NCERT Textbook: पाठ 7 - शकर तारे के सामान, स्पर्श, हिन्दी, कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 9

Created by: Trisha Vashisht

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 7 - शकर तारे के सामान, स्पर्श, हिन्दी, कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


'kqØrkjs osQ leku/69
Lokeh vkuan
(1887)
laU;klh Lokeh vkuan dk tUe xqtjkr osQ dfB;kokM+ f”kys osQ fdeM+h xk¡o eas lu~ 1887 esa
gqvkA budk ewy uke fgEeryky FkkA tc ;s nl lky osQ Fks rHkh oqQN lkèkq bUgsa vius lkFk
fgeky; dh vksj ys x, vkSj budk ukedj.k fd;kµ Lokeh vkuanA 1907 esa Lokeh vkuan
Lora=krk vkanksyu ls tqM+ x,A egkjk"Vª ls oqQN le; rd ^r#.k fgan* v[kckj fudkyk] fiQj
cky xaxkèkj fryd osQ osQljh v[kckj ls tqM+ x,A 1917 esa xkaèkhth osQ lalxZ esa vkus osQ ckn
mUgha osQ funs'ku esa ^uothou* vkSj ^;ax bafM;k* dh izlkj O;oLFkk laHkky yhA blh cgkus bUgsa]
xkaèkhth vkSj muosQ futh lg;ksxh egknso HkkbZ nslkbZ vkSj ckn esa I;kjsyky th dks fudV ls
tkuus dk volj feykA
ewyr% xqtjkrh Hkk"kk essa fy[ks x, izLrqr ikB ^'kqØrkjs osQ leku* esa ys[kd us xkaèkhth osQ
futh lfpo egknso HkkbZ nslkbZ dh cstksM+ izfrHkk vkSj O;Lrre fnup;kZ dks mosQjk gSA ys[kd
vius bl js[kkfp=k osQ uk;d osQ O;fDrRo vkSj mldh mQtkZ] mudh yxu vkSj izfrHkk ls
vfHkHkwr gSA egknso HkkbZ dh ljyrk] lTturk] fu"Bk] leiZ.k] yxu vkSj fujfHkeku dks ys[kd
us iwjh bZekunkjh ls 'kCnksa esa fijks;k gSA budh ys[kuh egknso osQ O;fDrRo dk ,slk fp=k [khapus
esa liQy jgh gS fd ikBd dks egknso HkkbZ ij vfHkeku gks vkrk gSA
ys[kd osQ vuqlkj dksbZ Hkh egku O;fDr] egkure dk;Z rHkh dj ikrk gS] tc mlosQ lkFk
,sls lg;ksxh gksa tks mldh reke brj fparkvksa vkSj my>uksa dks vius flj ys ysaA xkaèkhth osQ
fy, egknso HkkbZ vkSj HkkbZ I;kjsyky th ,slh gh 'kf[l;r FksA
ubZ fnYyh esa cgknqj'kkg ”kI
+
kQj ekxZ ij fLFkr I;kjsyky Hkou vkSj mlesa cuk egknso
vkWfMVksfj;e xkaèkhth osQ bUgha nks futh lg;ksfx;ksa dh Le`fr dks lefiZr gSA
Page 2


'kqØrkjs osQ leku/69
Lokeh vkuan
(1887)
laU;klh Lokeh vkuan dk tUe xqtjkr osQ dfB;kokM+ f”kys osQ fdeM+h xk¡o eas lu~ 1887 esa
gqvkA budk ewy uke fgEeryky FkkA tc ;s nl lky osQ Fks rHkh oqQN lkèkq bUgsa vius lkFk
fgeky; dh vksj ys x, vkSj budk ukedj.k fd;kµ Lokeh vkuanA 1907 esa Lokeh vkuan
Lora=krk vkanksyu ls tqM+ x,A egkjk"Vª ls oqQN le; rd ^r#.k fgan* v[kckj fudkyk] fiQj
cky xaxkèkj fryd osQ osQljh v[kckj ls tqM+ x,A 1917 esa xkaèkhth osQ lalxZ esa vkus osQ ckn
mUgha osQ funs'ku esa ^uothou* vkSj ^;ax bafM;k* dh izlkj O;oLFkk laHkky yhA blh cgkus bUgsa]
xkaèkhth vkSj muosQ futh lg;ksxh egknso HkkbZ nslkbZ vkSj ckn esa I;kjsyky th dks fudV ls
tkuus dk volj feykA
ewyr% xqtjkrh Hkk"kk essa fy[ks x, izLrqr ikB ^'kqØrkjs osQ leku* esa ys[kd us xkaèkhth osQ
futh lfpo egknso HkkbZ nslkbZ dh cstksM+ izfrHkk vkSj O;Lrre fnup;kZ dks mosQjk gSA ys[kd
vius bl js[kkfp=k osQ uk;d osQ O;fDrRo vkSj mldh mQtkZ] mudh yxu vkSj izfrHkk ls
vfHkHkwr gSA egknso HkkbZ dh ljyrk] lTturk] fu"Bk] leiZ.k] yxu vkSj fujfHkeku dks ys[kd
us iwjh bZekunkjh ls 'kCnksa esa fijks;k gSA budh ys[kuh egknso osQ O;fDrRo dk ,slk fp=k [khapus
esa liQy jgh gS fd ikBd dks egknso HkkbZ ij vfHkeku gks vkrk gSA
ys[kd osQ vuqlkj dksbZ Hkh egku O;fDr] egkure dk;Z rHkh dj ikrk gS] tc mlosQ lkFk
,sls lg;ksxh gksa tks mldh reke brj fparkvksa vkSj my>uksa dks vius flj ys ysaA xkaèkhth osQ
