rd fd vk¡[k ekj&ekjdj geus iqjkuh iszfedkvksa dk Hkh
f”kØ dj fy;k vkSj vc ,d pqIih gSA lkSgknZ vc 'kuS%&'kuS% cksfj;r esa :ikarfjr
gks jgk gSA Hkkouk,¡ xkfy;ksa dk Lo:i xzg.k dj jgh gSa] ij rqe tk ugha jgsA fdl
vn`'; xksan ls rqEgkjk O;fDrRo ;gk¡ fpid x;k gS] eSa bl Hksn dks lifjokj ugha
le> ik jgk gw¡A ckj&ckj ;g
iz'u mB jgk gSµ rqe dc tkvksxs]
vfrfFk\
dy iRuh us èkhjs ls iwNk Fkk]
¶dc rd fVosaQxs ;s\¸
eSaus oaQèks mpdk fn,] ¶D;k
dg ldrk gw¡!¸
¶eSa rks vkt f[kpM+h cuk
jgh gw¡A gydh jgsxhA¸
¶cukvksA¸
lRdkj dh mQ"ek lekIr gks
jgh FkhA fMuj ls pys Fks] f[kpM+h
ij vk x,A vc Hkh vxj rqe
rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk/39
vius fcLrj dks xksykdkj :i ugha iznku djrs rks gesa miokl rd tkuk gksxkA
rqEgkjs&esjs lacaèk ,d laØe.k osQ nkSj ls xq”kj jgs gSaA rqEgkjs tkus dk ;g pje {k.k
gSA rqe tkvks u vfrfFk!
rqEgsa ;gk¡ vPNk yx jgk gS u! eSa tkurk gw¡A nwljksa osQ ;gk¡ vPNk yxrk gSA
vxj cl pyrk rks lHkh yksx nwljksa osQ ;gk¡ jgrs] ij ,slk ugha gks ldrkA vius
?kj dh egÙkk osQ xhr blh dkj.k xk, x, gSaA gkse dks blh dkj.k LohV&gkse dgk
x;k gS fd yksx nwljs osQ gkse dh LohVusl dks dkVus u nkSMs+aA rqEgsa ;gk¡ vPNk yx
jgk gS] ij lkspks fiz;] fd 'kjkI
+
kQr Hkh dksbZ ph”k gksrh gS vkSj xsV vkmV Hkh ,d
okD; gS] tks cksyk tk ldrk gSA
vius [kjkZVksa ls ,d vkSj jkr xqatk;eku djus osQ ckn dy tks fdj.k rqEgkjs
fcLrj ij vk,xh og rqEgkjs ;gk¡ vkxeu osQ ckn ik¡posa lw;Z dh ifjfpr fdj.k
gksxhA vk'kk gS] og rqEgsa pwesxh vkSj rqe ?kj ykSVus dk lEekuiw.kZ fu.kZ; ys yksxsA
esjh lgu'khyrk dh og vafre lqcg gksxhA mlosQ ckn eSa LVSaM ugha dj lo¡wQxk
vkSj yM+[kM+k tkmQ¡xkA esjs vfrfFk] eSa tkurk gw¡ fd vfrfFk nsork gksrk gS] ij
vkf[kj eSa Hkh euq"; gw¡A eSa dksbZ rqEgkjh rjg nsork ughaA ,d nsork vkSj ,d euq";
vfèkd nsj lkFk ugha jgrsA nsork n'kZu nsdj ykSV tkrk gSA rqe ykSV tkvks vfrfFk!
blh esa rqEgkjk nsoRo lqjf{kr jgsxkA ;g euq"; viuh okyh ij mrjs] mlosQ iwoZ rqe
ykSV tkvks!
 mI
+
kQ] rqe dc tkvksxs] vfrfFk\
iz'u&vH;kl
ekSf[kd
fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj ,d&nks iafDr;ksa esa nhft,µ
1- vfrfFk fdrus fnuksa ls ys[kd osQ ?kj ij jg jgk gS\
2- oSQysaMj dh rkjh[ksa fdl rjg iQM+iQM+k jgh gSa\
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