NCERT Textbook पाठ 5 - हामिद खां, संचयन, हिन्दी, कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 9

Created by: Trisha Vashisht

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook पाठ 5 - हामिद खां, संचयन, हिन्दी, कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


gkfen [kk¡/35
gkfen [kk¡
,l- osQ- iks^sdkV
^r{kf'kyk (ikfdLrku) esa vkxtuh
1
*µlekpkj i=k dh ;g [kcj i<+rs gh eq>s
gkfen [kk¡ ;kn vk;kA eSaus Hkxoku ls fourh dh] ¶gs Hkxoku! esjs gkfen [kk¡ dh
nqdku dks bl vkxtuh ls cpk ysukA¸
vHkh nks lky gh rks chrs gSa tc eSa r{kf'kyk osQ ikSjkf.kd [kaMgj ns[kus x;k FkkA
,d vksj dM+dM+krh /wi] nwljh vksj Hkw[k vkSj I;kl osQ ekjs cqjk gky gks jgk FkkA
jsyos LVs'ku ls djhc ikSu ehy dh nwjh ij cls ,d xk¡o dh vksj fudy iM+kA
gLrjs[kkvksa osQ leku iSQyh xfy;ksa ls Hkjk rax ck”kkjA tgk¡ dgha u”kj iM+h
èkqvk¡] ePNj vkSj xanxh ls Hkjh txgsa gh fn[khaA dgha&dgha rks lM+s gq, peM+s dh
cncw us Lokxr fd;kA yacs dn osQ iBku viuh lgt vyeLr
2
 pky esa pyrs
u”kj vk jgs FksA
pkjksa rj- IkQ pDdj yxk fy;k] ij vHkh rd dksbZ gksVy u”kj ugha vk;kA eu
esa fopkj vk;k] bl xk¡o esa gksVy dh ”k:jr gh D;k gksxh\
vpkud ,d nqdku u”kj vkbZ tgk¡ pikfr;k¡ lsadh tk jgh FkhaA pikfr;ksa dh
lksa/h egd ls esjs ik¡o vius vki ml nqdku dh vksj eqM+ x,A vius vuqHkoksa
ls eSaus tku fy;k Fkk fd ijns'k esa eqldjkgV gh j{kd vkSj lgk;d gksrh gSA
lks eqldjkrs gq, eSa nqdku osQ vanj ?kql x;kA
1- minzfo;ksa }kjk vkx yxkuk 2- eLr
Page 2


gkfen [kk¡/35
gkfen [kk¡
,l- osQ- iks^sdkV
^r{kf'kyk (ikfdLrku) esa vkxtuh
1
*µlekpkj i=k dh ;g [kcj i<+rs gh eq>s
gkfen [kk¡ ;kn vk;kA eSaus Hkxoku ls fourh dh] ¶gs Hkxoku! esjs gkfen [kk¡ dh
nqdku dks bl vkxtuh ls cpk ysukA¸
vHkh nks lky gh rks chrs gSa tc eSa r{kf'kyk osQ ikSjkf.kd [kaMgj ns[kus x;k FkkA
,d vksj dM+dM+krh /wi] nwljh vksj Hkw[k vkSj I;kl osQ ekjs cqjk gky gks jgk FkkA
jsyos LVs'ku ls djhc ikSu ehy dh nwjh ij cls ,d xk¡o dh vksj fudy iM+kA
gLrjs[kkvksa osQ leku iSQyh xfy;ksa ls Hkjk rax ck”kkjA tgk¡ dgha u”kj iM+h
èkqvk¡] ePNj vkSj xanxh ls Hkjh txgsa gh fn[khaA dgha&dgha rks lM+s gq, peM+s dh
cncw us Lokxr fd;kA yacs dn osQ iBku viuh lgt vyeLr
2
 pky esa pyrs
u”kj vk jgs FksA
pkjksa rj- IkQ pDdj yxk fy;k] ij vHkh rd dksbZ gksVy u”kj ugha vk;kA eu
