NCERT Textbook पाठ 6 - दिए जल उठे , संचयन, हिन्दी, कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 9

Created by: Trisha Vashisht

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook पाठ 6 - दिए जल उठे , संचयन, हिन्दी, कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


fn;s ty mBs/41
fn;s ty mBs
eèkqdj mikè;k;
jkl osQ cw<+s cjxn us og n`'; ns[kk FkkA nkaMh owQp dh rS;kjh osQ flyflys esa
oYyHkHkkbZ iVsy lkr ekpZ dks jkl igq¡ps FksA mUgsa ogk¡ Hkk"k.k ugha nsuk Fkk ysfdu
iVsy us yksxksa osQ vkxzg ij ^nks 'kCn* dguk Lohdkj dj fy;kA mUgksaus dgk]
¶Hkkb;ks vkSj cguks] D;k vki lR;kxzg osQ fy, rS;kj gSa\¸ blh chp eftLVªsV
us fu"ksèkkKk
1
 ykxw dj nh vkSj iVsy dks fxjÝ
+
rkj dj fy;k x;kA ;g fxjÝ
+
rkjh
LFkkuh; dysDVj f'kfyMh osQ vkns'k ij gqbZ] ftls iVsy us fiNys vkanksyu osQ
le; vgenkckn ls Hkxk fn;k FkkA
oYyHkHkkbZ dks iqfyl igjs esa cksjln dh vnkyr esa yk;k x;k tgk¡ mUgksaus viuk
vijkèk dcwy
2
 dj fy;kA tt dks le> esa ugha vk jgk Fkk fd og mUgsa fdl èkkjk
osQ rgr vkSj fdruh l”kk nsA vkB ykbu dk viuk I
+
kSQlyk fy[kus esa mls Ms<+ ?kaVk
yxkA iVsy dks 500 jQi;s tqjekus osQ lkFk rhu eghus dh tsy gqbZA blosQ fy, mUgsa
vgenkckn esa lkcjerh tsy ys tk;k x;kA lkcjerh vkJe esa xkaèkh dks iVsy dh
fxjÝ
+
rkjh] mudh l”kk vkSj mUgsa lkcjerh tsy yk, tkus dh lwpuk nh xbZA xkaèkh bl
fxjÝ
+
rkjh ls cgqr {kqCèk
3
 FksA mUgksaus dgk fd vc nkaMh owQp dh rkjh[k cny ldrh
gSA og vius vfHk;ku ij 12 ekpZ ls igys gh jokuk gks ldrs gSaA
1- eukgh dk vkns'k  2- Lohdkj  3- v'kkar] ukjk”k
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


fn;s ty mBs/41
fn;s ty mBs
eèkqdj mikè;k;
jkl osQ cw<+s cjxn us og n`'; ns[kk FkkA nkaMh owQp dh rS;kjh osQ flyflys esa
oYyHkHkkbZ iVsy lkr ekpZ dks jkl igq¡ps FksA mUgsa ogk¡ Hkk"k.k ugha nsuk Fkk ysfdu
iVsy us yksxksa osQ vkxzg ij ^nks 'kCn* dguk Lohdkj dj fy;kA mUgksaus dgk]
¶Hkkb;ks vkSj cguks] D;k vki lR;kxzg osQ fy, rS;kj gSa\¸ blh chp eftLVªsV
us fu"ksèkkKk
1
 ykxw dj nh vkSj iVsy dks fxjÝ
+
rkj dj fy;k x;kA ;g fxjÝ
+
rkjh
LFkkuh; dysDVj f'kfyMh osQ vkns'k ij gqbZ] ftls iVsy us fiNys vkanksyu osQ
le; vgenkckn ls Hkxk fn;k FkkA
oYyHkHkkbZ dks iqfyl igjs esa cksjln dh vnkyr esa yk;k x;k tgk¡ mUgksaus viuk
vijkèk dcwy
2
 dj fy;kA tt dks le> esa ugha vk jgk Fkk fd og mUgsa fdl èkkjk
osQ rgr vkSj fdruh l”kk nsA vkB ykbu dk viuk I
+
kSQlyk fy[kus esa mls Ms<+ ?kaVk
