NCERT Textbook: पाठ 6 - कीचड़ का काव्य , स्पर्श, हिन्दी, कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 9

Created by: Trisha Vashisht

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 6 - कीचड़ का काव्य , स्पर्श, हिन्दी, कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


dhpM+ dk dkO;/55
dkdk dkysydj
(1885 - 1982)
dkdk dkysydj dk tUe egkjk"Vª osQ lrkjk uxj esa lu~ 1885 esa gqvkA dkdk dh ekr`Hkk"kk
ejkBh FkhA mUgsa xqtjkrh] fganh] ckaXyk vkSj vaxzs”kh dk Hkh vPNk Kku FkkA xkaèkhth osQ lkFk
jk"VªHkk"kk izpkj esa tqM+us osQ ckn dkdk fganh esa ys[ku djus yxsA vk”kknh osQ ckn dkdk
thouHkj xkaèkhth osQ fopkj vkSj lkfgR; osQ izpkj&izlkj esa tqVs jgsA
egkRek xkaèkh osQ vuU; vuq;kf;;ksa esa fouksck Hkkos] lhekar xkaèkh vCnqy XkÝ
+
I
+
kQkj [kk¡ vkSj
dkdk dkysydj leku :i ls ;kn fd, tkrs gSaA ubZ fnYyh esa xkaèkh laxzgky; osQ fudV
lfUufèk esa dkdk osQ thou ls tqM+h cgqr&lh oLrq,¡ vkSj mudk lkfgR; vkt Hkh ns[kk tk
ldrk gSA
ns'k osQ izk;% dksus&dksus esa ;k;koj dh rjg Hkze.k djus okys dkdk dh pfpZr Ñfr;k¡ gSa %
fgeky;uks izokl] yksdekrk (;k=kk o`Ùkkar)] Lej.k ;k=kk (laaaaaaaaaLej.k)] èkeksZn; (vkRepfjr)] thouuh
vkuan] vcjukoj (fucaèk laxzg)A dkdk us dbZ o"kks± rd eaxy izHkkr i=k dk laiknu Hkh fd;kA
dkdk osQ ys[ku dh Hkk"kk ljy] ljl] vkstLoh vkSj lkjxfHkZr gSA fopkjiw.kZ fucaèk gks ;k
;k=kk laLej.k] lHkh fo"k;ksa dh roZQiw.kZ O;k[;k dkdk dh ys[ku 'kSyh dh fo'ks"krk jgh gSA
,d fganhrj Hkk"kh ys[kd }kjk ewyr% fganh esa fy[ks bl yfyr fucaèk dhpM+ dk dkO; esa
dkdk us dhpM+ dh mi;ksfxrk dk dkO;kRed 'kSyh esa c[kku fd;k gSA dkdk dgrs gSa fd gesa
dhpM+ osQ xansiu ij ugha] vfirq mldh ekuo vkSj i'kqvksa rd osQ thou esa mi;ksfxrk ij è;ku
nsuk pkfg,A mÙkj&iwohZ jkT;ksa esa lcls ”;knk iSnk gksusokyh èkku dh iQly dhpM+ esa gh mx ikrh
gSA dhpM+ u gksrk rks D;k&D;k u gksrk] ekuo vkSj i'kq fdu fu;kerksa ls oafpr jg tkrs] bldh
,d ckuxh ;g fucaèk c[kwch n'kkZrk gSA dhpM+ gs; ugha J¼s; gS] ;g ys[kd gh ugha ikBd Hkh
Lohdkjrk gSA
Page 2


