NCERT Textbook: पाठ 8 - यह सबसे कठिन समय नहीं, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

कक्षा - 8 हिन्दी (Class 8 Hindi) by VP Classes

Class 8 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 8 - यह सबसे कठिन समय नहीं, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


;g lcls dfBu le; ugha            45
ugha] ;g lcls dfBu le; ugha!
vHkh Hkh nck gS fpfM+;k dh
pksap esa frudk
vkSj og mM+us dh rS;kjh esa gS!
vHkh Hkh >jrh gqbZ iÙkh
8
;g lcls dfBu le; ugha
2020-21
Page 2


;g lcls dfBu le; ugha            45
ugha] ;g lcls dfBu le; ugha!
vHkh Hkh nck gS fpfM+;k dh
pksap esa frudk
vkSj og mM+us dh rS;kjh esa gS!
vHkh Hkh >jrh gqbZ iÙkh
8
;g lcls dfBu le; ugha
2020-21
46 olar Hkkx 3
Fkkeus dks cSBk gS gkFk ,d
vHkh Hkh HkhM+ gS LVs'ku ij
vHkh Hkh ,d jsyxkM+h tkrh gS
xarO; rd
tgk¡ dksbZ dj jgk gksxk izrh{kk
vHkh Hkh dgrk gS dksbZ fdlh dks
tYnh vk tkvks fd vc
lwjt Mwcus dk oDr gks x;k
vHkh dgk tkrk gS
ml dFkk dk vkf[kjh fgLlk
tks cw<+h ukuh lquk jgh lfn;ksa ls
nqfu;k osQ reke cPpksa dks
vHkh vkrh gS ,d cl
varfj{k osQ ikj dh nqfu;k ls
yk,xh cps gq, yksxksa dh [kcj!
ugha] ;g lcls dfBu le; ughaA
µt;k tknokuh
ikB ls
1- ¶;g dfBu le; ugha gS\¸ ;g crkus osQ fy, dfork esa dkSu&dkSu ls
roZQ izLrqr fd, x, gSa\ Li"V dhft,A
2- fpfM+;k pksap esa frudk nckdj mM+us dh rS;kjh esa D;ksa gS\ og frudksa
dk D;k djrh gksxh\ fyf[k,A
3- dfork esa dbZ ckj ^vHkh Hkh* dk iz;ksx djosQ ckrsa j[kh xbZ gSa] vHkh Hkh
dk iz;ksx djrs gq, rhu okD; cukb, vkSj nsf[k, muesa yxkrkj] fujarj]
fcuk #osQ pyusokys fdlh dk;Z dk Hkko fudy jgk gS ;k ugha\
iz'u&vH;kl
2020-21
Page 3


;g lcls dfBu le; ugha            45
ugha] ;g lcls dfBu le; ugha!
vHkh Hkh nck gS fpfM+;k dh
pksap esa frudk
vkSj og mM+us dh rS;kjh esa gS!
vHkh Hkh >jrh gqbZ iÙkh
8
;g lcls dfBu le; ugha
2020-21
46 olar Hkkx 3
Fkkeus dks cSBk gS gkFk ,d
vHkh Hkh HkhM+ gS LVs'ku ij
vHkh Hkh ,d jsyxkM+h tkrh gS
xarO; rd
tgk¡ dksbZ dj jgk gksxk izrh{kk
vHkh Hkh dgrk gS dksbZ fdlh dks
tYnh vk tkvks fd vc
lwjt Mwcus dk oDr gks x;k
vHkh dgk tkrk gS
ml dFkk dk vkf[kjh fgLlk
tks cw<+h ukuh lquk jgh lfn;ksa ls
nqfu;k osQ reke cPpksa dks
vHkh vkrh gS ,d cl
varfj{k osQ ikj dh nqfu;k ls
yk,xh cps gq, yksxksa dh [kcj!