yxkA iVsy dks 500 jQi;s tqjekus osQ lkFk rhu eghus dh tsy gqbZA blosQ fy, mUgsa
vgenkckn esa lkcjerh tsy ys tk;k x;kA lkcjerh vkJe esa xkaèkh dks iVsy dh
fxjÝ
+
rkjh] mudh l”kk vkSj mUgsa lkcjerh tsy yk, tkus dh lwpuk nh xbZA xkaèkh bl
fxjÝ
+
rkjh ls cgqr {kqCèk
3
 FksA mUgksaus dgk fd vc nkaMh owQp dh rkjh[k cny ldrh
gSA og vius vfHk;ku ij 12 ekpZ ls igys gh jokuk gks ldrs gSaA
1- eukgh dk vkns'k  2- Lohdkj  3- v'kkar] ukjk”k
© NCERT
not to be republished
42/lap;u
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


fn;s ty mBs/41
fn;s ty mBs
eèkqdj mikè;k;
jkl osQ cw<+s cjxn us og n`'; ns[kk FkkA nkaMh owQp dh rS;kjh osQ flyflys esa
oYyHkHkkbZ iVsy lkr ekpZ dks jkl igq¡ps FksA mUgsa ogk¡ Hkk"k.k ugha nsuk Fkk ysfdu
iVsy us yksxksa osQ vkxzg ij ^nks 'kCn* dguk Lohdkj dj fy;kA mUgksaus dgk]
¶Hkkb;ks vkSj cguks] D;k vki lR;kxzg osQ fy, rS;kj gSa\¸ blh chp eftLVªsV
us fu"ksèkkKk
1
 ykxw dj nh vkSj iVsy dks fxjÝ
+
rkj dj fy;k x;kA ;g fxjÝ
+
rkjh
LFkkuh; dysDVj f'kfyMh osQ vkns'k ij gqbZ] ftls iVsy us fiNys vkanksyu osQ
le; vgenkckn ls Hkxk fn;k FkkA
oYyHkHkkbZ dks iqfyl igjs esa cksjln dh vnkyr esa yk;k x;k tgk¡ mUgksaus viuk
vijkèk dcwy
2
 dj fy;kA tt dks le> esa ugha vk jgk Fkk fd og mUgsa fdl èkkjk
osQ rgr vkSj fdruh l”kk nsA vkB ykbu dk viuk I
+
kSQlyk fy[kus esa mls Ms<+ ?kaVk
yxkA iVsy dks 500 jQi;s tqjekus osQ lkFk rhu eghus dh tsy gqbZA blosQ fy, mUgsa
vgenkckn esa lkcjerh tsy ys tk;k x;kA lkcjerh vkJe esa xkaèkh dks iVsy dh
fxjÝ
+
rkjh] mudh l”kk vkSj mUgsa lkcjerh tsy yk, tkus dh lwpuk nh xbZA xkaèkh bl
fxjÝ
+
rkjh ls cgqr {kqCèk
3
 FksA mUgksaus dgk fd vc nkaMh owQp dh rkjh[k cny ldrh
gSA og vius vfHk;ku ij 12 ekpZ ls igys gh jokuk gks ldrs gSaA
1- eukgh dk vkns'k  2- Lohdkj  3- v'kkar] ukjk”k
© NCERT
not to be republished
42/lap;u
© NCERT
not to be republished
fn;s ty mBs/43
vkJe esa ,d&,d vkneh ;g fglkc yxk jgk Fkk fd eksVjdkj ls cksjln
ls lkcjerh tsy iga¡qpus esa fdruk le; yxsxkA tsy dk jkLrk vkJe osQ lkeus
ls gh gksdj tkrk FkkA vkJeoklh iVsy dh ,d >yd ikuk pkgrs FksA le; dk
vuqeku yxkdj xkaèkh Lo;a vkJe ls ckgj fudy vk,A ihNs&ihNs lc
vkJeoklh vkdj lM+d osQ fdukjs [kM+s gks x,A yksxksa dk [k;ky Fkk fd iVsy
dks fxjÝ
+
rkj djosQ ys tkus okyh eksVj ogk¡ fdlh gky esa ugha jQosQxh ysfdu
eksVj jQdhA yxrk gS iVsy dk jksc gh Fkk fd iqfylokyksa dks eksVj jksduh iM+hA
