NCERT Textbook: पाठ 6 - सागार यात्रा, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 8

Class 8 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 6 - सागार यात्रा, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


lkxj ;k=kk/37
lkxj&;k=kk
nl Hkkjrh;ksa us ,d ukSdk esa nqfu;k
dk pDdj yxk;k FkkA ml ukSdk
dk uke ^r`".kk* FkkA ;g igyk
,slk Hkkjrh; vfHk;ku Fkk tks
fo'o ;k=kk ij fudyk FkkA mlh
ny osQ ,d lnL; osQ ;k=kk&o.kZu
osQ oqQN va'k&
ukSdk ij thou
ukSdk ij thou vfr O;Lr FkkA gekjs ikl
Lopkyu dh O;oLFkk ugha Fkh vr% r`".kk osQ
pDosQ (Oghy) pkSchlksa ?kaVs la¡Hkkyus osQ fy,
vknfe;ksa dh ”k:jr FkhA ge gj ?kaVs ckn
pDdk l¡Hkkyus dk dke cnyrsA ,d pDdk
l¡Hkkyrk rks nwljk tgktksa] }hiksa vkSj àsy
eNfy;ksa vkfn ij u”kj j[krkA
tks yksx pkSdlh ls gVrs os vius diM+s cnyrs] [kkuk [kkrs] i<+rs] jsfM;ks lqurs vkSj viuh
M~;wVh osQ vU; dk;Z tSls jsfM;ks dh tk¡p] batu dh
tk¡p rFkk O;atu lwph osQ vuqlkj Hkkstu cukus osQ
fy, jk'ku nsus dk dke fucVkrsA
,d lnL; ^ek¡ dh Hkwfedk* (enj okp)
fuHkkrkA mls [kkuk idkus] crZu ek¡tus] 'kkSpky; dh
l- IkQkbZ tSls dke djus iM+rs rkfd ukSdk LoPN jgsA
NBk ikB
2020-21
Page 2


lkxj ;k=kk/37
lkxj&;k=kk
nl Hkkjrh;ksa us ,d ukSdk esa nqfu;k
dk pDdj yxk;k FkkA ml ukSdk
dk uke ^r`".kk* FkkA ;g igyk
,slk Hkkjrh; vfHk;ku Fkk tks
fo'o ;k=kk ij fudyk FkkA mlh
ny osQ ,d lnL; osQ ;k=kk&o.kZu
osQ oqQN va'k&
ukSdk ij thou
ukSdk ij thou vfr O;Lr FkkA gekjs ikl
Lopkyu dh O;oLFkk ugha Fkh vr% r`".kk osQ
pDosQ (Oghy) pkSchlksa ?kaVs la¡Hkkyus osQ fy,
vknfe;ksa dh ”k:jr FkhA ge gj ?kaVs ckn
pDdk l¡Hkkyus dk dke cnyrsA ,d pDdk
l¡Hkkyrk rks nwljk tgktksa] }hiksa vkSj àsy
eNfy;ksa vkfn ij u”kj j[krkA
tks yksx pkSdlh ls gVrs os vius diM+s cnyrs] [kkuk [kkrs] i<+rs] jsfM;ks lqurs vkSj viuh
M~;wVh osQ vU; dk;Z tSls jsfM;ks dh tk¡p] batu dh
tk¡p rFkk O;atu lwph osQ vuqlkj Hkkstu cukus osQ
fy, jk'ku nsus dk dke fucVkrsA
,d lnL; ^ek¡ dh Hkwfedk* (enj okp)
fuHkkrkA mls [kkuk idkus] crZu ek¡tus] 'kkSpky; dh
l- IkQkbZ tSls dke djus iM+rs rkfd ukSdk LoPN jgsA
NBk ikB
2020-21
nwokZ/38
^ek¡ dh Hkwfedk* ckjh&ckjh ls lcdks djuh iM+rhA ,dek=k ;gh M~;wVh ,slh Fkh ftlosQ ckn
vkneh iwjh jkr vkjke dj ikrkA ik¡p fnuksa esa osQoy ,d ckj ckjh vkrh vkSj ;fn ekSle Bhd
jgrk rks uhan vk ikrhA
bl dfBu fnup;kZ osQ dkj.k 'krjat [ksyus osQ fy, ;k fdlh vkSj euksjatu osQ fy, le;
gh ugha feyrk Fkk vkSj u gh cksfj;r osQ fy, oDr FkkA O;Lrrk [kwc FkhA
fnu esa ,d ckj ge ukSdk ij ^[kq'kh dk ?kaVk* fcrkrsA
vfHk;ku ny osQ lHkh lnL; 16-00 cts Msd ij vkrs vkSj ,d ?kaVk fey&tqydj fcrkrsA
enj okp vf/dkjh lcosQ fy, mudh bPNkuqlkj pk;&dkWiQh cukrk ;k 'khry is; nsrkA og
oqQN uk'rk Hkh cukrkA
ikuh dh leL;k
,d ckj ckSNkj vkbZ] eaS ckgj dks Hkkxk] viuk 'kjhj rj fd;k vkSj 'kjhj rFkk ckyksa esa lkcqu
yxk MkykA vkdk'k esa ckny tedj Nk, Fks vkSj eq>s fo'okl Fkk fd oqQN nsj esa ikuh cjlsxkA