ugha] ;g lcls dfBu le; ughaA
µt;k tknokuh
ikB ls
1- ¶;g dfBu le; ugha gS\¸ ;g crkus osQ fy, dfork esa dkSu&dkSu ls
roZQ izLrqr fd, x, gSa\ Li"V dhft,A
2- fpfM+;k pksap esa frudk nckdj mM+us dh rS;kjh esa D;ksa gS\ og frudksa
dk D;k djrh gksxh\ fyf[k,A
3- dfork esa dbZ ckj ^vHkh Hkh* dk iz;ksx djosQ ckrsa j[kh xbZ gSa] vHkh Hkh
dk iz;ksx djrs gq, rhu okD; cukb, vkSj nsf[k, muesa yxkrkj] fujarj]
fcuk #osQ pyusokys fdlh dk;Z dk Hkko fudy jgk gS ;k ugha\
iz'u&vH;kl
2020-21
;g lcls dfBu le; ugha            47
4- ¶ugha¸ vkSj ¶vHkh Hkh¸ dks ,d lkFk iz;ksx djosQ rhu okD; fyf[k,
vkSj nsf[k, ^ugha* ^vHkh Hkh* osQ ihNs dkSu&dkSu ls Hkko fNis gks
ldrs gSa\
dfork ls vkxs
1- ?kj osQ cM+s&cw<+ksa }kjk cPpksa dks lqukbZ tkusokyh fdlh ,slh dFkk dh
tkudkjh izkIr dhft, ftlosQ vkf[kjh fgLls esa dfBu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls
thrus dk lans'k gksA
2- vki tc Hkh ?kj ls LowQy tkrs gSa dksbZ vkidh izrh{kk dj jgk gksrk gSA
lwjt Mwcus dk le; Hkh vkidks [ksy osQ eSnku ls ?kj ykSV pyus dh
lwpuk nsrk gS fd ?kj esa dksbZ vkidh izrh{kk dj jgk gSµizrh{kk djusokys
O;fDr osQ fo"k; esa vki D;k lksprs gSa\ vius fopkj fyf[k,A
vuqeku vkSj dYiuk
varfj{k osQ ikj dh nqfu;k ls D;k lpeqp dksbZ cl vkrh gS ftlls [krjksa
osQ ckn Hkh cps gq, yksxksa dh [kcj feyrh gS\ vkidh jk; esa ;g >wB
gS ;k lp\ ;fn >wB gS rks dfork esa ,slk D;ksa fy[kk x;k\ vuqeku
yxkb, ;fn lp yxrk gS rks fdlh varfj{k laca/h foKku dFkk osQ vkèkkj
ij dYiuk dhft, fd og cl oSQlh gksxh] os cps gq, yksx [krjksa ls
D;ksa f?kj x, gksaxs\ bl lanHkZ dks ysdj dksbZ dFkk cuk losaQ rks cukb,A
2020-21
Page 4


;g lcls dfBu le; ugha            45
ugha] ;g lcls dfBu le; ugha!
vHkh Hkh nck gS fpfM+;k dh
pksap esa frudk
vkSj og mM+us dh rS;kjh esa gS!
vHkh Hkh >jrh gqbZ iÙkh
8
;g lcls dfBu le; ugha
2020-21
46 olar Hkkx 3
Fkkeus dks cSBk gS gkFk ,d
vHkh Hkh HkhM+ gS LVs'ku ij
vHkh Hkh ,d jsyxkM+h tkrh gS
xarO; rd
tgk¡ dksbZ dj jgk gksxk izrh{kk
vHkh Hkh dgrk gS dksbZ fdlh dks
tYnh vk tkvks fd vc
lwjt Mwcus dk oDr gks x;k
vHkh dgk tkrk gS
ml dFkk dk vkf[kjh fgLlk
tks cw<+h ukuh lquk jgh lfn;ksa ls
nqfu;k osQ reke cPpksa dks
vHkh vkrh gS ,d cl
varfj{k osQ ikj dh nqfu;k ls
yk,xh cps gq, yksxksa dh [kcj!