xkaèkh vkSj iVsy lM+d ij gh feysA ,d laf{kIr eqykdkrA iVsy us dkj esa cSBrs
gq, vkJeokfl;ksa vkSj xkaèkh ls dgk] ¶eSa pyrk g¡wA vc vkidh ckjh gSA¸
iVsy dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh ij ns'kHkj esa izfrfozQ;k
1
 gqbZA fnYyh esa enu eksgu
ekyoh; us osaQnzh; ,lsacyh esa ,d izLrko is'k fd;k ftlesa fcuk eqdnek pyk,
iVsy dks tsy Hkstus osQ ljdkjh dne dh HkRlZuk
2
 dh xbZ FkhA izLrko ikfjr
3
ugha gks ldkA bl izLrko ij dbZ usrkvksa us viuh jk; lnu esa j[khA eksgEen
vyh ftUuk us dgk] ¶ljnkj oYyHkHkkbZ iVsy dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh vfHkO;fDr dh
Lora=krk osQ fl¼kar ij geyk gSA Hkkjr ljdkj ,d ,slh u”khj
4
 is'k dj jgh gS
ftlosQ xaHkhj ifj.kke gksaxsA¸
xkaèkh osQ jkl ig¡qpus osQ le; og dkuwu ykxw Fkk ftlosQ rgr iVsy dks
fxjÝ
+
rkj fd;k x;k FkkA lR;kxzfg;ksa us viuh vksj ls rS;kjh iwjh dj yh FkhA vCckl
rS;cth ogk¡ ig¡qp pqosQ Fks fd xkaèkh dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh dh fLFkfr esa owQp dh vxqokbZ
dj loasQA cksjln ls fudyus osQ ckn yxHkx lHkh vk'oLr Fks fd vc xkaèkh dks
tykyiqj ig¡qpus rd ugha idM+k tk,xk ysfdu rS;kjh esa dksbZ deh ugha FkhA
jkl esa xkaèkh dk HkO;
5
 Lokxr gqvkA njckj leqnk; osQ yksx blesa lcls
vkxs FksA njckj xksikynkl vkSj jfo'kadj egkjkt ogk¡ ekStwn FksA xkaèkh us vius
Hkk"k.k esa njckjksa dk [kklrkSj ij mYys[k fd;kA oqQN njckj jkl esa jgrs gSa
ij mudh eq[; cLrh dudkiqjk vkSj mlls lVs xk¡o nso.k esa gSA njckj yksx
1- fdlh dk;Z osQ ifj.kkeLo:i gksus okyk dk;Z 2- fuank 3- ikl djuk  4- mnkgj.k 5- 'kkunkj
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


fn;s ty mBs/41
fn;s ty mBs
eèkqdj mikè;k;
jkl osQ cw<+s cjxn us og n`'; ns[kk FkkA nkaMh owQp dh rS;kjh osQ flyflys esa
oYyHkHkkbZ iVsy lkr ekpZ dks jkl igq¡ps FksA mUgsa ogk¡ Hkk"k.k ugha nsuk Fkk ysfdu
iVsy us yksxksa osQ vkxzg ij ^nks 'kCn* dguk Lohdkj dj fy;kA mUgksaus dgk]
¶Hkkb;ks vkSj cguks] D;k vki lR;kxzg osQ fy, rS;kj gSa\¸ blh chp eftLVªsV
us fu"ksèkkKk
1
 ykxw dj nh vkSj iVsy dks fxjÝ
+
rkj dj fy;k x;kA ;g fxjÝ
+
rkjh
LFkkuh; dysDVj f'kfyMh osQ vkns'k ij gqbZ] ftls iVsy us fiNys vkanksyu osQ
le; vgenkckn ls Hkxk fn;k FkkA
oYyHkHkkbZ dks iqfyl igjs esa cksjln dh vnkyr esa yk;k x;k tgk¡ mUgksaus viuk
vijkèk dcwy
2
 dj fy;kA tt dks le> esa ugha vk jgk Fkk fd og mUgsa fdl èkkjk
osQ rgr vkSj fdruh l”kk nsA vkB ykbu dk viuk I
+
kSQlyk fy[kus esa mls Ms<+ ?kaVk