vpkud o"kkZ Fke xbZA eSaus ik¡p feuV vkSj fiQj nl feuV rd izrh{kk dh ysfdu o"kkZ dk
ukeks&fu'kku ugha FkkA lkcqu dh fpifpikgV vkSj BaMd osQ dkj.k leqnzh ikuh esa ugkus dk
iSQlyk fd;kA ;g lcls xyr dke FkkA xanxh] lkcqu vkSj leqnzh ty us esjs 'kjhj ij ,d eksVh]
fpifpih vkSj [kqtykgVokyh ijr tek nh] tks vklkuh ls NwVrh ugha gSA eq>s ml ijr dks NqM+kus
osQ fy, oaQ?kh vkSj czq'k dk lgkjk ysuk iM+kA Nkrh] gkFk vkSj iSjksa ij mUgsa isQjus ls gh NqVdkjk
feykA uSfrd f'k{kk ;gh gS fd tc ukSdk ij Luku djuk gks
rks vius ikl i;kZIr ikuh j[kks ;k fo'ks"k leqnzh&ty lkcqu dk
iz;ksx djks& leqnzh ty esa lk/kj.k lkcqu dk mi;ksx er djksA
ukSdk ij iguus osQ fy, osQoy nks tksM+h diM+s gksus osQ
dkj.k gesa mUgsa ckj&ckj /ksuk iM+rkA ukSdk ij diM+s lq[kkus osQ
fy, geus mlosQ pkjksa vksj ,d rkj ck¡/ j[kk Fkk ftlesa ge
fDyi yxkdj diM+s lq[kkrsA rs”k gokvksa osQ dkj.k vFkok iky
dh jfLl;k¡ ck¡/rs le; dHkh&dHkh diM+s xk;c Hkh gks tkrsA
rwI+kQkuksa dk lkeuk
ge lc bl vfHk;ku osQ [krjksa dks tkurs FksA gesa ;g Hkh Kkr
Fkk fd 'kk;n ge dHkh okil u ykSV losQ] 'kq: esa gh gesa
[kjkc ekSle dk lkeuk djuk iM+k A ge #duk ugha pkgrs Fks]
2020-21
Page 3


lkxj ;k=kk/37
lkxj&;k=kk
nl Hkkjrh;ksa us ,d ukSdk esa nqfu;k
dk pDdj yxk;k FkkA ml ukSdk
dk uke ^r`".kk* FkkA ;g igyk
,slk Hkkjrh; vfHk;ku Fkk tks
fo'o ;k=kk ij fudyk FkkA mlh
ny osQ ,d lnL; osQ ;k=kk&o.kZu
osQ oqQN va'k&
ukSdk ij thou
ukSdk ij thou vfr O;Lr FkkA gekjs ikl
Lopkyu dh O;oLFkk ugha Fkh vr% r`".kk osQ
pDosQ (Oghy) pkSchlksa ?kaVs la¡Hkkyus osQ fy,
vknfe;ksa dh ”k:jr FkhA ge gj ?kaVs ckn
pDdk l¡Hkkyus dk dke cnyrsA ,d pDdk
l¡Hkkyrk rks nwljk tgktksa] }hiksa vkSj àsy
eNfy;ksa vkfn ij u”kj j[krkA
tks yksx pkSdlh ls gVrs os vius diM+s cnyrs] [kkuk [kkrs] i<+rs] jsfM;ks lqurs vkSj viuh
M~;wVh osQ vU; dk;Z tSls jsfM;ks dh tk¡p] batu dh
tk¡p rFkk O;atu lwph osQ vuqlkj Hkkstu cukus osQ
fy, jk'ku nsus dk dke fucVkrsA
,d lnL; ^ek¡ dh Hkwfedk* (enj okp)
fuHkkrkA mls [kkuk idkus] crZu ek¡tus] 'kkSpky; dh
l- IkQkbZ tSls dke djus iM+rs rkfd ukSdk LoPN jgsA
NBk ikB
2020-21
nwokZ/38
^ek¡ dh Hkwfedk* ckjh&ckjh ls lcdks djuh iM+rhA ,dek=k ;gh M~;wVh ,slh Fkh ftlosQ ckn
vkneh iwjh jkr vkjke dj ikrkA ik¡p fnuksa esa osQoy ,d ckj ckjh vkrh vkSj ;fn ekSle Bhd
jgrk rks uhan vk ikrhA
bl dfBu fnup;kZ osQ dkj.k 'krjat [ksyus osQ fy, ;k fdlh vkSj euksjatu osQ fy, le;
gh ugha feyrk Fkk vkSj u gh cksfj;r osQ fy, oDr FkkA O;Lrrk [kwc FkhA
fnu esa ,d ckj ge ukSdk ij ^[kq'kh dk ?kaVk* fcrkrsA
vfHk;ku ny osQ lHkh lnL; 16-00 cts Msd ij vkrs vkSj ,d ?kaVk fey&tqydj fcrkrsA
enj okp vf/dkjh lcosQ fy, mudh bPNkuqlkj pk;&dkWiQh cukrk ;k 'khry is; nsrkA og
oqQN uk'rk Hkh cukrkA
ikuh dh leL;k
,d ckj ckSNkj vkbZ] eaS ckgj dks Hkkxk] viuk 'kjhj rj fd;k vkSj 'kjhj rFkk ckyksa esa lkcqu
yxk MkykA vkdk'k esa ckny tedj Nk, Fks vkSj eq>s fo'okl Fkk fd oqQN nsj esa ikuh cjlsxkA