esa fopkj vk;k] bl xk¡o esa gksVy dh ”k:jr gh D;k gksxh\
vpkud ,d nqdku u”kj vkbZ tgk¡ pikfr;k¡ lsadh tk jgh FkhaA pikfr;ksa dh
lksa/h egd ls esjs ik¡o vius vki ml nqdku dh vksj eqM+ x,A vius vuqHkoksa
ls eSaus tku fy;k Fkk fd ijns'k esa eqldjkgV gh j{kd vkSj lgk;d gksrh gSA
lks eqldjkrs gq, eSa nqdku osQ vanj ?kql x;kA
1- minzfo;ksa }kjk vkx yxkuk 2- eLr
36/lap;u
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gkfen [kk¡/35
gkfen [kk¡
,l- osQ- iks^sdkV
^r{kf'kyk (ikfdLrku) esa vkxtuh
1
*µlekpkj i=k dh ;g [kcj i<+rs gh eq>s
gkfen [kk¡ ;kn vk;kA eSaus Hkxoku ls fourh dh] ¶gs Hkxoku! esjs gkfen [kk¡ dh
nqdku dks bl vkxtuh ls cpk ysukA¸
vHkh nks lky gh rks chrs gSa tc eSa r{kf'kyk osQ ikSjkf.kd [kaMgj ns[kus x;k FkkA
,d vksj dM+dM+krh /wi] nwljh vksj Hkw[k vkSj I;kl osQ ekjs cqjk gky gks jgk FkkA
jsyos LVs'ku ls djhc ikSu ehy dh nwjh ij cls ,d xk¡o dh vksj fudy iM+kA
gLrjs[kkvksa osQ leku iSQyh xfy;ksa ls Hkjk rax ck”kkjA tgk¡ dgha u”kj iM+h
èkqvk¡] ePNj vkSj xanxh ls Hkjh txgsa gh fn[khaA dgha&dgha rks lM+s gq, peM+s dh
cncw us Lokxr fd;kA yacs dn osQ iBku viuh lgt vyeLr
2
 pky esa pyrs
u”kj vk jgs FksA
pkjksa rj- IkQ pDdj yxk fy;k] ij vHkh rd dksbZ gksVy u”kj ugha vk;kA eu
esa fopkj vk;k] bl xk¡o esa gksVy dh ”k:jr gh D;k gksxh\
vpkud ,d nqdku u”kj vkbZ tgk¡ pikfr;k¡ lsadh tk jgh FkhaA pikfr;ksa dh
lksa/h egd ls esjs ik¡o vius vki ml nqdku dh vksj eqM+ x,A vius vuqHkoksa
ls eSaus tku fy;k Fkk fd ijns'k esa eqldjkgV gh j{kd vkSj lgk;d gksrh gSA
lks eqldjkrs gq, eSa nqdku osQ vanj ?kql x;kA
1- minzfo;ksa }kjk vkx yxkuk 2- eLr
36/lap;u gkfen [kk¡/37
,d v/sM+
1
 mez dk iBku v¡xhBh osQ ikl flj >qdk, pikfr;k¡ cuk jgk FkkA
eSaus T;ksagh nqdku esa izos'k fd;k] og viuh gFksyh ij j[ks vkVs dks csyuk
NksM+dj esjh vksj ?kwj&?kwjdj ns[kus yxkA eSa mldh rj- IkQ ns[kdj eqldjk fn;kA
fiQj Hkh mlosQ psgjs osQ gko&Hkko esa dksbZ ifjorZu ugha gqvkA og csijokgh
osQ lkFk rh[kh u”kj ls eq>s fugkjs tk jgk FkkA
¶[kkus dks oqQN feysxk\¸ eSaus /heh vkok”k esa iwNkA
¶pikrh vkSj lkyu
2
 gS---ogk¡ cSB tkb,A¸ mlus ,d csap dh rj- IkQ b'kkjk djrs
gq, dgkA
eSa csap ij cSBdj :eky ls gok djus yxk! eSaus nqdku osQ Hkhrj >k¡ddj ns[kkA
csrjrhch
3