yxkA iVsy dks 500 jQi;s tqjekus osQ lkFk rhu eghus dh tsy gqbZA blosQ fy, mUgsa
vgenkckn esa lkcjerh tsy ys tk;k x;kA lkcjerh vkJe esa xkaèkh dks iVsy dh
fxjÝ
+
rkjh] mudh l”kk vkSj mUgsa lkcjerh tsy yk, tkus dh lwpuk nh xbZA xkaèkh bl
fxjÝ
+
rkjh ls cgqr {kqCèk
3
 FksA mUgksaus dgk fd vc nkaMh owQp dh rkjh[k cny ldrh
gSA og vius vfHk;ku ij 12 ekpZ ls igys gh jokuk gks ldrs gSaA
1- eukgh dk vkns'k  2- Lohdkj  3- v'kkar] ukjk”k
© NCERT
not to be republished
42/lap;u
© NCERT
not to be republished
fn;s ty mBs/43
vkJe esa ,d&,d vkneh ;g fglkc yxk jgk Fkk fd eksVjdkj ls cksjln
ls lkcjerh tsy iga¡qpus esa fdruk le; yxsxkA tsy dk jkLrk vkJe osQ lkeus
ls gh gksdj tkrk FkkA vkJeoklh iVsy dh ,d >yd ikuk pkgrs FksA le; dk
vuqeku yxkdj xkaèkh Lo;a vkJe ls ckgj fudy vk,A ihNs&ihNs lc
vkJeoklh vkdj lM+d osQ fdukjs [kM+s gks x,A yksxksa dk [k;ky Fkk fd iVsy
dks fxjÝ
+
rkj djosQ ys tkus okyh eksVj ogk¡ fdlh gky esa ugha jQosQxh ysfdu
eksVj jQdhA yxrk gS iVsy dk jksc gh Fkk fd iqfylokyksa dks eksVj jksduh iM+hA
xkaèkh vkSj iVsy lM+d ij gh feysA ,d laf{kIr eqykdkrA iVsy us dkj esa cSBrs
gq, vkJeokfl;ksa vkSj xkaèkh ls dgk] ¶eSa pyrk g¡wA vc vkidh ckjh gSA¸
iVsy dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh ij ns'kHkj esa izfrfozQ;k
1
 gqbZA fnYyh esa enu eksgu
ekyoh; us osaQnzh; ,lsacyh esa ,d izLrko is'k fd;k ftlesa fcuk eqdnek pyk,
iVsy dks tsy Hkstus osQ ljdkjh dne dh HkRlZuk
2
 dh xbZ FkhA izLrko ikfjr
3
ugha gks ldkA bl izLrko ij dbZ usrkvksa us viuh jk; lnu esa j[khA eksgEen
vyh ftUuk us dgk] ¶ljnkj oYyHkHkkbZ iVsy dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh vfHkO;fDr dh
Lora=krk osQ fl¼kar ij geyk gSA Hkkjr ljdkj ,d ,slh u”khj
4
 is'k dj jgh gS
ftlosQ xaHkhj ifj.kke gksaxsA¸
xkaèkh osQ jkl ig¡qpus osQ le; og dkuwu ykxw Fkk ftlosQ rgr iVsy dks
fxjÝ
+
rkj fd;k x;k FkkA lR;kxzfg;ksa us viuh vksj ls rS;kjh iwjh dj yh FkhA vCckl
rS;cth ogk¡ ig¡qp pqosQ Fks fd xkaèkh dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh dh fLFkfr esa owQp dh vxqokbZ
dj loasQA cksjln ls fudyus osQ ckn yxHkx lHkh vk'oLr Fks fd vc xkaèkh dks
tykyiqj ig¡qpus rd ugha idM+k tk,xk ysfdu rS;kjh esa dksbZ deh ugha FkhA
jkl esa xkaèkh dk HkO;
5
 Lokxr gqvkA njckj leqnk; osQ yksx blesa lcls
vkxs FksA njckj xksikynkl vkSj jfo'kadj egkjkt ogk¡ ekStwn FksA xkaèkh us vius