fy, egknso HkkbZ vkSj HkkbZ I;kjsyky th ,slh gh 'kf[l;r FksA
ubZ fnYyh esa cgknqj'kkg ”kI
+
kQj ekxZ ij fLFkr I;kjsyky Hkou vkSj mlesa cuk egknso
vkWfMVksfj;e xkaèkhth osQ bUgha nks futh lg;ksfx;ksa dh Le`fr dks lefiZr gSA
70/Li'kZ
'kqØrkjs osQ leku
vkdk'k osQ rkjksa esa 'kqØ dh dksbZ tksM+ ughaA 'kqØ panz dk lkFkh ekuk x;k gSA
mldh vkHkk&izHkk dk o.kZu djus esa lalkj osQ dfo FkosQ ughaA fiQj Hkh u{k=k eaMy
esa dyxh&:i bl rstLoh rkjs dks nqfu;k ;k rks ,su 'kke osQ le;] cMs+ losjs
?kaVs&nks ?kaVs ls vfèkd ns[k ugha ikrhA blh rjg HkkbZ egknso th vkèkqfud Hkkjr dh
Lora=krk osQ m"kkdky esa viuh oSlh gh vkHkk ls gekjs vkdk'k dks txexkdj] ns'k
vkSj nqfu;k dks eqXèk djosQ] 'kqØrkjs dh rjg gh vpkud vLr gks x,A lsokèkeZ
dk ikyu djus osQ fy, bl èkjrh ij tues LoxhZ; egknso nslkbZ xkaèkhth osQ ea=kh
FksA fe=kksa osQ chp fouksn esa vius dks xkaèkhth dk ^gEeky* dgus esa vkSj
dHkh&dHkh viuk ifjp; muosQ ^ihj&ckophZ&fHk'rh&[kj* osQ :i esa nsus esa os
xkSjo dk vuqHko fd;k djrs FksA
xkaèkhth osQ fy, os iq=k ls Hkh vfèkd FksA tc lu~ 1917 esa os xkaèkhth osQ ikl
ig¡qps Fks] rHkh xkaèkhth us mudks rRdky igpku fy;k vkSj mudks vius mÙkjkfèkdkjh
dk in lkSai fn;kA lu~ 1919 esa tfy;k¡okyk ckx osQ gR;kdkaM osQ fnuksa esa iatkc tkrs
gq, xkaèkhth dks iyoy LVs'ku ij fxjÝ
+
rkj fd;k x;k FkkA xkaèkhth us mlh le;
egknso HkkbZ dks viuk okfjl dgk FkkA lu~ 1929 esa egknso HkkbZ vklsrqfgekpy] ns'k
osQ pkjksa dksuksa esa] lewps ns'k osQ nqykjs cu pqosQ FksA
blh chp iatkc esa I
+
kQkSth 'kklu osQ dkj.k tks dgj cjlk;k x;k Fkk] mldk
C;ksjk jks”k&jks”k vkus yxkA iatkc osQ vfèkdrj usrkvksa dks fxjÝ
+
rkj djosQ I
+
kQkSth
dkuwu osQ rgr tUe&oSQn dh l”kk,¡ nsdj dkykikuh Hkst fn;k x;kA ykgkSj osQ
Page 3


'kqØrkjs osQ leku/69
Lokeh vkuan
(1887)
laU;klh Lokeh vkuan dk tUe xqtjkr osQ dfB;kokM+ f”kys osQ fdeM+h xk¡o eas lu~ 1887 esa
gqvkA budk ewy uke fgEeryky FkkA tc ;s nl lky osQ Fks rHkh oqQN lkèkq bUgsa vius lkFk
fgeky; dh vksj ys x, vkSj budk ukedj.k fd;kµ Lokeh vkuanA 1907 esa Lokeh vkuan
Lora=krk vkanksyu ls tqM+ x,A egkjk"Vª ls oqQN le; rd ^r#.k fgan* v[kckj fudkyk] fiQj
cky xaxkèkj fryd osQ osQljh v[kckj ls tqM+ x,A 1917 esa xkaèkhth osQ lalxZ esa vkus osQ ckn
mUgha osQ funs'ku esa ^uothou* vkSj ^;ax bafM;k* dh izlkj O;oLFkk laHkky yhA blh cgkus bUgsa]
xkaèkhth vkSj muosQ futh lg;ksxh egknso HkkbZ nslkbZ vkSj ckn esa I;kjsyky th dks fudV ls
tkuus dk volj feykA
ewyr% xqtjkrh Hkk"kk essa fy[ks x, izLrqr ikB ^'kqØrkjs osQ leku* esa ys[kd us xkaèkhth osQ
futh lfpo egknso HkkbZ nslkbZ dh cstksM+ izfrHkk vkSj O;Lrre fnup;kZ dks mosQjk gSA ys[kd
vius bl js[kkfp=k osQ uk;d osQ O;fDrRo vkSj mldh mQtkZ] mudh yxu vkSj izfrHkk ls
vfHkHkwr gSA egknso HkkbZ dh ljyrk] lTturk] fu"Bk] leiZ.k] yxu vkSj fujfHkeku dks ys[kd
us iwjh bZekunkjh ls 'kCnksa esa fijks;k gSA budh ys[kuh egknso osQ O;fDrRo dk ,slk fp=k [khapus
esa liQy jgh gS fd ikBd dks egknso HkkbZ ij vfHkeku gks vkrk gSA
ys[kd osQ vuqlkj dksbZ Hkh egku O;fDr] egkure dk;Z rHkh dj ikrk gS] tc mlosQ lkFk
,sls lg;ksxh gksa tks mldh reke brj fparkvksa vkSj my>uksa dks vius flj ys ysaA xkaèkhth osQ
fy, egknso HkkbZ vkSj HkkbZ I;kjsyky th ,slh gh 'kf[l;r FksA
ubZ fnYyh esa cgknqj'kkg ”kI
+