vpkud o"kkZ Fke xbZA eSaus ik¡p feuV vkSj fiQj nl feuV rd izrh{kk dh ysfdu o"kkZ dk
ukeks&fu'kku ugha FkkA lkcqu dh fpifpikgV vkSj BaMd osQ dkj.k leqnzh ikuh esa ugkus dk
iSQlyk fd;kA ;g lcls xyr dke FkkA xanxh] lkcqu vkSj leqnzh ty us esjs 'kjhj ij ,d eksVh]
fpifpih vkSj [kqtykgVokyh ijr tek nh] tks vklkuh ls NwVrh ugha gSA eq>s ml ijr dks NqM+kus
osQ fy, oaQ?kh vkSj czq'k dk lgkjk ysuk iM+kA Nkrh] gkFk vkSj iSjksa ij mUgsa isQjus ls gh NqVdkjk
feykA uSfrd f'k{kk ;gh gS fd tc ukSdk ij Luku djuk gks
rks vius ikl i;kZIr ikuh j[kks ;k fo'ks"k leqnzh&ty lkcqu dk
iz;ksx djks& leqnzh ty esa lk/kj.k lkcqu dk mi;ksx er djksA
ukSdk ij iguus osQ fy, osQoy nks tksM+h diM+s gksus osQ
dkj.k gesa mUgsa ckj&ckj /ksuk iM+rkA ukSdk ij diM+s lq[kkus osQ
fy, geus mlosQ pkjksa vksj ,d rkj ck¡/ j[kk Fkk ftlesa ge
fDyi yxkdj diM+s lq[kkrsA rs”k gokvksa osQ dkj.k vFkok iky
dh jfLl;k¡ ck¡/rs le; dHkh&dHkh diM+s xk;c Hkh gks tkrsA
rwI+kQkuksa dk lkeuk
ge lc bl vfHk;ku osQ [krjksa dks tkurs FksA gesa ;g Hkh Kkr
Fkk fd 'kk;n ge dHkh okil u ykSV losQ] 'kq: esa gh gesa
[kjkc ekSle dk lkeuk djuk iM+k A ge #duk ugha pkgrs Fks]
2020-21
lkxj ;k=kk/39
blfy, ejEer dk dke pyrh ukSdk esa gh djus dh BkuhA oSQIVu ,sls ekSle esa 15 ehVj mQ¡ps
eLrwy ij p<s+ vkSj mUgksaus ,aVhuk dh ejEer dhA ;fn FkksM+h&lh Hkh vlko/kuh gks tkrh rks os
vklkuh ls eLrwy ls Viddj leqnz dh xgjkb;ksa esa lek ldrs FksA
esMkxkLdj osQ ikl ,d rwi
+
Qku vk;k vkSj 12 ehVj mQ¡ph leqnz dh ygjsa gekjh ukSdk ij
VwV iM+h vkSj mls ikuh ls Hkj fn;kA
vfHk;ku ny osQ lnL; vusd ckj leqnz
esa fxj x, ysfdu lkSHkkX; ls mUgsa okil
ukSdk ij [khap fy;k x;k D;ksafd mUgksaus
ukSdk ls tqM+h jfLl;ksa dks viuh csYV ls
ck¡/ j[kk FkkA
osQi vkWiQ xqM gksi dk pDdj yxkrs
le; Hkh ge [krjukd rwi
+
Qku ls Vdjk,A
gok dh xfr Fkh 120 fdyksehVj izfr ?kaVk vkSj leqnzh ygjksa dh mQ¡pkbZ 15 ehVjA gj {k.k] ekSr
dks vkea=k.k ns jgk FkkA ge osQi ls ik¡p fdyksehVj nwj cg x,A gesa yxk fd gekjh ukSdk fdlh
p^ku ls Vdjkdj pwj&pwj gks tk,xhA geus vius thou j{kd midj.k [kks fn,] jsfM;ks lSV
csdkj gks x;k] ,fj;y VwV x, vkSj iwjh nqfu;k ls vxys 15 fnuksa osQ fy, gekjk jsfM;ks laioZQ
VwV x;kA Hkkjrh; lekpkji=kksa us [kcj Nki nh fd ^r`".kk* ykirk gS] ftl dkj.k gekjs ifjokjtu
vkSj fe=kx.k cqjh rjg ?kcjk x,A ,d ny gekjh ryk'k esa Hkstk x;k ysfdu og vliQy gksdj
ykSV x;kA
vuqHko c<+us osQ lkFk ge ukSdk dks fuf'pr jkg ij cuk, j[kus esa li
+
Qy jgsA
eqacbZ okilh
izFke Hkkjrh; ukSdk vfHk;ku ny fo'o dh ifjØek dj 54]000 fdyksehVj dh nwjh ekidj
470 fnu dh ,sfrgkfld ;k=kk osQ ckn] 10 tuojh] 1987 dks 6-00 cts eqacbZ canjxkg igq¡pkA
tSls gh r`".kk osQ nl lnL;h; vfHk;ku ny us xsVos vkWiQ bafM;k dh lhf<+;ksa ij dne j[ks] HkhM+
[kq'kh ls fpYyk mBh] vkfr'kckth NksM+h xbZ] canwosaQ nkxh xb± vkSj gekjs Lokxr esa lk;ju ctk,