ugha] ;g lcls dfBu le; ughaA
µt;k tknokuh
ikB ls
1- ¶;g dfBu le; ugha gS\¸ ;g crkus osQ fy, dfork esa dkSu&dkSu ls
roZQ izLrqr fd, x, gSa\ Li"V dhft,A
2- fpfM+;k pksap esa frudk nckdj mM+us dh rS;kjh esa D;ksa gS\ og frudksa
dk D;k djrh gksxh\ fyf[k,A
3- dfork esa dbZ ckj ^vHkh Hkh* dk iz;ksx djosQ ckrsa j[kh xbZ gSa] vHkh Hkh
dk iz;ksx djrs gq, rhu okD; cukb, vkSj nsf[k, muesa yxkrkj] fujarj]
fcuk #osQ pyusokys fdlh dk;Z dk Hkko fudy jgk gS ;k ugha\
iz'u&vH;kl
2020-21
;g lcls dfBu le; ugha            47
4- ¶ugha¸ vkSj ¶vHkh Hkh¸ dks ,d lkFk iz;ksx djosQ rhu okD; fyf[k,
vkSj nsf[k, ^ugha* ^vHkh Hkh* osQ ihNs dkSu&dkSu ls Hkko fNis gks
ldrs gSa\
dfork ls vkxs
1- ?kj osQ cM+s&cw<+ksa }kjk cPpksa dks lqukbZ tkusokyh fdlh ,slh dFkk dh
tkudkjh izkIr dhft, ftlosQ vkf[kjh fgLls esa dfBu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls
thrus dk lans'k gksA
2- vki tc Hkh ?kj ls LowQy tkrs gSa dksbZ vkidh izrh{kk dj jgk gksrk gSA
lwjt Mwcus dk le; Hkh vkidks [ksy osQ eSnku ls ?kj ykSV pyus dh
lwpuk nsrk gS fd ?kj esa dksbZ vkidh izrh{kk dj jgk gSµizrh{kk djusokys
O;fDr osQ fo"k; esa vki D;k lksprs gSa\ vius fopkj fyf[k,A
vuqeku vkSj dYiuk
varfj{k osQ ikj dh nqfu;k ls D;k lpeqp dksbZ cl vkrh gS ftlls [krjksa
osQ ckn Hkh cps gq, yksxksa dh [kcj feyrh gS\ vkidh jk; esa ;g >wB
gS ;k lp\ ;fn >wB gS rks dfork esa ,slk D;ksa fy[kk x;k\ vuqeku
yxkb, ;fn lp yxrk gS rks fdlh varfj{k laca/h foKku dFkk osQ vkèkkj
ij dYiuk dhft, fd og cl oSQlh gksxh] os cps gq, yksx [krjksa ls
D;ksa f?kj x, gksaxs\ bl lanHkZ dks ysdj dksbZ dFkk cuk losaQ rks cukb,A
2020-21
48 olar Hkkx 3
osQoy i<+us osQ fy,
igkM+ ls m¡Qpk vkneh
rhu lkS lkB iQhV yack vkSj rhl iQhV pkSM+k igkM+ dkVus osQ
fy, fdruk oDr yx ldrk gS\ fuf'pr gh VSDuksykWth osQ bl
;qx esa bl loky dk tokc bl ckr ij fuHkZj djsxk fd vki
igkM+ dk lhuk phjus osQ fy, fdl e'khu dk bLrseky dj jgs
gSa] ysfdu vxj ;g iwNk
tk, fd blh dke dks
,d gh 'k[l dks vatke
nsuk gks rks fdruk oDr
yxsxk\
'kk;n  ;g  pdjk
nsusokyk loky gksxk ysfdu
fcgkj osQ x;k f”kys osQ
xsykSj xk¡o esa ,d e”knwj
ifjokj esa tUes ,d 'k[l
us bldk tokc vius cktqvksa
vkSj viuh esgur ls fn;kA igkM+ dks fgyk nsusokys mu n'kjFk ek¡>h
us jktèkkuh fnYyh esa 2007 esa vafre lk¡l yhA mudk tUe 1934
esa gqvk FkkA
o"kZ 1966 dh fdlh vylqcg tc Nsuh gFkkSM+k ysdj n'kjFk
ek¡>h vius xk¡o osQ ikl fLFkr igkM+ osQ ikl igq¡ps rks cgqr de
yksxksa dks bl ckr dk irk Fkk fd bl 'k[l us vius fny esa D;k
Bku fy;k gSA e”knwjh vkSj dHkh dHkkj bèkj&mèkj dke djusokys
2020-21
Page 5


;g lcls dfBu le; ugha            45
ugha] ;g lcls dfBu le; ugha!
vHkh Hkh nck gS fpfM+;k dh
pksap esa frudk
vkSj og mM+us dh rS;kjh esa gS!