Hkk"k.k esa njckjksa dk [kklrkSj ij mYys[k fd;kA oqQN njckj jkl esa jgrs gSa
ij mudh eq[; cLrh dudkiqjk vkSj mlls lVs xk¡o nso.k esa gSA njckj yksx
1- fdlh dk;Z osQ ifj.kkeLo:i gksus okyk dk;Z 2- fuank 3- ikl djuk  4- mnkgj.k 5- 'kkunkj
© NCERT
not to be republished
44/lap;u
fj;klrnkj
1
 gksrs FksA mudh lkgch Fkh] ,s'kks&vkjke dh ¯”knxh Fkh] ,d rjg
dk jktikV FkkA njckj lc oqQN NksM+dj ;gk¡ vkdj cl x,A xkaèkh us dgk]
¶buls vki R;kx vkSj fgEer lh[ksaA¸
vf[ky Hkkjrh; dkaxzsl desVh dh cSBd 21 ekpZ dks lkcjerh osQ rV ij
gksus okyh FkhA tokgjyky usg: bl cSBd ls igys xkaèkh ls feyuk pkgrs FksA
mUgksaus lans'k fHktok;k ftlosQ tokc esa xkaèkh us jkl esa viuh tulHkk ls igys
,d i=k fy[kk vkSj dgk fd mu rd ig¡qpuk dfBu gS %
rqedks iwjh ,d jkr dk tkxj.k djuk iM+sxkA vxj dy jkr ls igys okil
ykSVuk pkgrs gks rks blls cpk Hkh ugha tk ldrkA eSa ml le; tgk¡ Hkh jg¡wxk]
lans'kokgd rqedks ogk¡ rd ys vk,xkA bl iz;k.k
2
 dh dfBure ?kM+h esa rqe
eq>ls fey jgs gksA rqedks jkr osQ yxHkx nks cts tkus&ij[ks eNqvkjksa osQ daèkksa
ij cSBdj ,d èkkjk ikj djuh iM+sxhA eSa jk"Vª osQ izeq[k lsod osQ fy, Hkh iz;k.k
esa ”kjk Hkh fojke ugha ns ldrkA
oYyHkHkkbZ dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh osQ dkj.k jkl esa vke yksxksa osQ chp ljdkj osQ
f[kyk- IkQ izfrfozQ;k LokHkkfod FkhA xkaèkh dh tulHkk ls igys gh xk¡o osQ lHkh
iq'rSuh
3
 eqf[k;k vkSj iVsy mUgsa viuk bLrh- IkQk lkSai x,A xkaèkh us nkaMh owQp 'kq:
gksus ls igys gh ;g fu'p; dj fy;k Fkk fd og viuh ;k=kk fczfV'k vkfèkiR;
4
okys HkwHkkx ls gh djsaxsA fdlh jkt?kjkus osQ bykosQ esa ugha tk,¡xs ysfdu bl ;k=kk
esa mUgsa FkksM+h nsj osQ fy, cM+kSnk fj;klr ls xq”kjuk iM+kA ,slk u djus ij ;k=kk
djhc chl fdyksehVj yach gks tkrh vkSj bldk vlj ;k=kk dk;ZozQe ij iM+rkA
lR;kxzgh xktsµckts osQ lkFk jkl esa nkf[ky gq,A ogk¡ xkaèkh dks ,d èkeZ'kkyk
esa Bgjk;k x;k tcfd ckdh lR;kxzgh racqvksa esa jQosQA
jkl dh vkcknh djhc rhu g”kkj Fkh ysfdu mudh tulHkk esa chl g”kkj
ls ”;knk yksx FksA vius Hkk"k.k esa xkaèkh us iVsy dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh dk f”kozQ djrs gq,
dgk] ¶ljnkj dks ;g l”kk vkidh lsok osQ iqjLdkj osQ :i esa feyh gSA mUgksaus
1- fj;klr ;k bykosQ dk ekfyd  2- ;k=kk  3- ihf<+;ksa ls pyk vk jgk 4- izHkqRo
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


fn;s ty mBs/41
fn;s ty mBs
eèkqdj mikè;k;
jkl osQ cw<+s cjxn us og n`'; ns[kk FkkA nkaMh owQp dh rS;kjh osQ flyflys esa