dhpM+ dk dkO;/55
dkdk dkysydj
(1885 - 1982)
dkdk dkysydj dk tUe egkjk"Vª osQ lrkjk uxj esa lu~ 1885 esa gqvkA dkdk dh ekr`Hkk"kk
ejkBh FkhA mUgsa xqtjkrh] fganh] ckaXyk vkSj vaxzs”kh dk Hkh vPNk Kku FkkA xkaèkhth osQ lkFk
jk"VªHkk"kk izpkj esa tqM+us osQ ckn dkdk fganh esa ys[ku djus yxsA vk”kknh osQ ckn dkdk
thouHkj xkaèkhth osQ fopkj vkSj lkfgR; osQ izpkj&izlkj esa tqVs jgsA
egkRek xkaèkh osQ vuU; vuq;kf;;ksa esa fouksck Hkkos] lhekar xkaèkh vCnqy XkÝ
+
I
+
kQkj [kk¡ vkSj
dkdk dkysydj leku :i ls ;kn fd, tkrs gSaA ubZ fnYyh esa xkaèkh laxzgky; osQ fudV
lfUufèk esa dkdk osQ thou ls tqM+h cgqr&lh oLrq,¡ vkSj mudk lkfgR; vkt Hkh ns[kk tk
ldrk gSA
ns'k osQ izk;% dksus&dksus esa ;k;koj dh rjg Hkze.k djus okys dkdk dh pfpZr Ñfr;k¡ gSa %
fgeky;uks izokl] yksdekrk (;k=kk o`Ùkkar)] Lej.k ;k=kk (laaaaaaaaaLej.k)] èkeksZn; (vkRepfjr)] thouuh
vkuan] vcjukoj (fucaèk laxzg)A dkdk us dbZ o"kks± rd eaxy izHkkr i=k dk laiknu Hkh fd;kA
dkdk osQ ys[ku dh Hkk"kk ljy] ljl] vkstLoh vkSj lkjxfHkZr gSA fopkjiw.kZ fucaèk gks ;k
;k=kk laLej.k] lHkh fo"k;ksa dh roZQiw.kZ O;k[;k dkdk dh ys[ku 'kSyh dh fo'ks"krk jgh gSA
,d fganhrj Hkk"kh ys[kd }kjk ewyr% fganh esa fy[ks bl yfyr fucaèk dhpM+ dk dkO; esa
dkdk us dhpM+ dh mi;ksfxrk dk dkO;kRed 'kSyh esa c[kku fd;k gSA dkdk dgrs gSa fd gesa
dhpM+ osQ xansiu ij ugha] vfirq mldh ekuo vkSj i'kqvksa rd osQ thou esa mi;ksfxrk ij è;ku
nsuk pkfg,A mÙkj&iwohZ jkT;ksa esa lcls ”;knk iSnk gksusokyh èkku dh iQly dhpM+ esa gh mx ikrh
gSA dhpM+ u gksrk rks D;k&D;k u gksrk] ekuo vkSj i'kq fdu fu;kerksa ls oafpr jg tkrs] bldh
,d ckuxh ;g fucaèk c[kwch n'kkZrk gSA dhpM+ gs; ugha J¼s; gS] ;g ys[kd gh ugha ikBd Hkh
Lohdkjrk gSA
56/Li'kZ
dhpM+ dk dkO;
vkt lqcg iwoZ esa oqQN [kkl vkd"kZd ugha FkkA jax dh lkjh 'kksHkk mÙkj esa teh
FkhA ml fn'kk esa rks yky jax us vkt deky gh dj fn;k FkkA ijarq cgqr gh FkksM+s
ls le; osQ fy,A Lo;a iwoZ fn'kk gh tgk¡ iwjh j¡xh u xbZ gks] ogk¡ mÙkj fn'kk
dj&djosQ Hkh fdrus u[kjs dj ldrh\ ns[krs&ns[krs ogk¡ osQ ckny 'osr iwuh tSls
gks x, vkSj ;FkkØe fnu dk vkjaHk gh gks x;kA
ge vkdk'k dk o.kZu djrs gSa] i`Foh dk o.kZu djrs gSa] tyk'k;ksa dk o.kZu
djrs gSaA ij dhpM+ dk o.kZu dHkh fdlh us fd;k gS\ dhpM+ esa iSj Mkyuk dksbZ
ilan ugha djrk] dhpM+ ls 'kjhj xank gksrk gS] diMs+ eSys gks tkrs gSaA vius 'kjhj
ij dhpM+ mMs+ ;g fdlh dks Hkh vPNk ugha yxrk vkSj blhfy, dhpM+ osQ fy,
fdlh dks lgkuqHkwfr ugha gksrhA ;g lc ;FkkFkZ gSA foaQrq rVLFkrk ls lkspsa rks ge
ns[ksaxs fd dhpM+ esa oqQN de lkSan;Z ugha gSA igys rks ;g fd dhpM+ dk jax cgqr
laqnj gSA iqLrdksa osQ xÙkksa ij] ?kjksa dh nhokyksa ij vFkok 'kjhj ij osQ dherh diM+ksa
osQ fy, ge lc dhpM+ osQ tSls jax ilan djrs gSaA dykfHkK yksxksa dks Hk_h esa
idk, gq, fe^h osQ cjruksa osQ fy, ;gh jax cgqr ilan gSA iQksVks ysrs le; Hkh ;fn
mlesa dhpM+ dk] ,dkèk Bhdjs dk jax vk tk, rks mls okeZVksu dgdj foK yksx
[kq'k&[kq'k gks tkrs gSaA ij yks] dhpM+ dk uke ysrs gh lc fcxM+ tkrk gSA
unh osQ fdukjs tc dhpM+ lw[kdj mlosQ VqdMs+ gks tkrs gSa] rc os fdrus laqnj
fn[krs gSaA ”;knk xjeh ls tc mUgha VqdM+ksa esa njkjsa iM+rh gSa vkSj os Vs<s+ gks tkrs
gSa] rc lq[kk, gq, [kksijs tSls nh[k iM+rs gSaA unh fdukjs ehyksa rd tc lery vkSj
Page 3


