NCERT Textbook: पाठ 7 - क्या निराश हुआ जाए, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 8

Class 8 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 7 - क्या निराश हुआ जाए, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


ck/k,¡ vkrh gSa] vk,¡]
f?kjsa izy; dh ?kksj ?kVk,¡
ik¡oksa osQ uhps vaxkjs]
flj ij cjlsa ;fn Tokyk,¡
fut gkFkksa ls g¡lrs&g¡lrs]
vkx yxk dj tyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
gkL;&jQnu esa] rwiQkuksa esa]
vej vla[;d cfynkuksa esa]
m|kuksa esa] ohjkuksa esa]
viekuksa esa] lEekuksa esa]
mUUkr eLrd] mHkjk lhuk]
ihM+kvksa esa iyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
mft;kjs esa] va/dkj esa]
dy dNkj esa] chp /kj esa]
?kksj ?k`.kk esa] iwr I;kj esa]
osQoy i<+us osQ fy,
dne feykdj pyuk gksxk
2020-21
Page 2


ck/k,¡ vkrh gSa] vk,¡]
f?kjsa izy; dh ?kksj ?kVk,¡
ik¡oksa osQ uhps vaxkjs]
flj ij cjlsa ;fn Tokyk,¡
fut gkFkksa ls g¡lrs&g¡lrs]
vkx yxk dj tyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
gkL;&jQnu esa] rwiQkuksa esa]
vej vla[;d cfynkuksa esa]
m|kuksa esa] ohjkuksa esa]
viekuksa esa] lEekuksa esa]
mUUkr eLrd] mHkjk lhuk]
ihM+kvksa esa iyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
mft;kjs esa] va/dkj esa]
dy dNkj esa] chp /kj esa]
?kksj ?k`.kk esa] iwr I;kj esa]
osQoy i<+us osQ fy,
dne feykdj pyuk gksxk
2020-21
{kf.kd thr esa] nh?kZ gkj esa]
thou osQ 'kr&'kr vkd"kZd]
vjekuksa dks nyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
lEeq[k iSQyk vej è;s; iFk]
izxfr fpjaru oSQlk bfr vFk]
lqfLer gf"kZr oSQlk Je 'yFk]
vliQy&liQy leku euksjFk]
lc oqQN nsdj oqQN u ek¡xrs]
ikol cudj <yuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
oqQ'k dk¡Vksa ls lfTtr thou]
iz[kj I;kj ls oafpr ;kSou]
uhjork ls eq[kfjr e/qou]
ijfgr vfiZr viuk ru&eu]
thou dks 'kr&'kr vkgqfr esa]
tyuk gksxk] xyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
µvVy fcgkjh oktis;h
dne feykdj pyuk gksxk            35
2020-21
Page 3


ck/k,¡ vkrh gSa] vk,¡]
f?kjsa izy; dh ?kksj ?kVk,¡
ik¡oksa osQ uhps vaxkjs]
flj ij cjlsa ;fn Tokyk,¡
fut gkFkksa ls g¡lrs&g¡lrs]
vkx yxk dj tyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
gkL;&jQnu esa] rwiQkuksa esa]
vej vla[;d cfynkuksa esa]
m|kuksa esa] ohjkuksa esa]
viekuksa esa] lEekuksa esa]
mUUkr eLrd] mHkjk lhuk]