kQj ekxZ ij fLFkr I;kjsyky Hkou vkSj mlesa cuk egknso
vkWfMVksfj;e xkaèkhth osQ bUgha nks futh lg;ksfx;ksa dh Le`fr dks lefiZr gSA
70/Li'kZ
'kqØrkjs osQ leku
vkdk'k osQ rkjksa esa 'kqØ dh dksbZ tksM+ ughaA 'kqØ panz dk lkFkh ekuk x;k gSA
mldh vkHkk&izHkk dk o.kZu djus esa lalkj osQ dfo FkosQ ughaA fiQj Hkh u{k=k eaMy
esa dyxh&:i bl rstLoh rkjs dks nqfu;k ;k rks ,su 'kke osQ le;] cMs+ losjs
?kaVs&nks ?kaVs ls vfèkd ns[k ugha ikrhA blh rjg HkkbZ egknso th vkèkqfud Hkkjr dh
Lora=krk osQ m"kkdky esa viuh oSlh gh vkHkk ls gekjs vkdk'k dks txexkdj] ns'k
vkSj nqfu;k dks eqXèk djosQ] 'kqØrkjs dh rjg gh vpkud vLr gks x,A lsokèkeZ
dk ikyu djus osQ fy, bl èkjrh ij tues LoxhZ; egknso nslkbZ xkaèkhth osQ ea=kh
FksA fe=kksa osQ chp fouksn esa vius dks xkaèkhth dk ^gEeky* dgus esa vkSj
dHkh&dHkh viuk ifjp; muosQ ^ihj&ckophZ&fHk'rh&[kj* osQ :i esa nsus esa os
xkSjo dk vuqHko fd;k djrs FksA
xkaèkhth osQ fy, os iq=k ls Hkh vfèkd FksA tc lu~ 1917 esa os xkaèkhth osQ ikl
ig¡qps Fks] rHkh xkaèkhth us mudks rRdky igpku fy;k vkSj mudks vius mÙkjkfèkdkjh
dk in lkSai fn;kA lu~ 1919 esa tfy;k¡okyk ckx osQ gR;kdkaM osQ fnuksa esa iatkc tkrs
gq, xkaèkhth dks iyoy LVs'ku ij fxjÝ
+
rkj fd;k x;k FkkA xkaèkhth us mlh le;
egknso HkkbZ dks viuk okfjl dgk FkkA lu~ 1929 esa egknso HkkbZ vklsrqfgekpy] ns'k
osQ pkjksa dksuksa esa] lewps ns'k osQ nqykjs cu pqosQ FksA
blh chp iatkc esa I
+
kQkSth 'kklu osQ dkj.k tks dgj cjlk;k x;k Fkk] mldk
C;ksjk jks”k&jks”k vkus yxkA iatkc osQ vfèkdrj usrkvksa dks fxjÝ
+
rkj djosQ I
+
kQkSth
dkuwu osQ rgr tUe&oSQn dh l”kk,¡ nsdj dkykikuh Hkst fn;k x;kA ykgkSj osQ
'kqØrkjs osQ leku/71
eq[; jk"Vªh; vaxzs”kh nSfud i=k ^fVªC;wu* osQ laiknd Jh dkyhukFk jk; dks
10 lky dh tsy dh l”kk feyhA
xkaèkhth osQ lkeus ”kqYeksa vkSj vR;kpkjksa dh dgkfu;k¡ is'k djus osQ fy, vkus
okys ihfM+rksa osQ ny&osQ&ny xkensoh osQ ef.kHkou ij meM+rs jgrs FksA egknso
mudh ckrksa dh laf{kIr fVIif.k;k¡ rS;kj djosQ mudks xakèkhth osQ lkeus is'k djrs
Fks vkSj vkusokyksa osQ lkFk mudh :c: eqykdkrsa Hkh djokrs FksA xkaèkhth cacbZ*
osQ eq[; jk"Vªh; vaxzs”kh nSfud ^ckEcs Økfudy* esa bu lc fo"k;ksa ij ys[k fy[kk
djrs FksA Økfudy esa txg dh raxh cuh jgrh FkhA
oqQN gh fnuksa esa ^Økfudy* osQ fuMj vaxzs”k laiknd gkuhZeSu dks ljdkj us
ns'k&fudkys dh l”kk nsdj baXySaM Hkst fn;kA mu fnuksa cacbZ osQ rhu u, usrk FksA
'kadj yky cSadj] mEej lksckuh vkSj teuknkl }kjdknklA buesa vafre Jherh
cslsaV osQ vuq;k;h FksA ;s usrk ^;ax bafM;k* uke dk ,d vaxzs”kh lkIrkfgd Hkh
fudkyrs FksA ysfdu mlesa ^Økfudy* okys gkWuhZeSu gh eq[; :i ls fy[krs FksA
mudks ns'k fudkyk feyus osQ ckn bu yksxksa dks gj gÝ
+
rs lkIrkfgd osQ fy,
fy[kusokyksa dh deh jgus yxhA ;s rhuksa usrk xkaèkhth osQ ije iz'kald Fks vkSj
muosQ lR;kxzg&vkanksyu esa cacbZ osQ cstksM+ usrk Hkh FksA bUgksaus xkaèkhth ls fourh dh
fd os ^;ax bafM;k* osQ laiknd cu tk,¡A xkaèkhth dks rks bldh l[r ”k:jr Fkh
ghA mUgksaus fourh rqjar Lohdkj dj yhA
xkaèkhth dk dke bruk c<+ x;k fd lkIrkfgd i=k Hkh de iM+us yxkA xkaèkhth
us ^;ax bafM;k* dks gÝ
+
rs esa nks ckj izdkf'kr djus dk fu'p; fd;kA
gj jks”k dk i=k&O;ogkj vkSj eqykdkrsa] vke lHkk,¡ vkfn dkeksa osQ vykok
^;ax bafM;k* lkIrkfgd esa Nkius osQ ys[k] fVIif.k;k¡] iatkc osQ ekeyksa dk
lkjla{ksi vkSj xkaèkhth osQ ys[k ;g lkjh lkexzh ge rhu fnu esa rS;kj djrsA