dhpM+ dk dkO;/55
dkdk dkysydj
(1885 - 1982)
dkdk dkysydj dk tUe egkjk"Vª osQ lrkjk uxj esa lu~ 1885 esa gqvkA dkdk dh ekr`Hkk"kk
ejkBh FkhA mUgsa xqtjkrh] fganh] ckaXyk vkSj vaxzs”kh dk Hkh vPNk Kku FkkA xkaèkhth osQ lkFk
jk"VªHkk"kk izpkj esa tqM+us osQ ckn dkdk fganh esa ys[ku djus yxsA vk”kknh osQ ckn dkdk
thouHkj xkaèkhth osQ fopkj vkSj lkfgR; osQ izpkj&izlkj esa tqVs jgsA
egkRek xkaèkh osQ vuU; vuq;kf;;ksa esa fouksck Hkkos] lhekar xkaèkh vCnqy XkÝ
+
I
+
kQkj [kk¡ vkSj
dkdk dkysydj leku :i ls ;kn fd, tkrs gSaA ubZ fnYyh esa xkaèkh laxzgky; osQ fudV
lfUufèk esa dkdk osQ thou ls tqM+h cgqr&lh oLrq,¡ vkSj mudk lkfgR; vkt Hkh ns[kk tk
ldrk gSA
ns'k osQ izk;% dksus&dksus esa ;k;koj dh rjg Hkze.k djus okys dkdk dh pfpZr Ñfr;k¡ gSa %
fgeky;uks izokl] yksdekrk (;k=kk o`Ùkkar)] Lej.k ;k=kk (laaaaaaaaaLej.k)] èkeksZn; (vkRepfjr)] thouuh
vkuan] vcjukoj (fucaèk laxzg)A dkdk us dbZ o"kks± rd eaxy izHkkr i=k dk laiknu Hkh fd;kA
dkdk osQ ys[ku dh Hkk"kk ljy] ljl] vkstLoh vkSj lkjxfHkZr gSA fopkjiw.kZ fucaèk gks ;k
;k=kk laLej.k] lHkh fo"k;ksa dh roZQiw.kZ O;k[;k dkdk dh ys[ku 'kSyh dh fo'ks"krk jgh gSA
,d fganhrj Hkk"kh ys[kd }kjk ewyr% fganh esa fy[ks bl yfyr fucaèk dhpM+ dk dkO; esa
dkdk us dhpM+ dh mi;ksfxrk dk dkO;kRed 'kSyh esa c[kku fd;k gSA dkdk dgrs gSa fd gesa
dhpM+ osQ xansiu ij ugha] vfirq mldh ekuo vkSj i'kqvksa rd osQ thou esa mi;ksfxrk ij è;ku
nsuk pkfg,A mÙkj&iwohZ jkT;ksa esa lcls ”;knk iSnk gksusokyh èkku dh iQly dhpM+ esa gh mx ikrh
gSA dhpM+ u gksrk rks D;k&D;k u gksrk] ekuo vkSj i'kq fdu fu;kerksa ls oafpr jg tkrs] bldh
,d ckuxh ;g fucaèk c[kwch n'kkZrk gSA dhpM+ gs; ugha J¼s; gS] ;g ys[kd gh ugha ikBd Hkh
Lohdkjrk gSA
56/Li'kZ
dhpM+ dk dkO;
vkt lqcg iwoZ esa oqQN [kkl vkd"kZd ugha FkkA jax dh lkjh 'kksHkk mÙkj esa teh
FkhA ml fn'kk esa rks yky jax us vkt deky gh dj fn;k FkkA ijarq cgqr gh FkksM+s
ls le; osQ fy,A Lo;a iwoZ fn'kk gh tgk¡ iwjh j¡xh u xbZ gks] ogk¡ mÙkj fn'kk
dj&djosQ Hkh fdrus u[kjs dj ldrh\ ns[krs&ns[krs ogk¡ osQ ckny 'osr iwuh tSls
gks x, vkSj ;FkkØe fnu dk vkjaHk gh gks x;kA
ge vkdk'k dk o.kZu djrs gSa] i`Foh dk o.kZu djrs gSa] tyk'k;ksa dk o.kZu
djrs gSaA ij dhpM+ dk o.kZu dHkh fdlh us fd;k gS\ dhpM+ esa iSj Mkyuk dksbZ
ilan ugha djrk] dhpM+ ls 'kjhj xank gksrk gS] diMs+ eSys gks tkrs gSaA vius 'kjhj
ij dhpM+ mMs+ ;g fdlh dks Hkh vPNk ugha yxrk vkSj blhfy, dhpM+ osQ fy,