ihM+kvksa esa iyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
mft;kjs esa] va/dkj esa]
dy dNkj esa] chp /kj esa]
?kksj ?k`.kk esa] iwr I;kj esa]
osQoy i<+us osQ fy,
dne feykdj pyuk gksxk
2020-21
{kf.kd thr esa] nh?kZ gkj esa]
thou osQ 'kr&'kr vkd"kZd]
vjekuksa dks nyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
lEeq[k iSQyk vej è;s; iFk]
izxfr fpjaru oSQlk bfr vFk]
lqfLer gf"kZr oSQlk Je 'yFk]
vliQy&liQy leku euksjFk]
lc oqQN nsdj oqQN u ek¡xrs]
ikol cudj <yuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
oqQ'k dk¡Vksa ls lfTtr thou]
iz[kj I;kj ls oafpr ;kSou]
uhjork ls eq[kfjr e/qou]
ijfgr vfiZr viuk ru&eu]
thou dks 'kr&'kr vkgqfr esa]
tyuk gksxk] xyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
µvVy fcgkjh oktis;h
dne feykdj pyuk gksxk            35
2020-21
36 olar Hkkx 3
iz'u&vH;kl
dfork ls
1- bl dfork ls vki vius dks tksM+dj oSQls ns[krs gSa\
2- vkidh n`f"V esa dne feykdj pyus osQ fy, dfo D;ksa izsfjr djrk gS\
3- bl dfork dh y;kRedrk ij ppkZ dhft,A
Hkkjr ds nloas iz/kuea=kh vVy fcgkjh oktis;h dk tUe 25 fnlacj 1924 dks Xokfy;j
fj;klr dh f'kans Nkouh esa gqvk FkkA muosQ firk iafMr o`Q".k fcgkjh oktis;h vè;kid
vkSj ek¡ o`Q".k oktis;h x`g.kh FkhaA vVy fcgkjh oktis;h oVs'oj] vkxjk] mÙkj izns'k ds
ewy fuoklh FksA os fganh dfo] i=kdkj o iz[kj oDrk ds :i esa yksdfiz; gq,A vVy
th dh dfork,¡ dkwnfEcuh] /eZ;qx] lkIrkfgd fgUnqLrku] uouhr rFkk jk"Vª
/eZ vkfn lqizfl¼ jk"Vªh; if=kdkvksa esa izdkf'kr gksrh jghaA eap ls mudk dkO; ikB
muds Hkk"k.k dh rjg gh vR;ar izHkko'kkyh gksrk FkkA mUgksaus jk"Vª/eZ] ikaptU; vkSj ohj
vtZqu dk oqQ'ky lEiknu fd;k
vVy fcgkjh oktis;h rhu ckj Hkkjr ds iz/kuea=kh] ,d ckj fons'k ea=kh vkSj 12
ckj lklan jgsA jk"Vª ds izfr mudh lsokvksa ds fy, mUgsa loksZPPk Hkkjrh; ukxfjd lEeku
^Hkkjr jRu* ls Hkh foHkwf"kr fd;k x;kA 16 vxLr 2018 dks 93 o"kZ dh vk;q esa mudk
fu/u gqvkA
2020-21
Page 4


ck/k,¡ vkrh gSa] vk,¡]
f?kjsa izy; dh ?kksj ?kVk,¡
ik¡oksa osQ uhps vaxkjs]
flj ij cjlsa ;fn Tokyk,¡
fut gkFkksa ls g¡lrs&g¡lrs]
vkx yxk dj tyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
gkL;&jQnu esa] rwiQkuksa esa]
vej vla[;d cfynkuksa esa]
m|kuksa esa] ohjkuksa esa]
viekuksa esa] lEekuksa esa]
mUUkr eLrd] mHkjk lhuk]
ihM+kvksa esa iyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