^;ax bafM;k* osQ ihNs&ihNs ^uothou* Hkh xkaèkhth osQ ikl vk;k vkSj nksuksa
lkIrkfgd vgenkckn ls fudyus yxsA Ng eghuksa osQ fy, eSa Hkh lkcjerh vkJe
* orZeku esa bls ^eqacbZ* dgrs gaSA
Page 4


'kqØrkjs osQ leku/69
Lokeh vkuan
(1887)
laU;klh Lokeh vkuan dk tUe xqtjkr osQ dfB;kokM+ f”kys osQ fdeM+h xk¡o eas lu~ 1887 esa
gqvkA budk ewy uke fgEeryky FkkA tc ;s nl lky osQ Fks rHkh oqQN lkèkq bUgsa vius lkFk
fgeky; dh vksj ys x, vkSj budk ukedj.k fd;kµ Lokeh vkuanA 1907 esa Lokeh vkuan
Lora=krk vkanksyu ls tqM+ x,A egkjk"Vª ls oqQN le; rd ^r#.k fgan* v[kckj fudkyk] fiQj
cky xaxkèkj fryd osQ osQljh v[kckj ls tqM+ x,A 1917 esa xkaèkhth osQ lalxZ esa vkus osQ ckn
mUgha osQ funs'ku esa ^uothou* vkSj ^;ax bafM;k* dh izlkj O;oLFkk laHkky yhA blh cgkus bUgsa]
xkaèkhth vkSj muosQ futh lg;ksxh egknso HkkbZ nslkbZ vkSj ckn esa I;kjsyky th dks fudV ls
tkuus dk volj feykA
ewyr% xqtjkrh Hkk"kk essa fy[ks x, izLrqr ikB ^'kqØrkjs osQ leku* esa ys[kd us xkaèkhth osQ
futh lfpo egknso HkkbZ nslkbZ dh cstksM+ izfrHkk vkSj O;Lrre fnup;kZ dks mosQjk gSA ys[kd
vius bl js[kkfp=k osQ uk;d osQ O;fDrRo vkSj mldh mQtkZ] mudh yxu vkSj izfrHkk ls
vfHkHkwr gSA egknso HkkbZ dh ljyrk] lTturk] fu"Bk] leiZ.k] yxu vkSj fujfHkeku dks ys[kd
us iwjh bZekunkjh ls 'kCnksa esa fijks;k gSA budh ys[kuh egknso osQ O;fDrRo dk ,slk fp=k [khapus
esa liQy jgh gS fd ikBd dks egknso HkkbZ ij vfHkeku gks vkrk gSA
ys[kd osQ vuqlkj dksbZ Hkh egku O;fDr] egkure dk;Z rHkh dj ikrk gS] tc mlosQ lkFk
,sls lg;ksxh gksa tks mldh reke brj fparkvksa vkSj my>uksa dks vius flj ys ysaA xkaèkhth osQ
fy, egknso HkkbZ vkSj HkkbZ I;kjsyky th ,slh gh 'kf[l;r FksA
ubZ fnYyh esa cgknqj'kkg ”kI
+
kQj ekxZ ij fLFkr I;kjsyky Hkou vkSj mlesa cuk egknso
vkWfMVksfj;e xkaèkhth osQ bUgha nks futh lg;ksfx;ksa dh Le`fr dks lefiZr gSA
70/Li'kZ
'kqØrkjs osQ leku
vkdk'k osQ rkjksa esa 'kqØ dh dksbZ tksM+ ughaA 'kqØ panz dk lkFkh ekuk x;k gSA
mldh vkHkk&izHkk dk o.kZu djus esa lalkj osQ dfo FkosQ ughaA fiQj Hkh u{k=k eaMy
esa dyxh&:i bl rstLoh rkjs dks nqfu;k ;k rks ,su 'kke osQ le;] cMs+ losjs
?kaVs&nks ?kaVs ls vfèkd ns[k ugha ikrhA blh rjg HkkbZ egknso th vkèkqfud Hkkjr dh
Lora=krk osQ m"kkdky esa viuh oSlh gh vkHkk ls gekjs vkdk'k dks txexkdj] ns'k
vkSj nqfu;k dks eqXèk djosQ] 'kqØrkjs dh rjg gh vpkud vLr gks x,A lsokèkeZ
dk ikyu djus osQ fy, bl èkjrh ij tues LoxhZ; egknso nslkbZ xkaèkhth osQ ea=kh
FksA fe=kksa osQ chp fouksn esa vius dks xkaèkhth dk ^gEeky* dgus esa vkSj
dHkh&dHkh viuk ifjp; muosQ ^ihj&ckophZ&fHk'rh&[kj* osQ :i esa nsus esa os
xkSjo dk vuqHko fd;k djrs FksA
xkaèkhth osQ fy, os iq=k ls Hkh vfèkd FksA tc lu~ 1917 esa os xkaèkhth osQ ikl
ig¡qps Fks] rHkh xkaèkhth us mudks rRdky igpku fy;k vkSj mudks vius mÙkjkfèkdkjh
dk in lkSai fn;kA lu~ 1919 esa tfy;k¡okyk ckx osQ gR;kdkaM osQ fnuksa esa iatkc tkrs
gq, xkaèkhth dks iyoy LVs'ku ij fxjÝ
+
rkj fd;k x;k FkkA xkaèkhth us mlh le;
egknso HkkbZ dks viuk okfjl dgk FkkA lu~ 1929 esa egknso HkkbZ vklsrqfgekpy] ns'k
osQ pkjksa dksuksa esa] lewps ns'k osQ nqykjs cu pqosQ FksA
blh chp iatkc esa I
+
kQkSth 'kklu osQ dkj.k tks dgj cjlk;k x;k Fkk] mldk
C;ksjk jks”k&jks”k vkus yxkA iatkc osQ vfèkdrj usrkvksa dks fxjÝ
+
rkj djosQ I
+
kQkSth