oYyHkHkkbZ iVsy lkr ekpZ dks jkl igq¡ps FksA mUgsa ogk¡ Hkk"k.k ugha nsuk Fkk ysfdu
iVsy us yksxksa osQ vkxzg ij ^nks 'kCn* dguk Lohdkj dj fy;kA mUgksaus dgk]
¶Hkkb;ks vkSj cguks] D;k vki lR;kxzg osQ fy, rS;kj gSa\¸ blh chp eftLVªsV
us fu"ksèkkKk
1
 ykxw dj nh vkSj iVsy dks fxjÝ
+
rkj dj fy;k x;kA ;g fxjÝ
+
rkjh
LFkkuh; dysDVj f'kfyMh osQ vkns'k ij gqbZ] ftls iVsy us fiNys vkanksyu osQ
le; vgenkckn ls Hkxk fn;k FkkA
oYyHkHkkbZ dks iqfyl igjs esa cksjln dh vnkyr esa yk;k x;k tgk¡ mUgksaus viuk
vijkèk dcwy
2
 dj fy;kA tt dks le> esa ugha vk jgk Fkk fd og mUgsa fdl èkkjk
osQ rgr vkSj fdruh l”kk nsA vkB ykbu dk viuk I
+
kSQlyk fy[kus esa mls Ms<+ ?kaVk
yxkA iVsy dks 500 jQi;s tqjekus osQ lkFk rhu eghus dh tsy gqbZA blosQ fy, mUgsa
vgenkckn esa lkcjerh tsy ys tk;k x;kA lkcjerh vkJe esa xkaèkh dks iVsy dh
fxjÝ
+
rkjh] mudh l”kk vkSj mUgsa lkcjerh tsy yk, tkus dh lwpuk nh xbZA xkaèkh bl
fxjÝ
+
rkjh ls cgqr {kqCèk
3
 FksA mUgksaus dgk fd vc nkaMh owQp dh rkjh[k cny ldrh
gSA og vius vfHk;ku ij 12 ekpZ ls igys gh jokuk gks ldrs gSaA
1- eukgh dk vkns'k  2- Lohdkj  3- v'kkar] ukjk”k
© NCERT
not to be republished
42/lap;u
© NCERT
not to be republished
fn;s ty mBs/43
vkJe esa ,d&,d vkneh ;g fglkc yxk jgk Fkk fd eksVjdkj ls cksjln
ls lkcjerh tsy iga¡qpus esa fdruk le; yxsxkA tsy dk jkLrk vkJe osQ lkeus
ls gh gksdj tkrk FkkA vkJeoklh iVsy dh ,d >yd ikuk pkgrs FksA le; dk
vuqeku yxkdj xkaèkh Lo;a vkJe ls ckgj fudy vk,A ihNs&ihNs lc
vkJeoklh vkdj lM+d osQ fdukjs [kM+s gks x,A yksxksa dk [k;ky Fkk fd iVsy
dks fxjÝ
+
rkj djosQ ys tkus okyh eksVj ogk¡ fdlh gky esa ugha jQosQxh ysfdu
eksVj jQdhA yxrk gS iVsy dk jksc gh Fkk fd iqfylokyksa dks eksVj jksduh iM+hA
xkaèkh vkSj iVsy lM+d ij gh feysA ,d laf{kIr eqykdkrA iVsy us dkj esa cSBrs
gq, vkJeokfl;ksa vkSj xkaèkh ls dgk] ¶eSa pyrk g¡wA vc vkidh ckjh gSA¸
iVsy dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh ij ns'kHkj esa izfrfozQ;k
1
 gqbZA fnYyh esa enu eksgu
ekyoh; us osaQnzh; ,lsacyh esa ,d izLrko is'k fd;k ftlesa fcuk eqdnek pyk,
iVsy dks tsy Hkstus osQ ljdkjh dne dh HkRlZuk
2
 dh xbZ FkhA izLrko ikfjr
3
ugha gks ldkA bl izLrko ij dbZ usrkvksa us viuh jk; lnu esa j[khA eksgEen
vyh ftUuk us dgk] ¶ljnkj oYyHkHkkbZ iVsy dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh vfHkO;fDr dh
Lora=krk osQ fl¼kar ij geyk gSA Hkkjr ljdkj ,d ,slh u”khj