mft;kjs esa] va/dkj esa]
dy dNkj esa] chp /kj esa]
?kksj ?k`.kk esa] iwr I;kj esa]
osQoy i<+us osQ fy,
dne feykdj pyuk gksxk
2020-21
{kf.kd thr esa] nh?kZ gkj esa]
thou osQ 'kr&'kr vkd"kZd]
vjekuksa dks nyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
lEeq[k iSQyk vej è;s; iFk]
izxfr fpjaru oSQlk bfr vFk]
lqfLer gf"kZr oSQlk Je 'yFk]
vliQy&liQy leku euksjFk]
lc oqQN nsdj oqQN u ek¡xrs]
ikol cudj <yuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
oqQ'k dk¡Vksa ls lfTtr thou]
iz[kj I;kj ls oafpr ;kSou]
uhjork ls eq[kfjr e/qou]
ijfgr vfiZr viuk ru&eu]
thou dks 'kr&'kr vkgqfr esa]
tyuk gksxk] xyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
µvVy fcgkjh oktis;h
dne feykdj pyuk gksxk            35
2020-21
36 olar Hkkx 3
iz'u&vH;kl
dfork ls
1- bl dfork ls vki vius dks tksM+dj oSQls ns[krs gSa\
2- vkidh n`f"V esa dne feykdj pyus osQ fy, dfo D;ksa izsfjr djrk gS\
3- bl dfork dh y;kRedrk ij ppkZ dhft,A
Hkkjr ds nloas iz/kuea=kh vVy fcgkjh oktis;h dk tUe 25 fnlacj 1924 dks Xokfy;j
fj;klr dh f'kans Nkouh esa gqvk FkkA muosQ firk iafMr o`Q".k fcgkjh oktis;h vè;kid
vkSj ek¡ o`Q".k oktis;h x`g.kh FkhaA vVy fcgkjh oktis;h oVs'oj] vkxjk] mÙkj izns'k ds
ewy fuoklh FksA os fganh dfo] i=kdkj o iz[kj oDrk ds :i esa yksdfiz; gq,A vVy
th dh dfork,¡ dkwnfEcuh] /eZ;qx] lkIrkfgd fgUnqLrku] uouhr rFkk jk"Vª
/eZ vkfn lqizfl¼ jk"Vªh; if=kdkvksa esa izdkf'kr gksrh jghaA eap ls mudk dkO; ikB
muds Hkk"k.k dh rjg gh vR;ar izHkko'kkyh gksrk FkkA mUgksaus jk"Vª/eZ] ikaptU; vkSj ohj
vtZqu dk oqQ'ky lEiknu fd;k
vVy fcgkjh oktis;h rhu ckj Hkkjr ds iz/kuea=kh] ,d ckj fons'k ea=kh vkSj 12
ckj lklan jgsA jk"Vª ds izfr mudh lsokvksa ds fy, mUgsa loksZPPk Hkkjrh; ukxfjd lEeku
^Hkkjr jRu* ls Hkh foHkwf"kr fd;k x;kA 16 vxLr 2018 dks 93 o"kZ dh vk;q esa mudk
fu/u gqvkA
2020-21
D;k fujk'k gqvk tk,            37
7
D;k fujk'k gqvk tk,
esjk eu dHkh&dHkh cSB tkrk gSA lekpkj&i=kksa esa Bxh] MoSQrh] pksjh] rLdjh
vkSj Hkz"Vkpkj osQ lekpkj Hkjs jgrs gSaA vkjksi&izR;kjksi dk oqQN ,slk okrkoj.k
cu x;k gS fd yxrk gS] ns'k esa dksbZ bZekunkj vkneh gh ugha jg x;k gSA gj
O;fDr lansg dh n`f"V ls ns[kk tk jgk gSA tks ftrus gh Å¡ps in ij gSa muesa mrus
gh vfèkd nks"k fn[kk, tkrs gSaA
,d cgqr cM+s vkneh us eq>ls ,d ckj dgk Fkk fd bl le; lq[kh ogh