fdlh dks lgkuqHkwfr ugha gksrhA ;g lc ;FkkFkZ gSA foaQrq rVLFkrk ls lkspsa rks ge
ns[ksaxs fd dhpM+ esa oqQN de lkSan;Z ugha gSA igys rks ;g fd dhpM+ dk jax cgqr
laqnj gSA iqLrdksa osQ xÙkksa ij] ?kjksa dh nhokyksa ij vFkok 'kjhj ij osQ dherh diM+ksa
osQ fy, ge lc dhpM+ osQ tSls jax ilan djrs gSaA dykfHkK yksxksa dks Hk_h esa
idk, gq, fe^h osQ cjruksa osQ fy, ;gh jax cgqr ilan gSA iQksVks ysrs le; Hkh ;fn
mlesa dhpM+ dk] ,dkèk Bhdjs dk jax vk tk, rks mls okeZVksu dgdj foK yksx
[kq'k&[kq'k gks tkrs gSaA ij yks] dhpM+ dk uke ysrs gh lc fcxM+ tkrk gSA
unh osQ fdukjs tc dhpM+ lw[kdj mlosQ VqdMs+ gks tkrs gSa] rc os fdrus laqnj
fn[krs gSaA ”;knk xjeh ls tc mUgha VqdM+ksa esa njkjsa iM+rh gSa vkSj os Vs<s+ gks tkrs
gSa] rc lq[kk, gq, [kksijs tSls nh[k iM+rs gSaA unh fdukjs ehyksa rd tc lery vkSj
dhpM+ dk dkO;/57
fpduk dhpM+ ,d&lk iSQyk gqvk gksrk gS] rc og n`'; oqQN de [kwclwjr ugha
gksrkA bl dhpM+ dk i`"B Hkkx oqQN lw[k tkus ij ml ij cxqys vkSj vU;
NksVs&cMs+ i{kh pyrs gSa] rc rhu uk[kwu vkxs vkSj v¡xwBk ihNs ,sls muosQ infpÉ]
eè; ,f'k;k osQ jkLrs dh rjg nwj&nwj rd vafdr ns[k blh jkLrs viuk dkjok¡ ys
tkus dh bPNk gesa gksrh gSA
fiQj tc dhpM+ ”;knk lw[kdj ”kehu Bksl gks tk,] rc xk;] cSy] ikMs+] HkSal]
HksM+] cdjs bR;kfn osQ infpÉ ml ij vafdr gksrs gSa mldh 'kksHkk vkSj gh gSA vkSj
fiQj tc nks eneLr ikMs+ vius lhaxksa ls dhpM+ dks jkSandj vkil esa yM+rs gSa rc unh
fdukjs vafdr infpÉ vkSj lhaxksa osQ fpÉksa ls ekuks efg"koqQy osQ Hkkjrh; ;q¼ dk iwjk
bfrgkl gh bl dnZe ys[k esa fy[kk gksµ,slk Hkkl gksrk gSSA
dhpM+ ns[kuk gks rks xaxk osQ fdukjs ;k flaèkq osQ fdukjs vkSj brus ls r`fIr u
gks rks lhèks [kaHkkr igq¡puk pkfg,A ogk¡ egh unh osQ eq[k ls vkxs tgk¡ rd u”kj
igq¡ps ogk¡ rd loZ=k lukru dhpM+ gh ns[kus dks feysxkA bl dhpM+ esa gkFkh Mwc
tk,¡xs ,slk dguk] u 'kksHkk ns ,slh vYiksfDr djus tSlk gSA igkM+ osQ igkM+ mlesa
yqIr gks tk,¡xs ,slk dguk pkfg,A
gekjk vUu dhpM+ esa ls gh iSnk gksrk gS bldk tkxzr Hkku ;fn gj ,d euq";
dks gksrk rks og dHkh dhpM+ dk frjLdkj u djrkA ,d vthc ckr rks nsf[k,A iad
'kCn ?k`.kkLin yxrk gS] tcfd iadt
'kCn lqurs gh dfo yksx Mksyus vkSj xkus
yxrs gSaA ey fcyoqQy efyu ekuk tkrk
gS foaQrq dey 'kCn lqurs gh fpÙk esa
izlUurk vkSj vkÈkndRo iwQV iM+rs gSaA
dfo;ksa dh ,slh ;qfDr'kwU; o`fÙk muosQ
lkeus ge j[kas rks os dgsaxs fd ¶vki
oklqnso dh iwtk djrs gSa blfy, olqnso
dks rks ugha iwtrs] ghjs dk Hkkjh ewY; nsrs
Page 4