dkuwu osQ rgr tUe&oSQn dh l”kk,¡ nsdj dkykikuh Hkst fn;k x;kA ykgkSj osQ
'kqØrkjs osQ leku/71
eq[; jk"Vªh; vaxzs”kh nSfud i=k ^fVªC;wu* osQ laiknd Jh dkyhukFk jk; dks
10 lky dh tsy dh l”kk feyhA
xkaèkhth osQ lkeus ”kqYeksa vkSj vR;kpkjksa dh dgkfu;k¡ is'k djus osQ fy, vkus
okys ihfM+rksa osQ ny&osQ&ny xkensoh osQ ef.kHkou ij meM+rs jgrs FksA egknso
mudh ckrksa dh laf{kIr fVIif.k;k¡ rS;kj djosQ mudks xakèkhth osQ lkeus is'k djrs
Fks vkSj vkusokyksa osQ lkFk mudh :c: eqykdkrsa Hkh djokrs FksA xkaèkhth cacbZ*
osQ eq[; jk"Vªh; vaxzs”kh nSfud ^ckEcs Økfudy* esa bu lc fo"k;ksa ij ys[k fy[kk
djrs FksA Økfudy esa txg dh raxh cuh jgrh FkhA
oqQN gh fnuksa esa ^Økfudy* osQ fuMj vaxzs”k laiknd gkuhZeSu dks ljdkj us
ns'k&fudkys dh l”kk nsdj baXySaM Hkst fn;kA mu fnuksa cacbZ osQ rhu u, usrk FksA
'kadj yky cSadj] mEej lksckuh vkSj teuknkl }kjdknklA buesa vafre Jherh
cslsaV osQ vuq;k;h FksA ;s usrk ^;ax bafM;k* uke dk ,d vaxzs”kh lkIrkfgd Hkh
fudkyrs FksA ysfdu mlesa ^Økfudy* okys gkWuhZeSu gh eq[; :i ls fy[krs FksA
mudks ns'k fudkyk feyus osQ ckn bu yksxksa dks gj gÝ
+
rs lkIrkfgd osQ fy,
fy[kusokyksa dh deh jgus yxhA ;s rhuksa usrk xkaèkhth osQ ije iz'kald Fks vkSj
muosQ lR;kxzg&vkanksyu esa cacbZ osQ cstksM+ usrk Hkh FksA bUgksaus xkaèkhth ls fourh dh
fd os ^;ax bafM;k* osQ laiknd cu tk,¡A xkaèkhth dks rks bldh l[r ”k:jr Fkh
ghA mUgksaus fourh rqjar Lohdkj dj yhA
xkaèkhth dk dke bruk c<+ x;k fd lkIrkfgd i=k Hkh de iM+us yxkA xkaèkhth
us ^;ax bafM;k* dks gÝ
+
rs esa nks ckj izdkf'kr djus dk fu'p; fd;kA
gj jks”k dk i=k&O;ogkj vkSj eqykdkrsa] vke lHkk,¡ vkfn dkeksa osQ vykok
^;ax bafM;k* lkIrkfgd esa Nkius osQ ys[k] fVIif.k;k¡] iatkc osQ ekeyksa dk
lkjla{ksi vkSj xkaèkhth osQ ys[k ;g lkjh lkexzh ge rhu fnu esa rS;kj djrsA
^;ax bafM;k* osQ ihNs&ihNs ^uothou* Hkh xkaèkhth osQ ikl vk;k vkSj nksuksa
lkIrkfgd vgenkckn ls fudyus yxsA Ng eghuksa osQ fy, eSa Hkh lkcjerh vkJe
* orZeku esa bls ^eqacbZ* dgrs gaSA
72/Li'kZ
esa jgus igq¡pkA 'kq: esa xzkgdkas osQ fglkc&fdrkc dh vkSj lkIrkfgdksa dks Mkd esa
Myokus dh O;oLFkk esjs ftEes jghA ysfdu oqQN gh fnuksa osQ ckn laiknu lfgr
nksuksa lkIrkfgdksa dh vkSj Nkik[kkus dh lkjh O;oLFkk esjs ftEes vk xbZA xkaèkhth
vkSj egknso dk lkjk le; ns'k Hkze.k esa chrus yxkA ;s tgk¡ Hkh gksrs] ogk¡ ls dkeksa
vkSj dk;ZØeksa dh Hkkjh HkhM+ osQ chp Hkh le; fudkydj ys[k fy[krs vkSj HkstrsA
lc izkarksa osQ mxz vkSj mnkj ns'kHkDr] Økafrdkjh vkSj ns'k&fons'k osQ èkqjaèkj
yksx] laoknnkrk vkfn xkaèkhth dks i=k fy[krs vkSj xkaèkhth ^;ax bafM;k* osQ dkWyeksa
esa mudh ppkZ fd;k djrsA egknso xkaèkhth dh ;k=kkvksa osQ vkSj izfrfnu dh mudh
xfrfofèk;ksa osQ lkIrkfgd fooj.k Hkstk djrsA
blosQ vykok egknso] ns'k&fons'k osQ vxzx.; lekpkj&i=k] tks vk¡[kksa esa rsy
Mkydj xkaèkhth dh izfrfnu dh xfrfofèk;ksa dks ns[kk djrs Fks vkSj mu ij cjkcj
Vhdk&fVIi.kh djrs jgrs Fks] mudks vkMs+ gkFkksa ysus okys ys[k Hkh le;&le; ij
fy[kk djrs FksA cstksM+ dkWye] Hkjiwj pkSdlkbZ] m¡Qps&ls&m¡Qps fczfV'k lekpkj&i=kksa
dh ijaijkvksa dks viukdj pyus dk xkaèkhth dk vkxzg vkSj d^j ls d^j fojksfèk;ksa
osQ lkFk Hkh iwjh&iwjh lR;fu"Bk esa ls mRiUu gksusokyh fou;&foosd&;qDr fookn
djus dh xkaèkhth dh rkyhe bu lc xq.kksa us rhoz erHksnksa vkSj fojksèkh izpkj osQ chp
Hkh ns'k&fons'k osQ lkjs lekpkj&i=kkas dh nqfu;k esa vkSj ,aXyks&bafM;u lekpkj&i=kksa