x,A geesa ls dbZ vius ifjokjksa ls lk<+s ianzg ekg ls fcNqM+s gq, FksA ^vkidk Lokxr gS] Lokxr
gS] ikik*] ^gesa vkidh ;kn vkrh Fkh* tSls IysdkMZ gkFkksa esa Fkkesa gekjs cPpksa us gesa lpeqp #yk
fn;kA ysfdu ;gk¡ osQoy gekjs ifjokj gh Lokxr esa ugha [kM+s Fks cfYd iwjk xsVos vkWiQ bafM;k
fe=kksa vkSj 'kqHk¯prdksa ls vVk iM+k FkkA
2020-21
Page 4


lkxj ;k=kk/37
lkxj&;k=kk
nl Hkkjrh;ksa us ,d ukSdk esa nqfu;k
dk pDdj yxk;k FkkA ml ukSdk
dk uke ^r`".kk* FkkA ;g igyk
,slk Hkkjrh; vfHk;ku Fkk tks
fo'o ;k=kk ij fudyk FkkA mlh
ny osQ ,d lnL; osQ ;k=kk&o.kZu
osQ oqQN va'k&
ukSdk ij thou
ukSdk ij thou vfr O;Lr FkkA gekjs ikl
Lopkyu dh O;oLFkk ugha Fkh vr% r`".kk osQ
pDosQ (Oghy) pkSchlksa ?kaVs la¡Hkkyus osQ fy,
vknfe;ksa dh ”k:jr FkhA ge gj ?kaVs ckn
pDdk l¡Hkkyus dk dke cnyrsA ,d pDdk
l¡Hkkyrk rks nwljk tgktksa] }hiksa vkSj àsy
eNfy;ksa vkfn ij u”kj j[krkA
tks yksx pkSdlh ls gVrs os vius diM+s cnyrs] [kkuk [kkrs] i<+rs] jsfM;ks lqurs vkSj viuh
M~;wVh osQ vU; dk;Z tSls jsfM;ks dh tk¡p] batu dh
tk¡p rFkk O;atu lwph osQ vuqlkj Hkkstu cukus osQ
fy, jk'ku nsus dk dke fucVkrsA
,d lnL; ^ek¡ dh Hkwfedk* (enj okp)
fuHkkrkA mls [kkuk idkus] crZu ek¡tus] 'kkSpky; dh
l- IkQkbZ tSls dke djus iM+rs rkfd ukSdk LoPN jgsA
NBk ikB
2020-21
nwokZ/38
^ek¡ dh Hkwfedk* ckjh&ckjh ls lcdks djuh iM+rhA ,dek=k ;gh M~;wVh ,slh Fkh ftlosQ ckn
vkneh iwjh jkr vkjke dj ikrkA ik¡p fnuksa esa osQoy ,d ckj ckjh vkrh vkSj ;fn ekSle Bhd
jgrk rks uhan vk ikrhA
bl dfBu fnup;kZ osQ dkj.k 'krjat [ksyus osQ fy, ;k fdlh vkSj euksjatu osQ fy, le;
gh ugha feyrk Fkk vkSj u gh cksfj;r osQ fy, oDr FkkA O;Lrrk [kwc FkhA
fnu esa ,d ckj ge ukSdk ij ^[kq'kh dk ?kaVk* fcrkrsA
vfHk;ku ny osQ lHkh lnL; 16-00 cts Msd ij vkrs vkSj ,d ?kaVk fey&tqydj fcrkrsA
enj okp vf/dkjh lcosQ fy, mudh bPNkuqlkj pk;&dkWiQh cukrk ;k 'khry is; nsrkA og
oqQN uk'rk Hkh cukrkA
ikuh dh leL;k
,d ckj ckSNkj vkbZ] eaS ckgj dks Hkkxk] viuk 'kjhj rj fd;k vkSj 'kjhj rFkk ckyksa esa lkcqu
yxk MkykA vkdk'k esa ckny tedj Nk, Fks vkSj eq>s fo'okl Fkk fd oqQN nsj esa ikuh cjlsxkA
vpkud o"kkZ Fke xbZA eSaus ik¡p feuV vkSj fiQj nl feuV rd izrh{kk dh ysfdu o"kkZ dk
ukeks&fu'kku ugha FkkA lkcqu dh fpifpikgV vkSj BaMd osQ dkj.k leqnzh ikuh esa ugkus dk
iSQlyk fd;kA ;g lcls xyr dke FkkA xanxh] lkcqu vkSj leqnzh ty us esjs 'kjhj ij ,d eksVh]
fpifpih vkSj [kqtykgVokyh ijr tek nh] tks vklkuh ls NwVrh ugha gSA eq>s ml ijr dks NqM+kus
osQ fy, oaQ?kh vkSj czq'k dk lgkjk ysuk iM+kA Nkrh] gkFk vkSj iSjksa ij mUgsa isQjus ls gh NqVdkjk
feykA uSfrd f'k{kk ;gh gS fd tc ukSdk ij Luku djuk gks
rks vius ikl i;kZIr ikuh j[kks ;k fo'ks"k leqnzh&ty lkcqu dk
iz;ksx djks& leqnzh ty esa lk/kj.k lkcqu dk mi;ksx er djksA
ukSdk ij iguus osQ fy, osQoy nks tksM+h diM+s gksus osQ
dkj.k gesa mUgsa ckj&ckj /ksuk iM+rkA ukSdk ij diM+s lq[kkus osQ
fy, geus mlosQ pkjksa vksj ,d rkj ck¡/ j[kk Fkk ftlesa ge