dhpM+ dk dkO;/55
dkdk dkysydj
(1885 - 1982)
dkdk dkysydj dk tUe egkjk"Vª osQ lrkjk uxj esa lu~ 1885 esa gqvkA dkdk dh ekr`Hkk"kk
ejkBh FkhA mUgsa xqtjkrh] fganh] ckaXyk vkSj vaxzs”kh dk Hkh vPNk Kku FkkA xkaèkhth osQ lkFk
jk"VªHkk"kk izpkj esa tqM+us osQ ckn dkdk fganh esa ys[ku djus yxsA vk”kknh osQ ckn dkdk
thouHkj xkaèkhth osQ fopkj vkSj lkfgR; osQ izpkj&izlkj esa tqVs jgsA
egkRek xkaèkh osQ vuU; vuq;kf;;ksa esa fouksck Hkkos] lhekar xkaèkh vCnqy XkÝ
+
I
+
kQkj [kk¡ vkSj
dkdk dkysydj leku :i ls ;kn fd, tkrs gSaA ubZ fnYyh esa xkaèkh laxzgky; osQ fudV
lfUufèk esa dkdk osQ thou ls tqM+h cgqr&lh oLrq,¡ vkSj mudk lkfgR; vkt Hkh ns[kk tk
ldrk gSA
ns'k osQ izk;% dksus&dksus esa ;k;koj dh rjg Hkze.k djus okys dkdk dh pfpZr Ñfr;k¡ gSa %
fgeky;uks izokl] yksdekrk (;k=kk o`Ùkkar)] Lej.k ;k=kk (laaaaaaaaaLej.k)] èkeksZn; (vkRepfjr)] thouuh
vkuan] vcjukoj (fucaèk laxzg)A dkdk us dbZ o"kks± rd eaxy izHkkr i=k dk laiknu Hkh fd;kA
dkdk osQ ys[ku dh Hkk"kk ljy] ljl] vkstLoh vkSj lkjxfHkZr gSA fopkjiw.kZ fucaèk gks ;k
;k=kk laLej.k] lHkh fo"k;ksa dh roZQiw.kZ O;k[;k dkdk dh ys[ku 'kSyh dh fo'ks"krk jgh gSA
,d fganhrj Hkk"kh ys[kd }kjk ewyr% fganh esa fy[ks bl yfyr fucaèk dhpM+ dk dkO; esa
dkdk us dhpM+ dh mi;ksfxrk dk dkO;kRed 'kSyh esa c[kku fd;k gSA dkdk dgrs gSa fd gesa
dhpM+ osQ xansiu ij ugha] vfirq mldh ekuo vkSj i'kqvksa rd osQ thou esa mi;ksfxrk ij è;ku
nsuk pkfg,A mÙkj&iwohZ jkT;ksa esa lcls ”;knk iSnk gksusokyh èkku dh iQly dhpM+ esa gh mx ikrh
gSA dhpM+ u gksrk rks D;k&D;k u gksrk] ekuo vkSj i'kq fdu fu;kerksa ls oafpr jg tkrs] bldh
,d ckuxh ;g fucaèk c[kwch n'kkZrk gSA dhpM+ gs; ugha J¼s; gS] ;g ys[kd gh ugha ikBd Hkh
Lohdkjrk gSA
56/Li'kZ
dhpM+ dk dkO;
vkt lqcg iwoZ esa oqQN [kkl vkd"kZd ugha FkkA jax dh lkjh 'kksHkk mÙkj esa teh
FkhA ml fn'kk esa rks yky jax us vkt deky gh dj fn;k FkkA ijarq cgqr gh FkksM+s
ls le; osQ fy,A Lo;a iwoZ fn'kk gh tgk¡ iwjh j¡xh u xbZ gks] ogk¡ mÙkj fn'kk
dj&djosQ Hkh fdrus u[kjs dj ldrh\ ns[krs&ns[krs ogk¡ osQ ckny 'osr iwuh tSls
gks x, vkSj ;FkkØe fnu dk vkjaHk gh gks x;kA
ge vkdk'k dk o.kZu djrs gSa] i`Foh dk o.kZu djrs gSa] tyk'k;ksa dk o.kZu
djrs gSaA ij dhpM+ dk o.kZu dHkh fdlh us fd;k gS\ dhpM+ esa iSj Mkyuk dksbZ
ilan ugha djrk] dhpM+ ls 'kjhj xank gksrk gS] diMs+ eSys gks tkrs gSaA vius 'kjhj
ij dhpM+ mMs+ ;g fdlh dks Hkh vPNk ugha yxrk vkSj blhfy, dhpM+ osQ fy,
fdlh dks lgkuqHkwfr ugha gksrhA ;g lc ;FkkFkZ gSA foaQrq rVLFkrk ls lkspsa rks ge
ns[ksaxs fd dhpM+ esa oqQN de lkSan;Z ugha gSA igys rks ;g fd dhpM+ dk jax cgqr
laqnj gSA iqLrdksa osQ xÙkksa ij] ?kjksa dh nhokyksa ij vFkok 'kjhj ij osQ dherh diM+ksa
osQ fy, ge lc dhpM+ osQ tSls jax ilan djrs gSaA dykfHkK yksxksa dks Hk_h esa
idk, gq, fe^h osQ cjruksa osQ fy, ;gh jax cgqr ilan gSA iQksVks ysrs le; Hkh ;fn
mlesa dhpM+ dk] ,dkèk Bhdjs dk jax vk tk, rks mls okeZVksu dgdj foK yksx
[kq'k&[kq'k gks tkrs gSaA ij yks] dhpM+ dk uke ysrs gh lc fcxM+ tkrk gSA
unh osQ fdukjs tc dhpM+ lw[kdj mlosQ VqdMs+ gks tkrs gSa] rc os fdrus laqnj