osQ chp Hkh O;fDrxr :i ls ,e-Mh- dks lcdk ykM+yk cuk fn;k FkkA
xkaèkhth osQ ikl vkus osQ igys viuh fo|kFkhZ voLFkk esa egknso us ljdkj osQ
vuqokn&foHkkx esa ukSdjh dh FkhA ujgfj HkkbZ muosQ ftxjh nksLr FksA nksuksa ,d lkFk
odkyr i<s+ FksA nksuksa us vgenkckn esa odkyr Hkh lkFk&lkFk gh 'kq: dh FkhA bl
is'ks esa vke rkSj ij L;kg dks lI
+
ksQn vkSj lI
+
ksQn dks L;kg djuk gksrk gSA lkfgR;
vkSj laLdkj osQ lkFk bldk dksbZ lacaèk ugha jgrkA ysfdu bu nksuksa us rks mlh le;
ls VSxksj] 'kjnpanz vkfn osQ lkfgR; dks myVuk&iqyVuk 'kq: dj fn;k FkkA
^fp=kkaxnk* dp&nso;kuh dh dFkk ij VSxksj }kjk jfpr ^fonkbZ dk vfHk'kki* 'kh"kZd
ukfVdk] ^'kjn ckcw dh dgkfu;k¡* vkfn vuqokn ml le; dh mudh lkfgfR;d
xfrfofèk;ksa dh nsu gSaA
Page 5


'kqØrkjs osQ leku/69
Lokeh vkuan
(1887)
laU;klh Lokeh vkuan dk tUe xqtjkr osQ dfB;kokM+ f”kys osQ fdeM+h xk¡o eas lu~ 1887 esa
gqvkA budk ewy uke fgEeryky FkkA tc ;s nl lky osQ Fks rHkh oqQN lkèkq bUgsa vius lkFk
fgeky; dh vksj ys x, vkSj budk ukedj.k fd;kµ Lokeh vkuanA 1907 esa Lokeh vkuan
Lora=krk vkanksyu ls tqM+ x,A egkjk"Vª ls oqQN le; rd ^r#.k fgan* v[kckj fudkyk] fiQj
cky xaxkèkj fryd osQ osQljh v[kckj ls tqM+ x,A 1917 esa xkaèkhth osQ lalxZ esa vkus osQ ckn
mUgha osQ funs'ku esa ^uothou* vkSj ^;ax bafM;k* dh izlkj O;oLFkk laHkky yhA blh cgkus bUgsa]
xkaèkhth vkSj muosQ futh lg;ksxh egknso HkkbZ nslkbZ vkSj ckn esa I;kjsyky th dks fudV ls
tkuus dk volj feykA
ewyr% xqtjkrh Hkk"kk essa fy[ks x, izLrqr ikB ^'kqØrkjs osQ leku* esa ys[kd us xkaèkhth osQ
futh lfpo egknso HkkbZ nslkbZ dh cstksM+ izfrHkk vkSj O;Lrre fnup;kZ dks mosQjk gSA ys[kd
vius bl js[kkfp=k osQ uk;d osQ O;fDrRo vkSj mldh mQtkZ] mudh yxu vkSj izfrHkk ls
vfHkHkwr gSA egknso HkkbZ dh ljyrk] lTturk] fu"Bk] leiZ.k] yxu vkSj fujfHkeku dks ys[kd
us iwjh bZekunkjh ls 'kCnksa esa fijks;k gSA budh ys[kuh egknso osQ O;fDrRo dk ,slk fp=k [khapus
esa liQy jgh gS fd ikBd dks egknso HkkbZ ij vfHkeku gks vkrk gSA
ys[kd osQ vuqlkj dksbZ Hkh egku O;fDr] egkure dk;Z rHkh dj ikrk gS] tc mlosQ lkFk
,sls lg;ksxh gksa tks mldh reke brj fparkvksa vkSj my>uksa dks vius flj ys ysaA xkaèkhth osQ
fy, egknso HkkbZ vkSj HkkbZ I;kjsyky th ,slh gh 'kf[l;r FksA
ubZ fnYyh esa cgknqj'kkg ”kI
+
kQj ekxZ ij fLFkr I;kjsyky Hkou vkSj mlesa cuk egknso
vkWfMVksfj;e xkaèkhth osQ bUgha nks futh lg;ksfx;ksa dh Le`fr dks lefiZr gSA
70/Li'kZ
'kqØrkjs osQ leku
vkdk'k osQ rkjksa esa 'kqØ dh dksbZ tksM+ ughaA 'kqØ panz dk lkFkh ekuk x;k gSA
mldh vkHkk&izHkk dk o.kZu djus esa lalkj osQ dfo FkosQ ughaA fiQj Hkh u{k=k eaMy
esa dyxh&:i bl rstLoh rkjs dks nqfu;k ;k rks ,su 'kke osQ le;] cMs+ losjs
?kaVs&nks ?kaVs ls vfèkd ns[k ugha ikrhA blh rjg HkkbZ egknso th vkèkqfud Hkkjr dh
Lora=krk osQ m"kkdky esa viuh oSlh gh vkHkk ls gekjs vkdk'k dks txexkdj] ns'k
vkSj nqfu;k dks eqXèk djosQ] 'kqØrkjs dh rjg gh vpkud vLr gks x,A lsokèkeZ
dk ikyu djus osQ fy, bl èkjrh ij tues LoxhZ; egknso nslkbZ xkaèkhth osQ ea=kh
FksA fe=kksa osQ chp fouksn esa vius dks xkaèkhth dk ^gEeky* dgus esa vkSj
dHkh&dHkh viuk ifjp; muosQ ^ihj&ckophZ&fHk'rh&[kj* osQ :i esa nsus esa os
xkSjo dk vuqHko fd;k djrs FksA
xkaèkhth osQ fy, os iq=k ls Hkh vfèkd FksA tc lu~ 1917 esa os xkaèkhth osQ ikl