 ls yhik gqvk vk¡xu] /wy ls luh nhokjsaA ,d dksus esa [kkV iM+h gqbZ Fkh ftl
ij ,d nf<+;y
4
 cqbk xans rfd, ij dksguh VsosQ gq, gqDdk ih jgk FkkA gqDosQ dh
xqM+xqM+kgV esa mlus vius vkidks gh ugha] cfYd lkjs tgku dks Hkqyk j[kk FkkA
¶HkkbZ tku] vki dgk¡ osQ jgus okys gSa\¸ pikrh dks vaxkjksa ij j[krs gq, ml vèksM+
mez osQ iBku us iwNkA
¶ekykckj osQ¸ eSaus tokc fn;kA mlus ;g uke ugha lquk FkkA vkVs dks gkFk
esa ysdj xksykdkj cukrs gq, iwNkµ¶;g fganqLrku esa gh gS u\¸
¶gk¡] Hkkjr osQ nf{k.kh Nksjµenzkl osQ vkxsA¸
¶D;k vki fganw gSa\¸
¶gk¡] ,d fganw ?kj esa tUe fy;k gSA¸
mlus ,d - IkQhdh eqldjkgV osQ lkFk fiQj iwNk] ¶vki eqlyekuh gksVy esa
[kkuk [kk,¡xs\¸
¶D;ksa ugha\ gekjs ;gk¡ rks vxj cf<+;k pk; ihuh gks] ;k cf<+;k iqyko [kkuk
gks rks yksx cs[kVosQ eqlyekuh gksVy esa tk;k djrs gSaA¸
1- <yrh mez dk  2- xks'r ;k lC”kh dk elkysnkj 'kksjck  3- fcuk fdlh lyhosQ@rjhosQ osQ
4- nk<+h okyk
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gkfen [kk¡/35
gkfen [kk¡
,l- osQ- iks^sdkV
^r{kf'kyk (ikfdLrku) esa vkxtuh
1
*µlekpkj i=k dh ;g [kcj i<+rs gh eq>s
gkfen [kk¡ ;kn vk;kA eSaus Hkxoku ls fourh dh] ¶gs Hkxoku! esjs gkfen [kk¡ dh
nqdku dks bl vkxtuh ls cpk ysukA¸
vHkh nks lky gh rks chrs gSa tc eSa r{kf'kyk osQ ikSjkf.kd [kaMgj ns[kus x;k FkkA
,d vksj dM+dM+krh /wi] nwljh vksj Hkw[k vkSj I;kl osQ ekjs cqjk gky gks jgk FkkA
jsyos LVs'ku ls djhc ikSu ehy dh nwjh ij cls ,d xk¡o dh vksj fudy iM+kA
gLrjs[kkvksa osQ leku iSQyh xfy;ksa ls Hkjk rax ck”kkjA tgk¡ dgha u”kj iM+h
èkqvk¡] ePNj vkSj xanxh ls Hkjh txgsa gh fn[khaA dgha&dgha rks lM+s gq, peM+s dh
cncw us Lokxr fd;kA yacs dn osQ iBku viuh lgt vyeLr
2
 pky esa pyrs
u”kj vk jgs FksA
pkjksa rj- IkQ pDdj yxk fy;k] ij vHkh rd dksbZ gksVy u”kj ugha vk;kA eu
esa fopkj vk;k] bl xk¡o esa gksVy dh ”k:jr gh D;k gksxh\
vpkud ,d nqdku u”kj vkbZ tgk¡ pikfr;k¡ lsadh tk jgh FkhaA pikfr;ksa dh
lksa/h egd ls esjs ik¡o vius vki ml nqdku dh vksj eqM+ x,A vius vuqHkoksa
ls eSaus tku fy;k Fkk fd ijns'k esa eqldjkgV gh j{kd vkSj lgk;d gksrh gSA
lks eqldjkrs gq, eSa nqdku osQ vanj ?kql x;kA
1- minzfo;ksa }kjk vkx yxkuk 2- eLr
36/lap;u gkfen [kk¡/37
,d v/sM+
1
 mez dk iBku v¡xhBh osQ ikl flj >qdk, pikfr;k¡ cuk jgk FkkA
eSaus T;ksagh nqdku esa izos'k fd;k] og viuh gFksyh ij j[ks vkVs dks csyuk