vHkh Hkh >jrh gqbZ iÙkh
8
;g lcls dfBu le; ugha
2020-21
46 olar Hkkx 3
Fkkeus dks cSBk gS gkFk ,d
vHkh Hkh HkhM+ gS LVs'ku ij
vHkh Hkh ,d jsyxkM+h tkrh gS
xarO; rd
tgk¡ dksbZ dj jgk gksxk izrh{kk
vHkh Hkh dgrk gS dksbZ fdlh dks
tYnh vk tkvks fd vc
lwjt Mwcus dk oDr gks x;k
vHkh dgk tkrk gS
ml dFkk dk vkf[kjh fgLlk
tks cw<+h ukuh lquk jgh lfn;ksa ls
nqfu;k osQ reke cPpksa dks
vHkh vkrh gS ,d cl
varfj{k osQ ikj dh nqfu;k ls
yk,xh cps gq, yksxksa dh [kcj!
ugha] ;g lcls dfBu le; ughaA
µt;k tknokuh
ikB ls
1- ¶;g dfBu le; ugha gS\¸ ;g crkus osQ fy, dfork esa dkSu&dkSu ls
roZQ izLrqr fd, x, gSa\ Li"V dhft,A
2- fpfM+;k pksap esa frudk nckdj mM+us dh rS;kjh esa D;ksa gS\ og frudksa
dk D;k djrh gksxh\ fyf[k,A
3- dfork esa dbZ ckj ^vHkh Hkh* dk iz;ksx djosQ ckrsa j[kh xbZ gSa] vHkh Hkh
dk iz;ksx djrs gq, rhu okD; cukb, vkSj nsf[k, muesa yxkrkj] fujarj]
fcuk #osQ pyusokys fdlh dk;Z dk Hkko fudy jgk gS ;k ugha\
iz'u&vH;kl
2020-21
;g lcls dfBu le; ugha            47
4- ¶ugha¸ vkSj ¶vHkh Hkh¸ dks ,d lkFk iz;ksx djosQ rhu okD; fyf[k,
vkSj nsf[k, ^ugha* ^vHkh Hkh* osQ ihNs dkSu&dkSu ls Hkko fNis gks
ldrs gSa\
dfork ls vkxs
1- ?kj osQ cM+s&cw<+ksa }kjk cPpksa dks lqukbZ tkusokyh fdlh ,slh dFkk dh
tkudkjh izkIr dhft, ftlosQ vkf[kjh fgLls esa dfBu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls
thrus dk lans'k gksA
2- vki tc Hkh ?kj ls LowQy tkrs gSa dksbZ vkidh izrh{kk dj jgk gksrk gSA
lwjt Mwcus dk le; Hkh vkidks [ksy osQ eSnku ls ?kj ykSV pyus dh
lwpuk nsrk gS fd ?kj esa dksbZ vkidh izrh{kk dj jgk gSµizrh{kk djusokys
O;fDr osQ fo"k; esa vki D;k lksprs gSa\ vius fopkj fyf[k,A
vuqeku vkSj dYiuk
varfj{k osQ ikj dh nqfu;k ls D;k lpeqp dksbZ cl vkrh gS ftlls [krjksa
osQ ckn Hkh cps gq, yksxksa dh [kcj feyrh gS\ vkidh jk; esa ;g >wB
gS ;k lp\ ;fn >wB gS rks dfork esa ,slk D;ksa fy[kk x;k\ vuqeku
yxkb, ;fn lp yxrk gS rks fdlh varfj{k laca/h foKku dFkk osQ vkèkkj
ij dYiuk dhft, fd og cl oSQlh gksxh] os cps gq, yksx [krjksa ls
D;ksa f?kj x, gksaxs\ bl lanHkZ dks ysdj dksbZ dFkk cuk losaQ rks cukb,A
2020-21
48 olar Hkkx 3
osQoy i<+us osQ fy,
igkM+ ls m¡Qpk vkneh
rhu lkS lkB iQhV yack vkSj rhl iQhV pkSM+k igkM+ dkVus osQ
fy, fdruk oDr yx ldrk gS\ fuf'pr gh VSDuksykWth osQ bl
;qx esa bl loky dk tokc bl ckr ij fuHkZj djsxk fd vki
igkM+ dk lhuk phjus osQ fy, fdl e'khu dk bLrseky dj jgs
gSa] ysfdu vxj ;g iwNk
tk, fd blh dke dks