fDyi yxkdj diM+s lq[kkrsA rs”k gokvksa osQ dkj.k vFkok iky
dh jfLl;k¡ ck¡/rs le; dHkh&dHkh diM+s xk;c Hkh gks tkrsA
rwI+kQkuksa dk lkeuk
ge lc bl vfHk;ku osQ [krjksa dks tkurs FksA gesa ;g Hkh Kkr
Fkk fd 'kk;n ge dHkh okil u ykSV losQ] 'kq: esa gh gesa
[kjkc ekSle dk lkeuk djuk iM+k A ge #duk ugha pkgrs Fks]
2020-21
lkxj ;k=kk/39
blfy, ejEer dk dke pyrh ukSdk esa gh djus dh BkuhA oSQIVu ,sls ekSle esa 15 ehVj mQ¡ps
eLrwy ij p<s+ vkSj mUgksaus ,aVhuk dh ejEer dhA ;fn FkksM+h&lh Hkh vlko/kuh gks tkrh rks os
vklkuh ls eLrwy ls Viddj leqnz dh xgjkb;ksa esa lek ldrs FksA
esMkxkLdj osQ ikl ,d rwi
+
Qku vk;k vkSj 12 ehVj mQ¡ph leqnz dh ygjsa gekjh ukSdk ij
VwV iM+h vkSj mls ikuh ls Hkj fn;kA
vfHk;ku ny osQ lnL; vusd ckj leqnz
esa fxj x, ysfdu lkSHkkX; ls mUgsa okil
ukSdk ij [khap fy;k x;k D;ksafd mUgksaus
ukSdk ls tqM+h jfLl;ksa dks viuh csYV ls
ck¡/ j[kk FkkA
osQi vkWiQ xqM gksi dk pDdj yxkrs
le; Hkh ge [krjukd rwi
+
Qku ls Vdjk,A
gok dh xfr Fkh 120 fdyksehVj izfr ?kaVk vkSj leqnzh ygjksa dh mQ¡pkbZ 15 ehVjA gj {k.k] ekSr
dks vkea=k.k ns jgk FkkA ge osQi ls ik¡p fdyksehVj nwj cg x,A gesa yxk fd gekjh ukSdk fdlh
p^ku ls Vdjkdj pwj&pwj gks tk,xhA geus vius thou j{kd midj.k [kks fn,] jsfM;ks lSV
csdkj gks x;k] ,fj;y VwV x, vkSj iwjh nqfu;k ls vxys 15 fnuksa osQ fy, gekjk jsfM;ks laioZQ
VwV x;kA Hkkjrh; lekpkji=kksa us [kcj Nki nh fd ^r`".kk* ykirk gS] ftl dkj.k gekjs ifjokjtu
vkSj fe=kx.k cqjh rjg ?kcjk x,A ,d ny gekjh ryk'k esa Hkstk x;k ysfdu og vliQy gksdj
ykSV x;kA
vuqHko c<+us osQ lkFk ge ukSdk dks fuf'pr jkg ij cuk, j[kus esa li
+
Qy jgsA
eqacbZ okilh
izFke Hkkjrh; ukSdk vfHk;ku ny fo'o dh ifjØek dj 54]000 fdyksehVj dh nwjh ekidj
470 fnu dh ,sfrgkfld ;k=kk osQ ckn] 10 tuojh] 1987 dks 6-00 cts eqacbZ canjxkg igq¡pkA
tSls gh r`".kk osQ nl lnL;h; vfHk;ku ny us xsVos vkWiQ bafM;k dh lhf<+;ksa ij dne j[ks] HkhM+
[kq'kh ls fpYyk mBh] vkfr'kckth NksM+h xbZ] canwosaQ nkxh xb± vkSj gekjs Lokxr esa lk;ju ctk,
x,A geesa ls dbZ vius ifjokjksa ls lk<+s ianzg ekg ls fcNqM+s gq, FksA ^vkidk Lokxr gS] Lokxr
gS] ikik*] ^gesa vkidh ;kn vkrh Fkh* tSls IysdkMZ gkFkksa esa Fkkesa gekjs cPpksa us gesa lpeqp #yk
fn;kA ysfdu ;gk¡ osQoy gekjs ifjokj gh Lokxr esa ugha [kM+s Fks cfYd iwjk xsVos vkWiQ bafM;k
fe=kksa vkSj 'kqHk¯prdksa ls vVk iM+k FkkA
2020-21
nwokZ/40
10 tuojh] 1987 dks r`".kk ij ^iQLVZ Ms doj* vkSj Lekjd fVfdV tkjh fd, x,A mlosQ
ckn r`".kk dks [khapdj ikuh ls ckgj fudkyk x;k vkSj jsy osQ nks oSxuksa ij yknk x;k rkfd
x.kra=k fnol ijsM esa mls 'kkfey fd;k tk losQA
r`".kk 6 fnuksa esa fnYyh igq¡p xbZ ¯drq gekjh leL;k,¡ lekIr ugha gqb±A mls mrkjus osQ fy,
yach Hkqtk okyh ozsQu pkfg, FkhA fnYyh dh O;Lr lM+dksa ij ukSdk ys tkus osQ fy, u osQoy
o`{kksa dh Mkfy;k¡ Nk¡Vuh iM+ha cfYd fctyh vkSj VsyhiQksu osQ rkjksa dks Hkh m¡Qpk mBkuk iM+kA