NksM+dj esjh vksj ?kwj&?kwjdj ns[kus yxkA eSa mldh rj- IkQ ns[kdj eqldjk fn;kA
fiQj Hkh mlosQ psgjs osQ gko&Hkko esa dksbZ ifjorZu ugha gqvkA og csijokgh
osQ lkFk rh[kh u”kj ls eq>s fugkjs tk jgk FkkA
¶[kkus dks oqQN feysxk\¸ eSaus /heh vkok”k esa iwNkA
¶pikrh vkSj lkyu
2
 gS---ogk¡ cSB tkb,A¸ mlus ,d csap dh rj- IkQ b'kkjk djrs
gq, dgkA
eSa csap ij cSBdj :eky ls gok djus yxk! eSaus nqdku osQ Hkhrj >k¡ddj ns[kkA
csrjrhch
3
 ls yhik gqvk vk¡xu] /wy ls luh nhokjsaA ,d dksus esa [kkV iM+h gqbZ Fkh ftl
ij ,d nf<+;y
4
 cqbk xans rfd, ij dksguh VsosQ gq, gqDdk ih jgk FkkA gqDosQ dh
xqM+xqM+kgV esa mlus vius vkidks gh ugha] cfYd lkjs tgku dks Hkqyk j[kk FkkA
¶HkkbZ tku] vki dgk¡ osQ jgus okys gSa\¸ pikrh dks vaxkjksa ij j[krs gq, ml vèksM+
mez osQ iBku us iwNkA
¶ekykckj osQ¸ eSaus tokc fn;kA mlus ;g uke ugha lquk FkkA vkVs dks gkFk
esa ysdj xksykdkj cukrs gq, iwNkµ¶;g fganqLrku esa gh gS u\¸
¶gk¡] Hkkjr osQ nf{k.kh Nksjµenzkl osQ vkxsA¸
¶D;k vki fganw gSa\¸
¶gk¡] ,d fganw ?kj esa tUe fy;k gSA¸
mlus ,d - IkQhdh eqldjkgV osQ lkFk fiQj iwNk] ¶vki eqlyekuh gksVy esa
[kkuk [kk,¡xs\¸
¶D;ksa ugha\ gekjs ;gk¡ rks vxj cf<+;k pk; ihuh gks] ;k cf<+;k iqyko [kkuk
gks rks yksx cs[kVosQ eqlyekuh gksVy esa tk;k djrs gSaA¸
1- <yrh mez dk  2- xks'r ;k lC”kh dk elkysnkj 'kksjck  3- fcuk fdlh lyhosQ@rjhosQ osQ
4- nk<+h okyk
38/lap;u
og esjh ckr ij fo'okl ugha dj ik;kA eSaus mls xoZ osQ lkFk crk;k] ¶gekjs
;gk¡ fganw&eqlyeku esa dksbZ - IkQoZQ ugha gS! lc fey&tqydj jgrs gSa! Hkkjr esa
eqlyekuksa us ftl igyh efL”kn dk fuekZ.k fd;k Fkk] og gekjs gh jkT; osQ ,d
LFkku ^dksMqaxYywj* esa gSA gekjs ;gk¡ fganw&eqlyekuksa osQ chp naxs ugha osQ cjkcj
gksrs gSaA¸
mlus esjh ckr dks cgqr gh è;kuiwoZd lqudj dgk] ¶dk'k! eSa vkiosQ eqYd
esa vkdj ;g lc viuh vk¡[kksa ls ns[k ldrkA¸
¶D;k vkidks esjh ckr ij fo'okl ugha gksrk\¸ eSaus iwNkA
¶eq>s vkidh ckr ij rks iwjk ;dhu gks x;k gS] ij eSa bl ij bZeku ugha
dj ldrk fd vki fganw gSaA D;ksafd ;gk¡ dksbZ Hkh fganw vkidh dgh gqbZ ckrksa dks
brus - IkQ–
1
 osQ lkFk fdlh eqlyeku ls ugha dg ldrkA mldh u”kj esa ge
vkrrkf;;ksa
2
 dh vkSyknsa gSa! gesa bl gkyr esa viuh vku osQ fy, yM+uk iM+rk
gSA ;gh gekjh fu;fr
3
 gSA¸ mldh vkok”k esa lPpkbZ owQV&owQVdj Hkjh FkhA