,d gh 'k[l dks vatke
nsuk gks rks fdruk oDr
yxsxk\
'kk;n  ;g  pdjk
nsusokyk loky gksxk ysfdu
fcgkj osQ x;k f”kys osQ
xsykSj xk¡o esa ,d e”knwj
ifjokj esa tUes ,d 'k[l
us bldk tokc vius cktqvksa
vkSj viuh esgur ls fn;kA igkM+ dks fgyk nsusokys mu n'kjFk ek¡>h
us jktèkkuh fnYyh esa 2007 esa vafre lk¡l yhA mudk tUe 1934
esa gqvk FkkA
o"kZ 1966 dh fdlh vylqcg tc Nsuh gFkkSM+k ysdj n'kjFk
ek¡>h vius xk¡o osQ ikl fLFkr igkM+ osQ ikl igq¡ps rks cgqr de
yksxksa dks bl ckr dk irk Fkk fd bl 'k[l us vius fny esa D;k
Bku fy;k gSA e”knwjh vkSj dHkh dHkkj bèkj&mèkj dke djusokys
2020-21
;g lcls dfBu le; ugha            49
igkM+ ls mQ¡pk vkneh
n'kjFk ek¡>h us tc igkM+ ij Nsuh gFkkSM+k pykuk 'kq: fd;k rks
vkus&tkus okys jkgxhjksa osQ fy, gh ugha] xk¡o osQ yksxksa osQ fy, Hkh
og ,d g¡lh osQ ik=k cu x, FksA
thou lafxuh iQkxquh nsoh dk le; ij bykt u djk ikus ls mls
[kks pqosQ n'kjFk ek¡>h dks blls dksbZ iQoZQ ugha iM+kA èkqu osQ iDosQ
n'kjFk dh vFkd esgur ckbZl lky ckn rc jax ykbZ tc ml igkM+
ls ,d jkLrk nwljs xk¡o rd fudy vk;kA
vkf[kj ,slh D;k ckr gqbZ fd n'kjFk dks igkM+ phjus dh èkqu
lokj gqbZA njvly igkM+ dks tc rd phjk ugha x;k Fkk rc
rd n'kjFk osQ xk¡o ls lcls u”knhdh othjxat vLirky 90
fdyksehVj iM+rk FkkA n'kjFk dh iRuh dh rch;r [kjkc gksus ij
mls ogk¡ ys tkus osQ nkSjku gh mlus ne rksM+ fn;k FkkA mUgsa yxk
fd igkM+ ls dksbZ jkLrk gksrk rks eSa viuh iRuh dks oDr ij
vLirky ys tkrk vkSj mldk bykt djk ikrkA
losZ'ojn;ky lDlsuk dh ,d dfork gS % ^nq[k rqEgsa D;k
rksM+sxk rqe nq[k dks rksM+ nksA cl viuh vk¡[ksa vkSjksa osQ liuksa ls
tksM+ nksA*
f”kanxh dk rhlok¡ olar ikj dj pqosQ n'kjFk ek¡>h us 'kk;n
'ks"k xk¡o osQ fuokfl;ksa osQ eu esa nch bl NksVh&lh gljr dks
viuh f”kanxh dk fe'ku cuk MkykA vkSj viuh iRuh dh vlkef;d
ekSr ls mits izpaM nq[k dks ,d u;h ladYi 'kfDr esa rCnhy
dj fn;kA ik¡p&Ng lky rd n'kjFk vosQys gh esgur djrs jgsA
èkhjs&èkhjs vkSj yksx Hkh tqM+rs pys x,A ogk¡ ,d nkuik=k Hkh j[kk
x;k Fkk ftlesa yksx pank Mky nsrs FksA dbZ yksx vius ?kj ls
vukt Hkh nsrs FksA
vkt dh rkjh[k esa vki dg ldrs gSa fd xsykSj ls othjxat
tkus dh vLlh fdyksehVj dh nwjh dks 13 fdyksehVj yk nsus
okyk ;g jkLrk ,d Jfed osQ I;kj dh fu'kkuh gSA ,d vaxzs”k
i=kdkj us fy[kk % ^iwvjeSal rktegyA*
oqQN lky igys ,d i=kdkj muls feyus x;k] rc ,d iQDdM+
dchjiaFkh dh rjg ;k;kojh dj jgs n'kjFk ek¡>h us mUgsa viuh
2020-21
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