iwjh jkr esgur djus osQ ckn ge tSls&rSls 23 tuojh dks ijsM dh iqQy Mªsl fjglZy osQ fy,
>k¡dh rS;kj dj losQA x.kra=k fnol ijsM eas Hkkx ysus okyh r`".kk dh >k¡dh vc rd cuh lcls
cM+h >k¡fd;ksa esa ls ,d FkhA
;g igyk volj Fkk tc geesa ls fdlh us
x.kra=k fnol ijsM esa Hkkx fy;kA ge lsuk dh
VqdM+h osQ vax Fks vkSj 26 tuojh dks tc ge
jktiFk ls xq”kjs rks gekjk rkfy;ksa ls ”kksjnkj
Lokxr gqvkA lkxj ;k=kk dh lkgfld ,oa la?k"kZiw.kZ
Le`fr vkt Hkh gesa jksekafpr dj nsrh gSA
µ Vh-lh-,l- pkS/jh
vuqoknµ c`teksgu xqIr
vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
vfHk;ku & y{;
Lopkyu & fcuk fdlh fof'k"V izfØ;k
osQ vius&vki pyuk
pkSdlh & ltxrk] igjsnkjh
fucVkuk & iwjk djuk
iky (ukSdk) & uko osQ eLrwy osQ lgkjs
rkuk tkus okyk diM+k
ftlesa gok Hkjus ls uko
pyrh gSA
fujarj & yxkrkj
2020-21
Page 5


lkxj ;k=kk/37
lkxj&;k=kk
nl Hkkjrh;ksa us ,d ukSdk esa nqfu;k
dk pDdj yxk;k FkkA ml ukSdk
dk uke ^r`".kk* FkkA ;g igyk
,slk Hkkjrh; vfHk;ku Fkk tks
fo'o ;k=kk ij fudyk FkkA mlh
ny osQ ,d lnL; osQ ;k=kk&o.kZu
osQ oqQN va'k&
ukSdk ij thou
ukSdk ij thou vfr O;Lr FkkA gekjs ikl
Lopkyu dh O;oLFkk ugha Fkh vr% r`".kk osQ
pDosQ (Oghy) pkSchlksa ?kaVs la¡Hkkyus osQ fy,
vknfe;ksa dh ”k:jr FkhA ge gj ?kaVs ckn
pDdk l¡Hkkyus dk dke cnyrsA ,d pDdk
l¡Hkkyrk rks nwljk tgktksa] }hiksa vkSj àsy
eNfy;ksa vkfn ij u”kj j[krkA
tks yksx pkSdlh ls gVrs os vius diM+s cnyrs] [kkuk [kkrs] i<+rs] jsfM;ks lqurs vkSj viuh
M~;wVh osQ vU; dk;Z tSls jsfM;ks dh tk¡p] batu dh
tk¡p rFkk O;atu lwph osQ vuqlkj Hkkstu cukus osQ
fy, jk'ku nsus dk dke fucVkrsA
,d lnL; ^ek¡ dh Hkwfedk* (enj okp)
fuHkkrkA mls [kkuk idkus] crZu ek¡tus] 'kkSpky; dh
l- IkQkbZ tSls dke djus iM+rs rkfd ukSdk LoPN jgsA
NBk ikB
2020-21
nwokZ/38
^ek¡ dh Hkwfedk* ckjh&ckjh ls lcdks djuh iM+rhA ,dek=k ;gh M~;wVh ,slh Fkh ftlosQ ckn
vkneh iwjh jkr vkjke dj ikrkA ik¡p fnuksa esa osQoy ,d ckj ckjh vkrh vkSj ;fn ekSle Bhd
jgrk rks uhan vk ikrhA
bl dfBu fnup;kZ osQ dkj.k 'krjat [ksyus osQ fy, ;k fdlh vkSj euksjatu osQ fy, le;
gh ugha feyrk Fkk vkSj u gh cksfj;r osQ fy, oDr FkkA O;Lrrk [kwc FkhA
fnu esa ,d ckj ge ukSdk ij ^[kq'kh dk ?kaVk* fcrkrsA
vfHk;ku ny osQ lHkh lnL; 16-00 cts Msd ij vkrs vkSj ,d ?kaVk fey&tqydj fcrkrsA
enj okp vf/dkjh lcosQ fy, mudh bPNkuqlkj pk;&dkWiQh cukrk ;k 'khry is; nsrkA og
oqQN uk'rk Hkh cukrkA
ikuh dh leL;k
,d ckj ckSNkj vkbZ] eaS ckgj dks Hkkxk] viuk 'kjhj rj fd;k vkSj 'kjhj rFkk ckyksa esa lkcqu
yxk MkykA vkdk'k esa ckny tedj Nk, Fks vkSj eq>s fo'okl Fkk fd oqQN nsj esa ikuh cjlsxkA
vpkud o"kkZ Fke xbZA eSaus ik¡p feuV vkSj fiQj nl feuV rd izrh{kk dh ysfdu o"kkZ dk
ukeks&fu'kku ugha FkkA lkcqu dh fpifpikgV vkSj BaMd osQ dkj.k leqnzh ikuh esa ugkus dk
iSQlyk fd;kA ;g lcls xyr dke FkkA xanxh] lkcqu vkSj leqnzh ty us esjs 'kjhj ij ,d eksVh]
fpifpih vkSj [kqtykgVokyh ijr tek nh] tks vklkuh ls NwVrh ugha gSA eq>s ml ijr dks NqM+kus