ig¡qps Fks] rHkh xkaèkhth us mudks rRdky igpku fy;k vkSj mudks vius mÙkjkfèkdkjh
dk in lkSai fn;kA lu~ 1919 esa tfy;k¡okyk ckx osQ gR;kdkaM osQ fnuksa esa iatkc tkrs
gq, xkaèkhth dks iyoy LVs'ku ij fxjÝ
+
rkj fd;k x;k FkkA xkaèkhth us mlh le;
egknso HkkbZ dks viuk okfjl dgk FkkA lu~ 1929 esa egknso HkkbZ vklsrqfgekpy] ns'k
osQ pkjksa dksuksa esa] lewps ns'k osQ nqykjs cu pqosQ FksA
blh chp iatkc esa I
+
kQkSth 'kklu osQ dkj.k tks dgj cjlk;k x;k Fkk] mldk
C;ksjk jks”k&jks”k vkus yxkA iatkc osQ vfèkdrj usrkvksa dks fxjÝ
+
rkj djosQ I
+
kQkSth
dkuwu osQ rgr tUe&oSQn dh l”kk,¡ nsdj dkykikuh Hkst fn;k x;kA ykgkSj osQ
'kqØrkjs osQ leku/71
eq[; jk"Vªh; vaxzs”kh nSfud i=k ^fVªC;wu* osQ laiknd Jh dkyhukFk jk; dks
10 lky dh tsy dh l”kk feyhA
xkaèkhth osQ lkeus ”kqYeksa vkSj vR;kpkjksa dh dgkfu;k¡ is'k djus osQ fy, vkus
okys ihfM+rksa osQ ny&osQ&ny xkensoh osQ ef.kHkou ij meM+rs jgrs FksA egknso
mudh ckrksa dh laf{kIr fVIif.k;k¡ rS;kj djosQ mudks xakèkhth osQ lkeus is'k djrs
Fks vkSj vkusokyksa osQ lkFk mudh :c: eqykdkrsa Hkh djokrs FksA xkaèkhth cacbZ*
osQ eq[; jk"Vªh; vaxzs”kh nSfud ^ckEcs Økfudy* esa bu lc fo"k;ksa ij ys[k fy[kk
djrs FksA Økfudy esa txg dh raxh cuh jgrh FkhA
oqQN gh fnuksa esa ^Økfudy* osQ fuMj vaxzs”k laiknd gkuhZeSu dks ljdkj us
ns'k&fudkys dh l”kk nsdj baXySaM Hkst fn;kA mu fnuksa cacbZ osQ rhu u, usrk FksA
'kadj yky cSadj] mEej lksckuh vkSj teuknkl }kjdknklA buesa vafre Jherh
cslsaV osQ vuq;k;h FksA ;s usrk ^;ax bafM;k* uke dk ,d vaxzs”kh lkIrkfgd Hkh
fudkyrs FksA ysfdu mlesa ^Økfudy* okys gkWuhZeSu gh eq[; :i ls fy[krs FksA
mudks ns'k fudkyk feyus osQ ckn bu yksxksa dks gj gÝ
+
rs lkIrkfgd osQ fy,
fy[kusokyksa dh deh jgus yxhA ;s rhuksa usrk xkaèkhth osQ ije iz'kald Fks vkSj
muosQ lR;kxzg&vkanksyu esa cacbZ osQ cstksM+ usrk Hkh FksA bUgksaus xkaèkhth ls fourh dh
fd os ^;ax bafM;k* osQ laiknd cu tk,¡A xkaèkhth dks rks bldh l[r ”k:jr Fkh
ghA mUgksaus fourh rqjar Lohdkj dj yhA
xkaèkhth dk dke bruk c<+ x;k fd lkIrkfgd i=k Hkh de iM+us yxkA xkaèkhth
us ^;ax bafM;k* dks gÝ
+
rs esa nks ckj izdkf'kr djus dk fu'p; fd;kA
gj jks”k dk i=k&O;ogkj vkSj eqykdkrsa] vke lHkk,¡ vkfn dkeksa osQ vykok
^;ax bafM;k* lkIrkfgd esa Nkius osQ ys[k] fVIif.k;k¡] iatkc osQ ekeyksa dk
lkjla{ksi vkSj xkaèkhth osQ ys[k ;g lkjh lkexzh ge rhu fnu esa rS;kj djrsA
^;ax bafM;k* osQ ihNs&ihNs ^uothou* Hkh xkaèkhth osQ ikl vk;k vkSj nksuksa
lkIrkfgd vgenkckn ls fudyus yxsA Ng eghuksa osQ fy, eSa Hkh lkcjerh vkJe
* orZeku esa bls ^eqacbZ* dgrs gaSA
72/Li'kZ
esa jgus igq¡pkA 'kq: esa xzkgdkas osQ fglkc&fdrkc dh vkSj lkIrkfgdksa dks Mkd esa
Myokus dh O;oLFkk esjs ftEes jghA ysfdu oqQN gh fnuksa osQ ckn laiknu lfgr
nksuksa lkIrkfgdksa dh vkSj Nkik[kkus dh lkjh O;oLFkk esjs ftEes vk xbZA xkaèkhth
vkSj egknso dk lkjk le; ns'k Hkze.k esa chrus yxkA ;s tgk¡ Hkh gksrs] ogk¡ ls dkeksa
vkSj dk;ZØeksa dh Hkkjh HkhM+ osQ chp Hkh le; fudkydj ys[k fy[krs vkSj HkstrsA
lc izkarksa osQ mxz vkSj mnkj ns'kHkDr] Økafrdkjh vkSj ns'k&fons'k osQ èkqjaèkj
yksx] laoknnkrk vkfn xkaèkhth dks i=k fy[krs vkSj xkaèkhth ^;ax bafM;k* osQ dkWyeksa
esa mudh ppkZ fd;k djrsA egknso xkaèkhth dh ;k=kkvksa osQ vkSj izfrfnu dh mudh
xfrfofèk;ksa osQ lkIrkfgd fooj.k Hkstk djrsA
blosQ vykok egknso] ns'k&fons'k osQ vxzx.; lekpkj&i=k] tks vk¡[kksa esa rsy