4
 is'k dj jgh gS
ftlosQ xaHkhj ifj.kke gksaxsA¸
xkaèkh osQ jkl ig¡qpus osQ le; og dkuwu ykxw Fkk ftlosQ rgr iVsy dks
fxjÝ
+
rkj fd;k x;k FkkA lR;kxzfg;ksa us viuh vksj ls rS;kjh iwjh dj yh FkhA vCckl
rS;cth ogk¡ ig¡qp pqosQ Fks fd xkaèkh dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh dh fLFkfr esa owQp dh vxqokbZ
dj loasQA cksjln ls fudyus osQ ckn yxHkx lHkh vk'oLr Fks fd vc xkaèkh dks
tykyiqj ig¡qpus rd ugha idM+k tk,xk ysfdu rS;kjh esa dksbZ deh ugha FkhA
jkl esa xkaèkh dk HkO;
5
 Lokxr gqvkA njckj leqnk; osQ yksx blesa lcls
vkxs FksA njckj xksikynkl vkSj jfo'kadj egkjkt ogk¡ ekStwn FksA xkaèkh us vius
Hkk"k.k esa njckjksa dk [kklrkSj ij mYys[k fd;kA oqQN njckj jkl esa jgrs gSa
ij mudh eq[; cLrh dudkiqjk vkSj mlls lVs xk¡o nso.k esa gSA njckj yksx
1- fdlh dk;Z osQ ifj.kkeLo:i gksus okyk dk;Z 2- fuank 3- ikl djuk  4- mnkgj.k 5- 'kkunkj
© NCERT
not to be republished
44/lap;u
fj;klrnkj
1
 gksrs FksA mudh lkgch Fkh] ,s'kks&vkjke dh ¯”knxh Fkh] ,d rjg
dk jktikV FkkA njckj lc oqQN NksM+dj ;gk¡ vkdj cl x,A xkaèkh us dgk]
¶buls vki R;kx vkSj fgEer lh[ksaA¸
vf[ky Hkkjrh; dkaxzsl desVh dh cSBd 21 ekpZ dks lkcjerh osQ rV ij
gksus okyh FkhA tokgjyky usg: bl cSBd ls igys xkaèkh ls feyuk pkgrs FksA
mUgksaus lans'k fHktok;k ftlosQ tokc esa xkaèkh us jkl esa viuh tulHkk ls igys
,d i=k fy[kk vkSj dgk fd mu rd ig¡qpuk dfBu gS %
rqedks iwjh ,d jkr dk tkxj.k djuk iM+sxkA vxj dy jkr ls igys okil
ykSVuk pkgrs gks rks blls cpk Hkh ugha tk ldrkA eSa ml le; tgk¡ Hkh jg¡wxk]
lans'kokgd rqedks ogk¡ rd ys vk,xkA bl iz;k.k
2
 dh dfBure ?kM+h esa rqe
eq>ls fey jgs gksA rqedks jkr osQ yxHkx nks cts tkus&ij[ks eNqvkjksa osQ daèkksa
ij cSBdj ,d èkkjk ikj djuh iM+sxhA eSa jk"Vª osQ izeq[k lsod osQ fy, Hkh iz;k.k
esa ”kjk Hkh fojke ugha ns ldrkA
oYyHkHkkbZ dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh osQ dkj.k jkl esa vke yksxksa osQ chp ljdkj osQ
f[kyk- IkQ izfrfozQ;k LokHkkfod FkhA xkaèkh dh tulHkk ls igys gh xk¡o osQ lHkh
iq'rSuh
3
 eqf[k;k vkSj iVsy mUgsa viuk bLrh- IkQk lkSai x,A xkaèkh us nkaMh owQp 'kq:
gksus ls igys gh ;g fu'p; dj fy;k Fkk fd og viuh ;k=kk fczfV'k vkfèkiR;
4
okys HkwHkkx ls gh djsaxsA fdlh jkt?kjkus osQ bykosQ esa ugha tk,¡xs ysfdu bl ;k=kk
esa mUgsa FkksM+h nsj osQ fy, cM+kSnk fj;klr ls xq”kjuk iM+kA ,slk u djus ij ;k=kk
djhc chl fdyksehVj yach gks tkrh vkSj bldk vlj ;k=kk dk;ZozQe ij iM+rkA