¶vkidk 'kqHk uke\¸ eSaus iwNkA
¶gkfen [kk¡] oks tks pkjikbZ ij cSBs gSa] oks esjs vCcktku gSaA vPNk] vki nl
feuV rd bar”kkj dhft,] lkyu vHkh id jgk gSA¸ eSa bar”kkj djus yxkA
¶vjs vks vCnqy!¸ gkfen [kk¡ us ”kksj ls vkok”k yxkbZA ,d Nksdjk nkSM+rk
gqvk vk;k tks vk¡xu esa pVkbZ fcNkdj yky fepZ lq[kk jgk FkkA
gkfen us i'rks
4
 Hkk"kk esa mls oqQN vkns'k fn;kA og nqdku osQ fiNokM+s dh
rj- IkQ HkkxkA
¶HkkbZ tku] ”kkfyeksa dh bl nqfu;k esa 'kSrku Hkh yqd&fNidj pyrk gSA
fdlh ij /kSal tekdj ;k etcwj djosQ ge I;kj eksy ugha ys ldrsA vki bZeku
ls eqgCcr osQ ukrs esjs gksVy esa [kkuk [kkus vk, gSaA ,slh bZekunkjh vkSj eqgCcr
1- xoZ 2- vR;kpkj djus okys 3- HkkX; 4- ,d izkphu
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gkfen [kk¡/35
gkfen [kk¡
,l- osQ- iks^sdkV
^r{kf'kyk (ikfdLrku) esa vkxtuh
1
*µlekpkj i=k dh ;g [kcj i<+rs gh eq>s
gkfen [kk¡ ;kn vk;kA eSaus Hkxoku ls fourh dh] ¶gs Hkxoku! esjs gkfen [kk¡ dh
nqdku dks bl vkxtuh ls cpk ysukA¸
vHkh nks lky gh rks chrs gSa tc eSa r{kf'kyk osQ ikSjkf.kd [kaMgj ns[kus x;k FkkA
,d vksj dM+dM+krh /wi] nwljh vksj Hkw[k vkSj I;kl osQ ekjs cqjk gky gks jgk FkkA
jsyos LVs'ku ls djhc ikSu ehy dh nwjh ij cls ,d xk¡o dh vksj fudy iM+kA
gLrjs[kkvksa osQ leku iSQyh xfy;ksa ls Hkjk rax ck”kkjA tgk¡ dgha u”kj iM+h
èkqvk¡] ePNj vkSj xanxh ls Hkjh txgsa gh fn[khaA dgha&dgha rks lM+s gq, peM+s dh
cncw us Lokxr fd;kA yacs dn osQ iBku viuh lgt vyeLr
2
 pky esa pyrs
u”kj vk jgs FksA
pkjksa rj- IkQ pDdj yxk fy;k] ij vHkh rd dksbZ gksVy u”kj ugha vk;kA eu
esa fopkj vk;k] bl xk¡o esa gksVy dh ”k:jr gh D;k gksxh\
vpkud ,d nqdku u”kj vkbZ tgk¡ pikfr;k¡ lsadh tk jgh FkhaA pikfr;ksa dh
lksa/h egd ls esjs ik¡o vius vki ml nqdku dh vksj eqM+ x,A vius vuqHkoksa
ls eSaus tku fy;k Fkk fd ijns'k esa eqldjkgV gh j{kd vkSj lgk;d gksrh gSA
lks eqldjkrs gq, eSa nqdku osQ vanj ?kql x;kA
1- minzfo;ksa }kjk vkx yxkuk 2- eLr
36/lap;u gkfen [kk¡/37
,d v/sM+
1
 mez dk iBku v¡xhBh osQ ikl flj >qdk, pikfr;k¡ cuk jgk FkkA
eSaus T;ksagh nqdku esa izos'k fd;k] og viuh gFksyh ij j[ks vkVs dks csyuk
NksM+dj esjh vksj ?kwj&?kwjdj ns[kus yxkA eSa mldh rj- IkQ ns[kdj eqldjk fn;kA
fiQj Hkh mlosQ psgjs osQ gko&Hkko esa dksbZ ifjorZu ugha gqvkA og csijokgh