fn[krs gSaA ”;knk xjeh ls tc mUgha VqdM+ksa esa njkjsa iM+rh gSa vkSj os Vs<s+ gks tkrs
gSa] rc lq[kk, gq, [kksijs tSls nh[k iM+rs gSaA unh fdukjs ehyksa rd tc lery vkSj
dhpM+ dk dkO;/57
fpduk dhpM+ ,d&lk iSQyk gqvk gksrk gS] rc og n`'; oqQN de [kwclwjr ugha
gksrkA bl dhpM+ dk i`"B Hkkx oqQN lw[k tkus ij ml ij cxqys vkSj vU;
NksVs&cMs+ i{kh pyrs gSa] rc rhu uk[kwu vkxs vkSj v¡xwBk ihNs ,sls muosQ infpÉ]
eè; ,f'k;k osQ jkLrs dh rjg nwj&nwj rd vafdr ns[k blh jkLrs viuk dkjok¡ ys
tkus dh bPNk gesa gksrh gSA
fiQj tc dhpM+ ”;knk lw[kdj ”kehu Bksl gks tk,] rc xk;] cSy] ikMs+] HkSal]
HksM+] cdjs bR;kfn osQ infpÉ ml ij vafdr gksrs gSa mldh 'kksHkk vkSj gh gSA vkSj
fiQj tc nks eneLr ikMs+ vius lhaxksa ls dhpM+ dks jkSandj vkil esa yM+rs gSa rc unh
fdukjs vafdr infpÉ vkSj lhaxksa osQ fpÉksa ls ekuks efg"koqQy osQ Hkkjrh; ;q¼ dk iwjk
bfrgkl gh bl dnZe ys[k esa fy[kk gksµ,slk Hkkl gksrk gSSA
dhpM+ ns[kuk gks rks xaxk osQ fdukjs ;k flaèkq osQ fdukjs vkSj brus ls r`fIr u
gks rks lhèks [kaHkkr igq¡puk pkfg,A ogk¡ egh unh osQ eq[k ls vkxs tgk¡ rd u”kj
igq¡ps ogk¡ rd loZ=k lukru dhpM+ gh ns[kus dks feysxkA bl dhpM+ esa gkFkh Mwc
tk,¡xs ,slk dguk] u 'kksHkk ns ,slh vYiksfDr djus tSlk gSA igkM+ osQ igkM+ mlesa
yqIr gks tk,¡xs ,slk dguk pkfg,A
gekjk vUu dhpM+ esa ls gh iSnk gksrk gS bldk tkxzr Hkku ;fn gj ,d euq";
dks gksrk rks og dHkh dhpM+ dk frjLdkj u djrkA ,d vthc ckr rks nsf[k,A iad
'kCn ?k`.kkLin yxrk gS] tcfd iadt
'kCn lqurs gh dfo yksx Mksyus vkSj xkus
yxrs gSaA ey fcyoqQy efyu ekuk tkrk
gS foaQrq dey 'kCn lqurs gh fpÙk esa
izlUurk vkSj vkÈkndRo iwQV iM+rs gSaA
dfo;ksa dh ,slh ;qfDr'kwU; o`fÙk muosQ
lkeus ge j[kas rks os dgsaxs fd ¶vki
oklqnso dh iwtk djrs gSa blfy, olqnso
dks rks ugha iwtrs] ghjs dk Hkkjh ewY; nsrs
58/Li'kZ
gSa foaQrq dks;ys ;k iRFkj dk ugha nsrs vkSj eksrh dks oaQB esa ck¡èkdj fiQjrs gSa foaQrq
mldh ekrqJh dks xys esa ugha ck¡èkrs!¸ de&ls&de bl fo"k; ij dfo;ksa osQ lkFk
rks ppkZ u djuk gh mÙke!
iz'u&vH;kl
ekSf[kd
fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj ,d&nks iafDr;ksa esa nhft,µ
1- jax dh 'kksHkk us D;k dj fn;k\
2- ckny fdldh rjg gks x, Fks\
3- yksx fdu&fdu ph”kksa dk o.kZu djrs gSa\
4- dhpM+ ls D;k gksrk gS\
5- dhpM+ tSlk jax dkSu yksx ilan djrs gSa\
6- unh osQ fdukjs dhpM+ dc lqanj fn[krk gS\
7- dhpM+ dgk¡ lqanj yxrk gS\
8- ^iad* vkSj ^iadt* 'kCn esa D;k varj gS\
fyf[kr
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj (25-30 'kCnksa esa) fyf[k,µ
1- dhpM+ osQ izfr fdlh dks lgkuqHkwfr D;ksa ugha gksrh\
2- ”kehu Bksl gksus ij ml ij fduosQ infpÉ vafdr gksrs gSa\
3- euq"; dks D;k Hkku gksrk ftlls og dhpM+ dk frjLdkj u djrk\
4- igkM+ yqIr dj nsusokys dhpM+ dh D;k fo'ks"krk gS\
([k) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj (50-60 'kCnksa esa) fyf[k,µ
1- dhpM+ dk jax fdu&fdu yksxksa dks [kq'k djrk gS\
2- dhpM+ lw[kdj fdl izdkj osQ n`'; mifLFkr djrk gS\
3- lw[ks gq, dhpM+ dk lkSan;Z fdu LFkkuksa ij fn[kkbZ nsrk gS\
4- dfo;ksa dh èkkj.kk dks ys[kd us o`fÙk&'kwU; D;ksa dgk gS\
Page 5