lR;kxzgh xktsµckts osQ lkFk jkl esa nkf[ky gq,A ogk¡ xkaèkh dks ,d èkeZ'kkyk
esa Bgjk;k x;k tcfd ckdh lR;kxzgh racqvksa esa jQosQA
jkl dh vkcknh djhc rhu g”kkj Fkh ysfdu mudh tulHkk esa chl g”kkj
ls ”;knk yksx FksA vius Hkk"k.k esa xkaèkh us iVsy dh fxjÝ
+
rkjh dk f”kozQ djrs gq,
dgk] ¶ljnkj dks ;g l”kk vkidh lsok osQ iqjLdkj osQ :i esa feyh gSA mUgksaus
1- fj;klr ;k bykosQ dk ekfyd  2- ;k=kk  3- ihf<+;ksa ls pyk vk jgk 4- izHkqRo
© NCERT
not to be republished
fn;s ty mBs/45
ljdkjh ukSdfj;ksa ls bLrh- IksQ dk mYys[k fd;k vkSj dgk fd oqQN eq[kh vkSj
rykVh ^xanxh ij eD[kh dh rjg* fpiosQ gq, gSaA mUgsa Hkh vius futh rqPN
1
LokFkZ Hkwydj bLrh-IkQk ns nsuk pkfg,A¸ mUgksaus dgk] ¶vki yksx dc rd xk¡oksa
dks pwlus esa viuk ;ksxnku nsrs jgsaxsA ljdkj us tks ywV epk j[kh gS mldh vksj
ls D;k vHkh rd vkidh vk¡[ksa [kqyh ugha gSa\¸
xkaèkh us jkl esa Hkh jktnzksg dh ckr ij ”kksj fn;k vkSj dgk fd mudh
fxjÝ
+
rkjh ^vPNh ckr* gksxhA ljdkj dks [kqyh pqukSrh nsrs gq, mUgksaus dgk %
vc fiQj ckny f?kj vk, gSaA ;k dgks lgh ekSdk lkeus gSA vxj ljdkj eq>s
fxjÝ
+
rkj djrh gS rks ;g ,d vPNh ckr gSA eq>s rhu ekg dh l”kk gksxh rks
ljdkj dks yTtk vk,xhA jktnzksgh dks rks dkykikuh] ns'k fudkyk ;k iQkalh dh
l”kk gks ldrh gSA eq> tSls yksx vxj jktnzksgh gksuk viuk èkeZ ekusa rks mUgsa D;k
l”kk feyuh pkfg,\
lR;kxzgh 'kke Ng cts jkl ls pys vkSj vkB cts dudkiqjk ig¡qpsA ml le;
yksx ;k=kk ls oqQN FkosQ gq, Fks vkSj oqQN Fkdku bl vk'kadk ls Fkh fd egh unh
dc vkSj oSQls ikj djsaxsA unh osQ fdukjs ig¡qprs gh leqnz dh vksj ls vkus okyh
BaMh c;kj
2
 us lR;kxzfg;ksa dk Lokxr fd;kA dudkiqjk esa 105 lky dh ,d cw<+h
efgyk us xkaèkh osQ ekFks ij fryd yxk;k vkSj dgk] ¶egkRekth] Lojkt ysdj
tYnh okil vkukA¸ xkaèkh us dgk] ¶eSa Lojkt fy, fcuk ugha ykSVw¡xkA¸ xkaèkh dh
tulHkk dk fuèkkZfjr le; vkB cts Fkk ysfdu dudkiqjk ig¡qpus esa gqbZ nsjh osQ
dkj.k mls ,d ?kaVs osQ fy, LFkfxr dj fn;k x;kA
tulHkk esa xkaèkh us fczrkuh oqQ'kklu dk f”kozQ fd;kA mUgksaus dgk] ¶bl
jkt esa jad ls jktk rd lc nq[kh gSaA jktsµegkjkts tSls ljdkj upkrh gS]
ukpus dks rS;kj gSaA ;g jk{klh jkt gS + + + bldk lagkj
3
 djuk pkfg,A¸ jkLrs
esa jsrhyh lM+dksa osQ dkj.k ;g izLrko fd;k x;k fd xkaèkh FkksM+h ;k=kk dkj ls
1- {kqnz] fuo`Q"V 2- gok 3- uk'k djuk
© NCERT
not to be republished
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