osQ fy, oaQ?kh vkSj czq'k dk lgkjk ysuk iM+kA Nkrh] gkFk vkSj iSjksa ij mUgsa isQjus ls gh NqVdkjk
feykA uSfrd f'k{kk ;gh gS fd tc ukSdk ij Luku djuk gks
rks vius ikl i;kZIr ikuh j[kks ;k fo'ks"k leqnzh&ty lkcqu dk
iz;ksx djks& leqnzh ty esa lk/kj.k lkcqu dk mi;ksx er djksA
ukSdk ij iguus osQ fy, osQoy nks tksM+h diM+s gksus osQ
dkj.k gesa mUgsa ckj&ckj /ksuk iM+rkA ukSdk ij diM+s lq[kkus osQ
fy, geus mlosQ pkjksa vksj ,d rkj ck¡/ j[kk Fkk ftlesa ge
fDyi yxkdj diM+s lq[kkrsA rs”k gokvksa osQ dkj.k vFkok iky
dh jfLl;k¡ ck¡/rs le; dHkh&dHkh diM+s xk;c Hkh gks tkrsA
rwI+kQkuksa dk lkeuk
ge lc bl vfHk;ku osQ [krjksa dks tkurs FksA gesa ;g Hkh Kkr
Fkk fd 'kk;n ge dHkh okil u ykSV losQ] 'kq: esa gh gesa
[kjkc ekSle dk lkeuk djuk iM+k A ge #duk ugha pkgrs Fks]
2020-21
lkxj ;k=kk/39
blfy, ejEer dk dke pyrh ukSdk esa gh djus dh BkuhA oSQIVu ,sls ekSle esa 15 ehVj mQ¡ps
eLrwy ij p<s+ vkSj mUgksaus ,aVhuk dh ejEer dhA ;fn FkksM+h&lh Hkh vlko/kuh gks tkrh rks os
vklkuh ls eLrwy ls Viddj leqnz dh xgjkb;ksa esa lek ldrs FksA
esMkxkLdj osQ ikl ,d rwi
+
Qku vk;k vkSj 12 ehVj mQ¡ph leqnz dh ygjsa gekjh ukSdk ij
VwV iM+h vkSj mls ikuh ls Hkj fn;kA
vfHk;ku ny osQ lnL; vusd ckj leqnz
esa fxj x, ysfdu lkSHkkX; ls mUgsa okil
ukSdk ij [khap fy;k x;k D;ksafd mUgksaus
ukSdk ls tqM+h jfLl;ksa dks viuh csYV ls
ck¡/ j[kk FkkA
osQi vkWiQ xqM gksi dk pDdj yxkrs
le; Hkh ge [krjukd rwi
+
Qku ls Vdjk,A
gok dh xfr Fkh 120 fdyksehVj izfr ?kaVk vkSj leqnzh ygjksa dh mQ¡pkbZ 15 ehVjA gj {k.k] ekSr
dks vkea=k.k ns jgk FkkA ge osQi ls ik¡p fdyksehVj nwj cg x,A gesa yxk fd gekjh ukSdk fdlh
p^ku ls Vdjkdj pwj&pwj gks tk,xhA geus vius thou j{kd midj.k [kks fn,] jsfM;ks lSV
csdkj gks x;k] ,fj;y VwV x, vkSj iwjh nqfu;k ls vxys 15 fnuksa osQ fy, gekjk jsfM;ks laioZQ
VwV x;kA Hkkjrh; lekpkji=kksa us [kcj Nki nh fd ^r`".kk* ykirk gS] ftl dkj.k gekjs ifjokjtu
vkSj fe=kx.k cqjh rjg ?kcjk x,A ,d ny gekjh ryk'k esa Hkstk x;k ysfdu og vliQy gksdj
ykSV x;kA
vuqHko c<+us osQ lkFk ge ukSdk dks fuf'pr jkg ij cuk, j[kus esa li
+
Qy jgsA
eqacbZ okilh
izFke Hkkjrh; ukSdk vfHk;ku ny fo'o dh ifjØek dj 54]000 fdyksehVj dh nwjh ekidj
470 fnu dh ,sfrgkfld ;k=kk osQ ckn] 10 tuojh] 1987 dks 6-00 cts eqacbZ canjxkg igq¡pkA
tSls gh r`".kk osQ nl lnL;h; vfHk;ku ny us xsVos vkWiQ bafM;k dh lhf<+;ksa ij dne j[ks] HkhM+
[kq'kh ls fpYyk mBh] vkfr'kckth NksM+h xbZ] canwosaQ nkxh xb± vkSj gekjs Lokxr esa lk;ju ctk,
x,A geesa ls dbZ vius ifjokjksa ls lk<+s ianzg ekg ls fcNqM+s gq, FksA ^vkidk Lokxr gS] Lokxr
gS] ikik*] ^gesa vkidh ;kn vkrh Fkh* tSls IysdkMZ gkFkksa esa Fkkesa gekjs cPpksa us gesa lpeqp #yk
fn;kA ysfdu ;gk¡ osQoy gekjs ifjokj gh Lokxr esa ugha [kM+s Fks cfYd iwjk xsVos vkWiQ bafM;k
fe=kksa vkSj 'kqHk¯prdksa ls vVk iM+k FkkA
2020-21
nwokZ/40
10 tuojh] 1987 dks r`".kk ij ^iQLVZ Ms doj* vkSj Lekjd fVfdV tkjh fd, x,A mlosQ