dhpM+ dk dkO;/55
dkdk dkysydj
(1885 - 1982)
dkdk dkysydj dk tUe egkjk"Vª osQ lrkjk uxj esa lu~ 1885 esa gqvkA dkdk dh ekr`Hkk"kk
ejkBh FkhA mUgsa xqtjkrh] fganh] ckaXyk vkSj vaxzs”kh dk Hkh vPNk Kku FkkA xkaèkhth osQ lkFk
jk"VªHkk"kk izpkj esa tqM+us osQ ckn dkdk fganh esa ys[ku djus yxsA vk”kknh osQ ckn dkdk
thouHkj xkaèkhth osQ fopkj vkSj lkfgR; osQ izpkj&izlkj esa tqVs jgsA
egkRek xkaèkh osQ vuU; vuq;kf;;ksa esa fouksck Hkkos] lhekar xkaèkh vCnqy XkÝ
+
I
+
kQkj [kk¡ vkSj
dkdk dkysydj leku :i ls ;kn fd, tkrs gSaA ubZ fnYyh esa xkaèkh laxzgky; osQ fudV
lfUufèk esa dkdk osQ thou ls tqM+h cgqr&lh oLrq,¡ vkSj mudk lkfgR; vkt Hkh ns[kk tk
ldrk gSA
ns'k osQ izk;% dksus&dksus esa ;k;koj dh rjg Hkze.k djus okys dkdk dh pfpZr Ñfr;k¡ gSa %
fgeky;uks izokl] yksdekrk (;k=kk o`Ùkkar)] Lej.k ;k=kk (laaaaaaaaaLej.k)] èkeksZn; (vkRepfjr)] thouuh
vkuan] vcjukoj (fucaèk laxzg)A dkdk us dbZ o"kks± rd eaxy izHkkr i=k dk laiknu Hkh fd;kA
dkdk osQ ys[ku dh Hkk"kk ljy] ljl] vkstLoh vkSj lkjxfHkZr gSA fopkjiw.kZ fucaèk gks ;k
;k=kk laLej.k] lHkh fo"k;ksa dh roZQiw.kZ O;k[;k dkdk dh ys[ku 'kSyh dh fo'ks"krk jgh gSA
,d fganhrj Hkk"kh ys[kd }kjk ewyr% fganh esa fy[ks bl yfyr fucaèk dhpM+ dk dkO; esa
dkdk us dhpM+ dh mi;ksfxrk dk dkO;kRed 'kSyh esa c[kku fd;k gSA dkdk dgrs gSa fd gesa
dhpM+ osQ xansiu ij ugha] vfirq mldh ekuo vkSj i'kqvksa rd osQ thou esa mi;ksfxrk ij è;ku
nsuk pkfg,A mÙkj&iwohZ jkT;ksa esa lcls ”;knk iSnk gksusokyh èkku dh iQly dhpM+ esa gh mx ikrh
gSA dhpM+ u gksrk rks D;k&D;k u gksrk] ekuo vkSj i'kq fdu fu;kerksa ls oafpr jg tkrs] bldh
,d ckuxh ;g fucaèk c[kwch n'kkZrk gSA dhpM+ gs; ugha J¼s; gS] ;g ys[kd gh ugha ikBd Hkh
Lohdkjrk gSA
56/Li'kZ
dhpM+ dk dkO;
vkt lqcg iwoZ esa oqQN [kkl vkd"kZd ugha FkkA jax dh lkjh 'kksHkk mÙkj esa teh
FkhA ml fn'kk esa rks yky jax us vkt deky gh dj fn;k FkkA ijarq cgqr gh FkksM+s
ls le; osQ fy,A Lo;a iwoZ fn'kk gh tgk¡ iwjh j¡xh u xbZ gks] ogk¡ mÙkj fn'kk
dj&djosQ Hkh fdrus u[kjs dj ldrh\ ns[krs&ns[krs ogk¡ osQ ckny 'osr iwuh tSls
gks x, vkSj ;FkkØe fnu dk vkjaHk gh gks x;kA
ge vkdk'k dk o.kZu djrs gSa] i`Foh dk o.kZu djrs gSa] tyk'k;ksa dk o.kZu
djrs gSaA ij dhpM+ dk o.kZu dHkh fdlh us fd;k gS\ dhpM+ esa iSj Mkyuk dksbZ
ilan ugha djrk] dhpM+ ls 'kjhj xank gksrk gS] diMs+ eSys gks tkrs gSaA vius 'kjhj
ij dhpM+ mMs+ ;g fdlh dks Hkh vPNk ugha yxrk vkSj blhfy, dhpM+ osQ fy,
fdlh dks lgkuqHkwfr ugha gksrhA ;g lc ;FkkFkZ gSA foaQrq rVLFkrk ls lkspsa rks ge
ns[ksaxs fd dhpM+ esa oqQN de lkSan;Z ugha gSA igys rks ;g fd dhpM+ dk jax cgqr
laqnj gSA iqLrdksa osQ xÙkksa ij] ?kjksa dh nhokyksa ij vFkok 'kjhj ij osQ dherh diM+ksa
osQ fy, ge lc dhpM+ osQ tSls jax ilan djrs gSaA dykfHkK yksxksa dks Hk_h esa
idk, gq, fe^h osQ cjruksa osQ fy, ;gh jax cgqr ilan gSA iQksVks ysrs le; Hkh ;fn
mlesa dhpM+ dk] ,dkèk Bhdjs dk jax vk tk, rks mls okeZVksu dgdj foK yksx
[kq'k&[kq'k gks tkrs gSaA ij yks] dhpM+ dk uke ysrs gh lc fcxM+ tkrk gSA
unh osQ fdukjs tc dhpM+ lw[kdj mlosQ VqdMs+ gks tkrs gSa] rc os fdrus laqnj
fn[krs gSaA ”;knk xjeh ls tc mUgha VqdM+ksa esa njkjsa iM+rh gSa vkSj os Vs<s+ gks tkrs
gSa] rc lq[kk, gq, [kksijs tSls nh[k iM+rs gSaA unh fdukjs ehyksa rd tc lery vkSj
dhpM+ dk dkO;/57
fpduk dhpM+ ,d&lk iSQyk gqvk gksrk gS] rc og n`'; oqQN de [kwclwjr ugha
gksrkA bl dhpM+ dk i`"B Hkkx oqQN lw[k tkus ij ml ij cxqys vkSj vU;
NksVs&cMs+ i{kh pyrs gSa] rc rhu uk[kwu vkxs vkSj v¡xwBk ihNs ,sls muosQ infpÉ]
eè; ,f'k;k osQ jkLrs dh rjg nwj&nwj rd vafdr ns[k blh jkLrs viuk dkjok¡ ys
tkus dh bPNk gesa gksrh gSA
fiQj tc dhpM+ ”;knk lw[kdj ”kehu Bksl gks tk,] rc xk;] cSy] ikMs+] HkSal]
HksM+] cdjs bR;kfn osQ infpÉ ml ij vafdr gksrs gSa mldh 'kksHkk vkSj gh gSA vkSj
fiQj tc nks eneLr ikMs+ vius lhaxksa ls dhpM+ dks jkSandj vkil esa yM+rs gSa rc unh
fdukjs vafdr infpÉ vkSj lhaxksa osQ fpÉksa ls ekuks efg"koqQy osQ Hkkjrh; ;q¼ dk iwjk
bfrgkl gh bl dnZe ys[k esa fy[kk gksµ,slk Hkkl gksrk gSSA
dhpM+ ns[kuk gks rks xaxk osQ fdukjs ;k flaèkq osQ fdukjs vkSj brus ls r`fIr u
gks rks lhèks [kaHkkr igq¡puk pkfg,A ogk¡ egh unh osQ eq[k ls vkxs tgk¡ rd u”kj
igq¡ps ogk¡ rd loZ=k lukru dhpM+ gh ns[kus dks feysxkA bl dhpM+ esa gkFkh Mwc
tk,¡xs ,slk dguk] u 'kksHkk ns ,slh vYiksfDr djus tSlk gSA igkM+ osQ igkM+ mlesa
yqIr gks tk,¡xs ,slk dguk pkfg,A
gekjk vUu dhpM+ esa ls gh iSnk gksrk gS bldk tkxzr Hkku ;fn gj ,d euq";