osQ lkFk rh[kh u”kj ls eq>s fugkjs tk jgk FkkA
¶[kkus dks oqQN feysxk\¸ eSaus /heh vkok”k esa iwNkA
¶pikrh vkSj lkyu
2
 gS---ogk¡ cSB tkb,A¸ mlus ,d csap dh rj- IkQ b'kkjk djrs
gq, dgkA
eSa csap ij cSBdj :eky ls gok djus yxk! eSaus nqdku osQ Hkhrj >k¡ddj ns[kkA
csrjrhch
3
 ls yhik gqvk vk¡xu] /wy ls luh nhokjsaA ,d dksus esa [kkV iM+h gqbZ Fkh ftl
ij ,d nf<+;y
4
 cqbk xans rfd, ij dksguh VsosQ gq, gqDdk ih jgk FkkA gqDosQ dh
xqM+xqM+kgV esa mlus vius vkidks gh ugha] cfYd lkjs tgku dks Hkqyk j[kk FkkA
¶HkkbZ tku] vki dgk¡ osQ jgus okys gSa\¸ pikrh dks vaxkjksa ij j[krs gq, ml vèksM+
mez osQ iBku us iwNkA
¶ekykckj osQ¸ eSaus tokc fn;kA mlus ;g uke ugha lquk FkkA vkVs dks gkFk
esa ysdj xksykdkj cukrs gq, iwNkµ¶;g fganqLrku esa gh gS u\¸
¶gk¡] Hkkjr osQ nf{k.kh Nksjµenzkl osQ vkxsA¸
¶D;k vki fganw gSa\¸
¶gk¡] ,d fganw ?kj esa tUe fy;k gSA¸
mlus ,d - IkQhdh eqldjkgV osQ lkFk fiQj iwNk] ¶vki eqlyekuh gksVy esa
[kkuk [kk,¡xs\¸
¶D;ksa ugha\ gekjs ;gk¡ rks vxj cf<+;k pk; ihuh gks] ;k cf<+;k iqyko [kkuk
gks rks yksx cs[kVosQ eqlyekuh gksVy esa tk;k djrs gSaA¸
1- <yrh mez dk  2- xks'r ;k lC”kh dk elkysnkj 'kksjck  3- fcuk fdlh lyhosQ@rjhosQ osQ
4- nk<+h okyk
38/lap;u
og esjh ckr ij fo'okl ugha dj ik;kA eSaus mls xoZ osQ lkFk crk;k] ¶gekjs
;gk¡ fganw&eqlyeku esa dksbZ - IkQoZQ ugha gS! lc fey&tqydj jgrs gSa! Hkkjr esa
eqlyekuksa us ftl igyh efL”kn dk fuekZ.k fd;k Fkk] og gekjs gh jkT; osQ ,d
LFkku ^dksMqaxYywj* esa gSA gekjs ;gk¡ fganw&eqlyekuksa osQ chp naxs ugha osQ cjkcj
gksrs gSaA¸
mlus esjh ckr dks cgqr gh è;kuiwoZd lqudj dgk] ¶dk'k! eSa vkiosQ eqYd
esa vkdj ;g lc viuh vk¡[kksa ls ns[k ldrkA¸
¶D;k vkidks esjh ckr ij fo'okl ugha gksrk\¸ eSaus iwNkA
¶eq>s vkidh ckr ij rks iwjk ;dhu gks x;k gS] ij eSa bl ij bZeku ugha
dj ldrk fd vki fganw gSaA D;ksafd ;gk¡ dksbZ Hkh fganw vkidh dgh gqbZ ckrksa dks
brus - IkQ–
1
 osQ lkFk fdlh eqlyeku ls ugha dg ldrkA mldh u”kj esa ge
vkrrkf;;ksa
2
 dh vkSyknsa gSa! gesa bl gkyr esa viuh vku osQ fy, yM+uk iM+rk
gSA ;gh gekjh fu;fr
3
 gSA¸ mldh vkok”k esa lPpkbZ owQV&owQVdj Hkjh FkhA
¶vkidk 'kqHk uke\¸ eSaus iwNkA
¶gkfen [kk¡] oks tks pkjikbZ ij cSBs gSa] oks esjs vCcktku gSaA vPNk] vki nl