gS tks oqQN ugha djrkA tks oqQN Hkh djsxk mleas yksx nks"k [kkstus yxsaxsA
mlosQ lkjs xq.k Hkqyk fn, tk,¡xs vkSj nks"kksa dks c<+k&p<+kdj fn[kk;k tkus
yxsxkA nks"k fdlesa ugha gksrs\ ;gh dkj.k gS fd gj vkneh nks"kh vfèkd fn[k
jgk gS] xq.kh de ;k fcyoqQy gh ughaA fLFkfr vxj ,slh gS rks fu'p; gh
fpark dk fo"k; gSA
D;k ;gh Hkkjro"kZ gS ftldk liuk fryd vkSj xkaèkh us ns[kk Fkk\ johanzukFk
BkoqQj vkSj enueksgu ekyoh; dk egku laLo`Qfr&lH; Hkkjro"kZ fdl vrhr
osQ xàj esa Mwc x;k\ vk;Z vkSj nzfoM+] fganw vkSj eqlyeku] ;wjksih; vkSj
Hkkjrh; vkn'kkZs± dh feyu&Hkwfe ^ekuo egk&leqnz* D;k lw[k gh x;k\ esjk eu
dgrk gS ,slk gks ugha ldrkA gekjs egku euhf"k;ksa osQ liuksa dk Hkkjr gS vkSj
jgsxkA
;g lgh gS fd bu fnuksa oqQN ,slk ekgkSy cuk gS fd bZekunkjh ls esgur
djosQ thfodk pykusokys fujhg vkSj Hkksys&Hkkys Jethoh fil jgs gSa vkSj >wB
rFkk i
+
Qjsc dk jks”kxkj djusokys iQy&iwQy jgs gSaA bZekunkjh dks ew[kZrk dk i;kZ;
le>k tkus yxk gS] lpkbZ osQoy Hkh# vkSj cscl yksxksa osQ fgLls iM+h gSA ,slh
fLFkfr esa thou osQ egku ewY;ksa osQ ckjs esa yksxksa dh vkLFkk gh fgyus yxh gSA
2020-21
Page 5


ck/k,¡ vkrh gSa] vk,¡]
f?kjsa izy; dh ?kksj ?kVk,¡
ik¡oksa osQ uhps vaxkjs]
flj ij cjlsa ;fn Tokyk,¡
fut gkFkksa ls g¡lrs&g¡lrs]
vkx yxk dj tyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
gkL;&jQnu esa] rwiQkuksa esa]
vej vla[;d cfynkuksa esa]
m|kuksa esa] ohjkuksa esa]
viekuksa esa] lEekuksa esa]
mUUkr eLrd] mHkjk lhuk]
ihM+kvksa esa iyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
mft;kjs esa] va/dkj esa]
dy dNkj esa] chp /kj esa]
?kksj ?k`.kk esa] iwr I;kj esa]
osQoy i<+us osQ fy,
dne feykdj pyuk gksxk
2020-21
{kf.kd thr esa] nh?kZ gkj esa]
thou osQ 'kr&'kr vkd"kZd]
vjekuksa dks nyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
lEeq[k iSQyk vej è;s; iFk]
izxfr fpjaru oSQlk bfr vFk]
lqfLer gf"kZr oSQlk Je 'yFk]
vliQy&liQy leku euksjFk]
lc oqQN nsdj oqQN u ek¡xrs]
ikol cudj <yuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
oqQ'k dk¡Vksa ls lfTtr thou]
iz[kj I;kj ls oafpr ;kSou]
uhjork ls eq[kfjr e/qou]
ijfgr vfiZr viuk ru&eu]
thou dks 'kr&'kr vkgqfr esa]
tyuk gksxk] xyuk gksxkA
dne feykdj pyuk gksxkA
µvVy fcgkjh oktis;h
dne feykdj pyuk gksxk            35
2020-21
36 olar Hkkx 3
iz'u&vH;kl
dfork ls
1- bl dfork ls vki vius dks tksM+dj oSQls ns[krs gSa\