dks gksrk rks og dHkh dhpM+ dk frjLdkj u djrkA ,d vthc ckr rks nsf[k,A iad
'kCn ?k`.kkLin yxrk gS] tcfd iadt
'kCn lqurs gh dfo yksx Mksyus vkSj xkus
yxrs gSaA ey fcyoqQy efyu ekuk tkrk
gS foaQrq dey 'kCn lqurs gh fpÙk esa
izlUurk vkSj vkÈkndRo iwQV iM+rs gSaA
dfo;ksa dh ,slh ;qfDr'kwU; o`fÙk muosQ
lkeus ge j[kas rks os dgsaxs fd ¶vki
oklqnso dh iwtk djrs gSa blfy, olqnso
dks rks ugha iwtrs] ghjs dk Hkkjh ewY; nsrs
58/Li'kZ
gSa foaQrq dks;ys ;k iRFkj dk ugha nsrs vkSj eksrh dks oaQB esa ck¡èkdj fiQjrs gSa foaQrq
mldh ekrqJh dks xys esa ugha ck¡èkrs!¸ de&ls&de bl fo"k; ij dfo;ksa osQ lkFk
rks ppkZ u djuk gh mÙke!
iz'u&vH;kl
ekSf[kd
fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj ,d&nks iafDr;ksa esa nhft,µ
1- jax dh 'kksHkk us D;k dj fn;k\
2- ckny fdldh rjg gks x, Fks\
3- yksx fdu&fdu ph”kksa dk o.kZu djrs gSa\
4- dhpM+ ls D;k gksrk gS\
5- dhpM+ tSlk jax dkSu yksx ilan djrs gSa\
6- unh osQ fdukjs dhpM+ dc lqanj fn[krk gS\
7- dhpM+ dgk¡ lqanj yxrk gS\
8- ^iad* vkSj ^iadt* 'kCn esa D;k varj gS\
fyf[kr
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj (25-30 'kCnksa esa) fyf[k,µ
1- dhpM+ osQ izfr fdlh dks lgkuqHkwfr D;ksa ugha gksrh\
2- ”kehu Bksl gksus ij ml ij fduosQ infpÉ vafdr gksrs gSa\
3- euq"; dks D;k Hkku gksrk ftlls og dhpM+ dk frjLdkj u djrk\
4- igkM+ yqIr dj nsusokys dhpM+ dh D;k fo'ks"krk gS\
([k) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj (50-60 'kCnksa esa) fyf[k,µ
1- dhpM+ dk jax fdu&fdu yksxksa dks [kq'k djrk gS\
2- dhpM+ lw[kdj fdl izdkj osQ n`'; mifLFkr djrk gS\
3- lw[ks gq, dhpM+ dk lkSan;Z fdu LFkkuksa ij fn[kkbZ nsrk gS\
4- dfo;ksa dh èkkj.kk dks ys[kd us o`fÙk&'kwU; D;ksa dgk gS\
dhpM+ dk dkO;/59
(x) fuEufyf[kr dk vk'k; Li"V dhft,µ
1- unh fdukjs vafdr infpÉ vkSj lhaxksa osQ fpÉksa ls ekuks efg"koqQy osQ Hkkjrh; ;q¼
dk iwjk bfrgkl gh bl dnZe ys[k esa fy[kk gks ,slk Hkkl gksrk gSSA
2- ¶vki oklqnso dh iwtk djrs gSa blfy, olqnso dks rks ugha iwtrs] ghjs dk Hkkjh
ewY; nsrs gSa foaQrq dks;ys ;k iRFkj dk ugha nsrs vkSj eksrh dks oaQB esa ck¡èkdj fiQjrs
gSa foaQrq mldh ekrqJh dks xys esa ugha ck¡èkrs!¸ de&ls&de bl fo"k; ij dfo;ksa
osQ lkFk rks ppkZ u djuk gh mÙke!
Hkk"kk&vè;;u
1. fuEufyf[kr 'kCnksa osQ rhu&rhu i;kZ;okph 'kCn fyf[k,µ
tyk'k; ----------------------- ----------------------- -----------------------
flaèkq ----------------------- ----------------------- -----------------------
iadt ----------------------- ----------------------- -----------------------
i`Foh ----------------------- ----------------------- -----------------------
vkdk'k ----------------------- ----------------------- -----------------------
2. fuEufyf[kr okD;ksa esa dkjdksa dks js[kkafdr dj muosQ uke Hkh fyf[k,µ
(d) dhpM+ dk uke ysrs gh lc fcxM+ tkrk gSA -----------------------
([k) D;k dhpM+ dk o.kZu dHkh fdlh us fd;k gSA -----------------------
(x) gekjk vUu dhpM+ ls gh iSnk gksrk gSA -----------------------
(?k) infpÉ ml ij vafdr gksrs gSaA -----------------------
(Ä) vki oklqnso dh iwtk djrs gSaA -----------------------
3. fuEufyf[kr 'kCnksa dh cukoV dks è;ku ls nsf[k, vkSj budk ikB ls fHkUu fdlh
u, izlax esa okD; iz;ksx dhft,µ
vkd"kZd ;FkkFkZ rVLFkrk dykfHkK infpÉ
vafdr r`fIr lukru yqIr tkxzr
?k`.kkLin ;qfDr'kwU; o`fÙk
4. uhps nh xbZ la;qDr fØ;kvksa dk iz;ksx djrs gq, dksbZ vU; okD; cukb,µ
(d) ns[krs&ns[krs ogk¡ osQ ckny 'osr iwuh tSls gks x,A
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Read More

Complete Syllabus of Class 9

Dynamic Test

Content Category

Related Searches

कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

,

Sample Paper

,

कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

,

MCQs

,

NCERT Textbook: पाठ 6 - कीचड़ का काव्य

,

video lectures

,

ppt

,

Important questions

,

mock tests for examination

,

study material

,

स्पर्श

,

Objective type Questions

,

कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

,

Exam

,

स्पर्श

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

हिन्दी

,

स्पर्श

,

हिन्दी

,

practice quizzes

,

NCERT Textbook: पाठ 6 - कीचड़ का काव्य

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Extra Questions

,

pdf

,

Free

,

Viva Questions

,

हिन्दी

,

Summary

,

past year papers

,

Semester Notes

,

NCERT Textbook: पाठ 6 - कीचड़ का काव्य

;