feuV rd bar”kkj dhft,] lkyu vHkh id jgk gSA¸ eSa bar”kkj djus yxkA
¶vjs vks vCnqy!¸ gkfen [kk¡ us ”kksj ls vkok”k yxkbZA ,d Nksdjk nkSM+rk
gqvk vk;k tks vk¡xu esa pVkbZ fcNkdj yky fepZ lq[kk jgk FkkA
gkfen us i'rks
4
 Hkk"kk esa mls oqQN vkns'k fn;kA og nqdku osQ fiNokM+s dh
rj- IkQ HkkxkA
¶HkkbZ tku] ”kkfyeksa dh bl nqfu;k esa 'kSrku Hkh yqd&fNidj pyrk gSA
fdlh ij /kSal tekdj ;k etcwj djosQ ge I;kj eksy ugha ys ldrsA vki bZeku
ls eqgCcr osQ ukrs esjs gksVy esa [kkuk [kkus vk, gSaA ,slh bZekunkjh vkSj eqgCcr
1- xoZ 2- vR;kpkj djus okys 3- HkkX; 4- ,d izkphu
gkfen [kk¡/39
dk vlj esjs fny esa D;ksa u iM+s\ vxj fganw vkSj eqlyeku bZeku ls vkil esa
eqgCcr djrs rks fdruk vPNk gksrkA¸ /hes Loj esa cksyrs gq, og v¡xhBh ls
vkf[kjh pikrh mrkjdj [kM+k gks x;kA
tks Nksdjk fiNokM+s dh rj- IkQ x;k Fkk] mlus ,d Fkkyh esa pkoy ykdj lkeus
j[k fn;k] gkfen [kk¡ us rhu&pkj pikfr;k¡ mlesa j[k nha] fiQj yksgs dh r'rjh
esa lkyu ijkslkA Nksdjk lk- IkQ ikuh ls Hkjk ,d dVksjk es”k ij j[kdj pyk x;kA
eSaus cM+s pko ls
1
 HkjisV [kkuk [kk;kA
¶fdrus iSls gq,\¸ tsc esa gkFk Mkyrs gq, eSaus gkfen [kk¡ ls iwNk!
eqldjkrs gq, gkfen [kk¡ us gkFk idM+ fy;k vkSj cksyk] ¶HkkbZ tku] ek- IkQ
dhft,xkA iSlk ugha yw¡xk] vki esjs esgeku gSaA¸
¶esgekuuok”kh dh ckr vyx gSA ,d nqdkunkj osQ ukrs vkidks [kkus osQ iSls
ysus iM+saxsA vkidks esjh eqgCcr dh dleA¸
,d jQi;s osQ uksV dks eSaus gkfen [kk¡ dh vksj c<+k;kA og loqQpk jgk FkkA
mlus og jQi;k ysdj fiQj esjs gkFk esa j[k fn;kA
¶HkkbZ tku eSaus [kkus osQ iSls vkils ys fy, gSa] exj eSa pkgrk gw¡ fd ;g vki
gh osQ gkFkksa esa jgsA vki tc igq¡psa rks fdlh eqlyekuh gksVy esa tkdj bl iSls
ls iqyko [kk,¡ vkSj r{kf'kyk osQ HkkbZ gkfen [kk¡ dks ;kn djsaA¸
ogk¡ ls ykSVdj eSa r{kf'kyk osQ [kaMgjksa dh rj- IkQ pyk vk;kA mlosQ ckn eSaus
fiQj dHkh gkfen [kk¡ dks ugha ns[kkA ij gkfen [kk¡ dh og vkok”k] mlosQ lkFk
fcrk, {k.kksa dh ;knsa vkt Hkh rk”kk gSaA mldh og eqldku vkt Hkh esjs fny esa
clh gSA r{kf'kyk osQ lkaiznkf;d naxksa dh fpaxkfj;ksa dh vkx ls gkfen vkSj mldh
og nqdku ftlus eq> Hkw[ks dks nksigj esa Nk;k vkSj [kkuk nsdj esjh {kq/k
2
 dks r`Ir
3
fd;k Fkk] cph jgsA eSa ;gh izkFkZuk vc Hkh dj jgk gw¡A
1- 'kkSd ls 2- Hkw[k  3- larq"V] larks"k
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