2- vkidh n`f"V esa dne feykdj pyus osQ fy, dfo D;ksa izsfjr djrk gS\
3- bl dfork dh y;kRedrk ij ppkZ dhft,A
Hkkjr ds nloas iz/kuea=kh vVy fcgkjh oktis;h dk tUe 25 fnlacj 1924 dks Xokfy;j
fj;klr dh f'kans Nkouh esa gqvk FkkA muosQ firk iafMr o`Q".k fcgkjh oktis;h vè;kid
vkSj ek¡ o`Q".k oktis;h x`g.kh FkhaA vVy fcgkjh oktis;h oVs'oj] vkxjk] mÙkj izns'k ds
ewy fuoklh FksA os fganh dfo] i=kdkj o iz[kj oDrk ds :i esa yksdfiz; gq,A vVy
th dh dfork,¡ dkwnfEcuh] /eZ;qx] lkIrkfgd fgUnqLrku] uouhr rFkk jk"Vª
/eZ vkfn lqizfl¼ jk"Vªh; if=kdkvksa esa izdkf'kr gksrh jghaA eap ls mudk dkO; ikB
muds Hkk"k.k dh rjg gh vR;ar izHkko'kkyh gksrk FkkA mUgksaus jk"Vª/eZ] ikaptU; vkSj ohj
vtZqu dk oqQ'ky lEiknu fd;k
vVy fcgkjh oktis;h rhu ckj Hkkjr ds iz/kuea=kh] ,d ckj fons'k ea=kh vkSj 12
ckj lklan jgsA jk"Vª ds izfr mudh lsokvksa ds fy, mUgsa loksZPPk Hkkjrh; ukxfjd lEeku
^Hkkjr jRu* ls Hkh foHkwf"kr fd;k x;kA 16 vxLr 2018 dks 93 o"kZ dh vk;q esa mudk
fu/u gqvkA
2020-21
D;k fujk'k gqvk tk,            37
7
D;k fujk'k gqvk tk,
esjk eu dHkh&dHkh cSB tkrk gSA lekpkj&i=kksa esa Bxh] MoSQrh] pksjh] rLdjh
vkSj Hkz"Vkpkj osQ lekpkj Hkjs jgrs gSaA vkjksi&izR;kjksi dk oqQN ,slk okrkoj.k
cu x;k gS fd yxrk gS] ns'k esa dksbZ bZekunkj vkneh gh ugha jg x;k gSA gj
O;fDr lansg dh n`f"V ls ns[kk tk jgk gSA tks ftrus gh Å¡ps in ij gSa muesa mrus
gh vfèkd nks"k fn[kk, tkrs gSaA
,d cgqr cM+s vkneh us eq>ls ,d ckj dgk Fkk fd bl le; lq[kh ogh
gS tks oqQN ugha djrkA tks oqQN Hkh djsxk mleas yksx nks"k [kkstus yxsaxsA
mlosQ lkjs xq.k Hkqyk fn, tk,¡xs vkSj nks"kksa dks c<+k&p<+kdj fn[kk;k tkus
yxsxkA nks"k fdlesa ugha gksrs\ ;gh dkj.k gS fd gj vkneh nks"kh vfèkd fn[k
jgk gS] xq.kh de ;k fcyoqQy gh ughaA fLFkfr vxj ,slh gS rks fu'p; gh
fpark dk fo"k; gSA
D;k ;gh Hkkjro"kZ gS ftldk liuk fryd vkSj xkaèkh us ns[kk Fkk\ johanzukFk
BkoqQj vkSj enueksgu ekyoh; dk egku laLo`Qfr&lH; Hkkjro"kZ fdl vrhr
osQ xàj esa Mwc x;k\ vk;Z vkSj nzfoM+] fganw vkSj eqlyeku] ;wjksih; vkSj
Hkkjrh; vkn'kkZs± dh feyu&Hkwfe ^ekuo egk&leqnz* D;k lw[k gh x;k\ esjk eu
dgrk gS ,slk gks ugha ldrkA gekjs egku euhf"k;ksa osQ liuksa dk Hkkjr gS vkSj
jgsxkA
;g lgh gS fd bu fnuksa oqQN ,slk ekgkSy cuk gS fd bZekunkjh ls esgur
djosQ thfodk pykusokys fujhg vkSj Hkksys&Hkkys Jethoh fil jgs gSa vkSj >wB