ckn r`".kk dks [khapdj ikuh ls ckgj fudkyk x;k vkSj jsy osQ nks oSxuksa ij yknk x;k rkfd
x.kra=k fnol ijsM esa mls 'kkfey fd;k tk losQA
r`".kk 6 fnuksa esa fnYyh igq¡p xbZ ¯drq gekjh leL;k,¡ lekIr ugha gqb±A mls mrkjus osQ fy,
yach Hkqtk okyh ozsQu pkfg, FkhA fnYyh dh O;Lr lM+dksa ij ukSdk ys tkus osQ fy, u osQoy
o`{kksa dh Mkfy;k¡ Nk¡Vuh iM+ha cfYd fctyh vkSj VsyhiQksu osQ rkjksa dks Hkh m¡Qpk mBkuk iM+kA
iwjh jkr esgur djus osQ ckn ge tSls&rSls 23 tuojh dks ijsM dh iqQy Mªsl fjglZy osQ fy,
>k¡dh rS;kj dj losQA x.kra=k fnol ijsM eas Hkkx ysus okyh r`".kk dh >k¡dh vc rd cuh lcls
cM+h >k¡fd;ksa esa ls ,d FkhA
;g igyk volj Fkk tc geesa ls fdlh us
x.kra=k fnol ijsM esa Hkkx fy;kA ge lsuk dh
VqdM+h osQ vax Fks vkSj 26 tuojh dks tc ge
jktiFk ls xq”kjs rks gekjk rkfy;ksa ls ”kksjnkj
Lokxr gqvkA lkxj ;k=kk dh lkgfld ,oa la?k"kZiw.kZ
Le`fr vkt Hkh gesa jksekafpr dj nsrh gSA
µ Vh-lh-,l- pkS/jh
vuqoknµ c`teksgu xqIr
vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
vfHk;ku & y{;
Lopkyu & fcuk fdlh fof'k"V izfØ;k
osQ vius&vki pyuk
pkSdlh & ltxrk] igjsnkjh
fucVkuk & iwjk djuk
iky (ukSdk) & uko osQ eLrwy osQ lgkjs
rkuk tkus okyk diM+k
ftlesa gok Hkjus ls uko
pyrh gSA
fujarj & yxkrkj
2020-21
lkxj ;k=kk/41
1- ikB ls
(d) lkxj ;k=kk esa ukSdk dks l¡Hkkyus osQ fy, gj
le; ,d O;fDr dh ”k:jr FkhA D;ksa\
([k) os yksx leqnz dh ;k=kk dj jgs FksA leqnz ;k=kk esa
Hkh mUgsa ikuh dh leL;k D;ksa gqbZ\
2- [krjs
¶ge lc bl vfHk;ku osQ [krjksa dks tkurs FksA¸
leqnzh ;k=kk esa mu ;kf=k;ksa dks dkSu&dkSu ls [krjksa vkSj ijs'kkfu;ksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+k Fkk\
3- ek¡ osQ dke
¶,d lnL; ek¡ dh Hkwfedk fuHkkrk¸
(i) ukSdk ij ^ek¡* dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus okyk O;fDr dkSu&dkSu ls dke djrk Fkk\
(ii) rqEgkjs fopkj ls mu dkeksa dks ek¡ osQ dkeksa dh miek D;ksa nh
xbZ gksxh\
(iii) D;k rqeus dHkh fdlh osQ fy, ^ek¡ dh Hkwfedk* fuHkkbZ gS\
;fn gk¡] rks crkvks
(d) rc rqeus dkSu&dkSu ls dke fd, Fks\
([k) os dke D;ksa vkSj fdlfy, fd, Fks\
(iv) rqEgkjh ek¡ ;k ?kj dk vU; dksbZ lnL; lqcg mBus ls ysdj jkr dks lksus rd dkSu&dkSu
ls dke djrk gS\ lwph cukvksA
4- ikuh dh ijs'kkuh
lkxj osQ ;kf=k;ksa dks ikuh osQ dkj.k cgqr ijs'kkuh gksrh FkhA crkvks&
(d) mUgsa ikuh osQ dkj.k D;k&D;k ijs'kkfu;k¡ gqbZ\
([k) D;k rqEgkjs vklikl Hkh ikuh dh leL;k gksrh gS] mlosQ ckjs esa crkvksA
(x) ml leL;k dk lek/ku oSQls fd;k tk ldrk gS\
5- viuh&viuh ;k=kk
rqeus vHkh nl Hkkjrh; ;kf=k;ksa dh ,d vuwBh ;k=kk dh dgkuh i<+h]
rqe Hkh viuh ;k fdlh vU; O;fDr dh ,d ;k=kk osQ ckjs esa
crkvksA rqe pkgks rks ;s ckrsa crk ldrs gks&
(d) og ;k=kk dgk¡ dh Fkh\ fdrus fnuksa dh Fkh\ ;k=kk oSQls dh\
([k) mlesa dkSu&dkSu lh leL;k,¡ vkb±\
(x) mu leL;kvksa dks oSQls nwj fd;k x;k\
2020-21
Read More
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