Mkydj xkaèkhth dh izfrfnu dh xfrfofèk;ksa dks ns[kk djrs Fks vkSj mu ij cjkcj
Vhdk&fVIi.kh djrs jgrs Fks] mudks vkMs+ gkFkksa ysus okys ys[k Hkh le;&le; ij
fy[kk djrs FksA cstksM+ dkWye] Hkjiwj pkSdlkbZ] m¡Qps&ls&m¡Qps fczfV'k lekpkj&i=kksa
dh ijaijkvksa dks viukdj pyus dk xkaèkhth dk vkxzg vkSj d^j ls d^j fojksfèk;ksa
osQ lkFk Hkh iwjh&iwjh lR;fu"Bk esa ls mRiUu gksusokyh fou;&foosd&;qDr fookn
djus dh xkaèkhth dh rkyhe bu lc xq.kksa us rhoz erHksnksa vkSj fojksèkh izpkj osQ chp
Hkh ns'k&fons'k osQ lkjs lekpkj&i=kkas dh nqfu;k esa vkSj ,aXyks&bafM;u lekpkj&i=kksa
osQ chp Hkh O;fDrxr :i ls ,e-Mh- dks lcdk ykM+yk cuk fn;k FkkA
xkaèkhth osQ ikl vkus osQ igys viuh fo|kFkhZ voLFkk esa egknso us ljdkj osQ
vuqokn&foHkkx esa ukSdjh dh FkhA ujgfj HkkbZ muosQ ftxjh nksLr FksA nksuksa ,d lkFk
odkyr i<s+ FksA nksuksa us vgenkckn esa odkyr Hkh lkFk&lkFk gh 'kq: dh FkhA bl
is'ks esa vke rkSj ij L;kg dks lI
+
ksQn vkSj lI
+
ksQn dks L;kg djuk gksrk gSA lkfgR;
vkSj laLdkj osQ lkFk bldk dksbZ lacaèk ugha jgrkA ysfdu bu nksuksa us rks mlh le;
ls VSxksj] 'kjnpanz vkfn osQ lkfgR; dks myVuk&iqyVuk 'kq: dj fn;k FkkA
^fp=kkaxnk* dp&nso;kuh dh dFkk ij VSxksj }kjk jfpr ^fonkbZ dk vfHk'kki* 'kh"kZd
ukfVdk] ^'kjn ckcw dh dgkfu;k¡* vkfn vuqokn ml le; dh mudh lkfgfR;d
xfrfofèk;ksa dh nsu gSaA
'kqØrkjs osQ leku/73
Hkkjr eas muosQ v{kjksa dk dksbZ lkuh ugha FkkA okbljk; osQ uke tkus okys
xkaèkhth osQ i=k ges'kk egknso dh fy[kkoV esa tkrs FksA mu i=kkas dks
ns[k&ns[kdj fnYyh vkSj f'keyk esa cSBs okbljk; yach lk¡l&ml¡kl ysrs jgrs
FksA Hkys gh mu fnuksa fczfV'k lYrur ij dgha lwjt u Mwcrk gks] ysfdu ml
lYrur osQ ^NksVs* ckn'kkg dks Hkh xakèkhth osQ lsozsQVjh osQ leku [kq'kuoh'k
(lqanj v{kj fy[kus okyk ys[kd) dgk¡ feyrk Fkk\ cMs+&cMs+ flfofy;u vkSj
xouZj dgk djrs Fks fd lkjh fczfV'k lfoZlksa esa egknso osQ leku v{kj fy[kus
okyk dgha [kkstus ij Hkh feyrk ugha FkkA i<+us okys dks ea=keqXèk djus okyk
'kq¼ vkSj lqanj ys[kuA
egknso osQ gkFkksa osQ fy[ks x, ys[k] fVIif.k;k¡] i=k] xkaèkhth osQ O;k[;ku]
izkFkZuk&izopu] eqykdkrsa] okrkZykiksa ij fy[kh xbZ fVIif.k;k¡] lc oqQN iqQyLosQi osQ
pkSFkkbZ vkdkjokyh eksVh vH;kl iqLrdksa esa] yach fy[kkoV osQ lkFk] tsV dh lh
xfr ls fy[kk tkrk FkkA os ^'kWkVZgSaM* tkurs ugha FksA
cMs+&cMs+ ns'kh&fons'kh jktiqjQ"k] jktuhfrK] ns'k&fons'k osQ vxzx.; lekpkj&i=kksa
osQ izfrfufèk] varjkZ"Vªh; laxBuksa osQ lapkyd] iknjh] xzaFkdkj vkfn xkaèkhth ls
feyus osQ fy, vkrs FksA ;s yksx [kqn ;k buosQ lkFkh&laxh Hkh xkaèkhth osQ lkFk
ckrphr dks ^'kkWVZgSaM* esa fy[kk djrs FksA egknso ,d dksus esa cSBs&cSBs viuh
yach fy[kkoV esa lkjh ppkZ dks fy[krs jgrs FksA eqykdkr osQ fy, vk, gq, yksx
viuh eqdke ij tkdj lkjh ckrphr dks Vkbi djosQ tc mls xkaèkhth osQ ikl
^vksosQ* djokus osQ fy, igq¡prs] rks Hkys gh muesa oqQN Hkwyas ;k dfe;k¡&[kkfe;k¡
fey tk,¡] ysfdu egknso dh Mk;jh esa ;k uksV&cgh esa etky gS fd dkWek ek=k
dh Hkh Hkwy fey tk,A
xkaèkhth dgrs % egknso osQ fy[ks ^uksV* osQ lkFk FkksM+k feyku dj ysuk Fkk uA
vkSj yksx nk¡rksa vaxqyh nckdj jg tkrsA
yqbZ fiQ'kj vkSj xqaFkj osQ leku èkqjaèkj ys[kd viuh fVIif.k;ksa dk feyku
egknso dh fVIif.k;ksa osQ lkFk djosQ mUgsa lqèkkjs fcuk xkaèkhth osQ ikl ys tkus
esa fgpfdpkrs FksA
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