rFkk i
+
Qjsc dk jks”kxkj djusokys iQy&iwQy jgs gSaA bZekunkjh dks ew[kZrk dk i;kZ;
le>k tkus yxk gS] lpkbZ osQoy Hkh# vkSj cscl yksxksa osQ fgLls iM+h gSA ,slh
fLFkfr esa thou osQ egku ewY;ksa osQ ckjs esa yksxksa dh vkLFkk gh fgyus yxh gSA
2020-21
38 olar Hkkx 3
Hkkjro"kZ us dHkh Hkh HkkSfrd oLrqvksa osQ laxzg dks cgqr vfèkd egÙo ugha
fn;k gS] mldh n`f"V ls euq"; osQ Hkhrj tks egku vkarfjd xq.k fLFkj Hkko ls
cSBk gqvk gS] ogh pje vkSj ije gSA yksHk&eksg] dke&Øksèk vkfn fopkj euq";
esa LokHkkfod :i ls fo|eku jgrs gSa] ij mUgsa izèkku 'kfDr eku ysuk vkSj
vius eu rFkk cqf¼ dks mUgha osQ b'kkjs ij NksM+ nsuk cgqr cqjk vkpj.k gSA
Hkkjro"kZ us dHkh Hkh mUgsa mfpr ugha ekuk] mUgsa lnk la;e osQ caèku ls ck¡èkdj
j[kus dk iz;Ru fd;k gSA ijarq Hkw[k dh mis{kk ugha dh tk ldrh] chekj osQ
fy, nok dh mis{kk ugha dh tk ldrh] xqejkg dks Bhd jkLrs ij ys tkus osQ
mik;ksa dh mis{kk ugha dh tk ldrhA
gqvk ;g gS fd bl ns'k osQ dksfV&dksfV nfjnztuksa dh ghu voLFkk dks nwj
djus osQ fy, ,sls vusd dk;ns&dkuwu cuk, x, gSa tks o`Qf"k] m|ksx] okf.kT;]
f'k{kk vkSj LokLF; dh fLFkfr dks vfèkd mÂr vkSj lqpk# cukus osQ y{; ls
izsfjr gSa] ijarq ftu yksxkas dks bu dk;kZs± esa yxuk gS] mudk eu lc le; ifo=k
ugha gksrkA izk;% os gh y{; dks Hkwy tkrs gSa vkSj viuh gh lq[k&lqfoèkk dh
vksj ”;knk è;ku nsus yxrs gSaA
Hkkjro"kZ lnk dkuwu dks èkeZ osQ :i esa ns[krk vk jgk gSA vkt ,dk,d
dkuwu vkSj èkeZ eas varj dj fn;k x;k gSA èkeZ dks èkks[kk ugha fn;k tk ldrk]
dkuwu dks fn;k tk ldrk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd tks yksx èkeZHkh# gSa] os dkuwu
dh =kqfV;ksa ls YkkHk mBkus esa ladksp ugha djrsA
bl ckr osQ i;kZIr izek.k [kksts tk ldrs gSa fd lekt osQ Åijh oxZ esa
pkgs tks Hkh gksrk jgk gks] Hkhrj&Hkhrj Hkkjro"kZ vc Hkh ;g vuqHko dj jgk
gS fd èkeZ dkuwu ls cM+h ph”k gSA vc Hkh lsok] bZekunkjh] lpkbZ vkSj
vkè;kfRedrk osQ ewY; cus gq, gSaA os nc vo'; x, gSa ysfdu u"V ugha gq,
gSaA vkt Hkh og euq"; ls izse djrk gS] efgykvksa dk lEeku djrk gS] >wB
vkSj pksjh dks xyr le>rk gS] nwljs dks ihM+k igq¡pkus dks iki le>rk gSA gj
vkneh vius O;fDrxr thou esa bl ckr dk vuqHko djrk gSA lekpkj i=kksa
esa tks Hkz"Vkpkj osQ izfr bruk vkØks'k gS] og ;gh lkfcr djrk gS fd ge ,slh
2020-21
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