NCERT Textbook: पाठ 9 - रैदास , स्पर्श, हिन्दी, कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 9

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 9 - रैदास , स्पर्श, हिन्दी, कक्षा - 9 Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


dkO; [kaM
gj ns'k esa rw] gj Hks"k esa rw] rsjs uke vusd rw ,dgh gSA
rsjh jaxHkwfe ;g fo'o Hkjk] lc [ksy esa] esy esa rw gh rks gSAA
lkxj ls mBk ckny cuosQ] ckny ls iQVk ty gks djosQA
fiQj ugj cuk ufn;k¡ xgjh] rsjs fHkUu izdkj] rw ,dgh gSAA
phaVh ls Hkh v.kq&ijek.kq cuk] lc tho&txr~ dk :i fy;kA
dgha ioZr&o`{k fo'kky cuk] lkSan;Z rsjk] rw ,dgh gSAA
;g fnO; fn[kk;k gS ftlus] og gS xq#nso dh iw.kZ n;kA
rqdM+;k dgs dksbZ u vkSj fn[kk] cl eSa v# rw lc ,dgh gSAA
& lar rqdM+ksth
2020-21
Page 2


dkO; [kaM
gj ns'k esa rw] gj Hks"k esa rw] rsjs uke vusd rw ,dgh gSA
rsjh jaxHkwfe ;g fo'o Hkjk] lc [ksy esa] esy esa rw gh rks gSAA
lkxj ls mBk ckny cuosQ] ckny ls iQVk ty gks djosQA
fiQj ugj cuk ufn;k¡ xgjh] rsjs fHkUu izdkj] rw ,dgh gSAA
phaVh ls Hkh v.kq&ijek.kq cuk] lc tho&txr~ dk :i fy;kA
dgha ioZr&o`{k fo'kky cuk] lkSan;Z rsjk] rw ,dgh gSAA
;g fnO; fn[kk;k gS ftlus] og gS xq#nso dh iw.kZ n;kA
rqdM+;k dgs dksbZ u vkSj fn[kk] cl eSa v# rw lc ,dgh gSAA
& lar rqdM+ksth
2020-21 2020-21
Page 3


dkO; [kaM
gj ns'k esa rw] gj Hks"k esa rw] rsjs uke vusd rw ,dgh gSA
rsjh jaxHkwfe ;g fo'o Hkjk] lc [ksy esa] esy esa rw gh rks gSAA
lkxj ls mBk ckny cuosQ] ckny ls iQVk ty gks djosQA
fiQj ugj cuk ufn;k¡ xgjh] rsjs fHkUu izdkj] rw ,dgh gSAA
phaVh ls Hkh v.kq&ijek.kq cuk] lc tho&txr~ dk :i fy;kA
dgha ioZr&o`{k fo'kky cuk] lkSan;Z rsjk] rw ,dgh gSAA
;g fnO; fn[kk;k gS ftlus] og gS xq#nso dh iw.kZ n;kA
rqdM+;k dgs dksbZ u vkSj fn[kk] cl eSa v# rw lc ,dgh gSAA
& lar rqdM+ksth
2020-21 2020-21
dfork dk iBu&ikBu
fdlh Hkh Hkk"kk osQ lkfgR; esa fopkjksa vkSj Hkkoksa osQ laizs"k.k dh eq[; :i ls nks
'kSfy;k¡ gksrh gSaµx| vkSj dforkA dfork ;k rks Nan] rqd] y;] lqj ,oa rky esa
c¡èkh gksrh gS ;k vrqdkar Hkh gksrh gSA nksuksa gh rjg dh dforkvksa esa vyx&vyx
HkkokuqHkwfr;ksa dk vkuan fy;k tk ldrk gSA ,d vksj dfork ikBd dh Hkkoukvksa
dks mnkÙk cukrh gS rks nwljh vksj mlosQ lkSan;Zcksèk dks ek¡trh&l¡okjrh gSA og
euq"; dks balkfu;r ls] izÑfr ls] ns'k ls] vkSj o`gÙkj nqfu;k ls tksM+rh gSA
fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ fd'kksj eu dks rks dfork fo'ks"k :i ls izHkkfor djrh gS] D;ksafd
fd'kksj eu ljy] ftKklq vkSj jkxkRed gksrk gSA dfork fd'kksj Hkkoukvksa osQ
ifj"dkj] laosnu'khyrk osQ fodkl ,oa lqjQfp&fuekZ.k esa rks ;ksxnku djrh gh gS]
lkFk gh ;g Nk=kksa esa lqikB dh {kerk Hkh mRiUu djrh gSA
mYys[kuh; gS fd fganhrj fo|kFkhZ viuh ekr`Hkk"kk dh dforkvksa vkSj muosQ
ukn] Hkko rFkk fopkj&lkSan;Z ls lqifjfpr gksrs gh gSaA bl ladyu dh dforkvksa
dk rknkRE; ekr`Hkk"kk dh dforkvksa ls fcBkdj dkO;&f'k{k.k dks vkSj vfèkd
#fpdj rFkk mi;ksxh cuk;k tk ldrk gSA
dkO;&ikB
dfork osQ vkuan dk vuqHko djus osQ fy, igyh vko';drk gS mfpr y; vkSj
izokg osQ lkFk dfork dk okpuA dfork x| ugha gS] vr% x| dh Hkk¡fr ugha i<+h
tkrhA y; vkSj izokg gh mls x| ls fHkUu cukrs gSaA okpu ekSu gks ;k eq[kj] y;
2020-21
Page 4


dkO; [kaM
gj ns'k esa rw] gj Hks"k esa rw] rsjs uke vusd rw ,dgh gSA
rsjh jaxHkwfe ;g fo'o Hkjk] lc [ksy esa] esy esa rw gh rks gSAA
lkxj ls mBk ckny cuosQ] ckny ls iQVk ty gks djosQA
fiQj ugj cuk ufn;k¡ xgjh] rsjs fHkUu izdkj] rw ,dgh gSAA
phaVh ls Hkh v.kq&ijek.kq cuk] lc tho&txr~ dk :i fy;kA
dgha ioZr&o`{k fo'kky cuk] lkSan;Z rsjk] rw ,dgh gSAA
;g fnO; fn[kk;k gS ftlus] og gS xq#nso dh iw.kZ n;kA
rqdM+;k dgs dksbZ u vkSj fn[kk] cl eSa v# rw lc ,dgh gSAA
& lar rqdM+ksth
2020-21 2020-21
dfork dk iBu&ikBu
fdlh Hkh Hkk"kk osQ lkfgR; esa fopkjksa vkSj Hkkoksa osQ laizs"k.k dh eq[; :i ls nks
'kSfy;k¡ gksrh gSaµx| vkSj dforkA dfork ;k rks Nan] rqd] y;] lqj ,oa rky esa
c¡èkh gksrh gS ;k vrqdkar Hkh gksrh gSA nksuksa gh rjg dh dforkvksa esa vyx&vyx
HkkokuqHkwfr;ksa dk vkuan fy;k tk ldrk gSA ,d vksj dfork ikBd dh Hkkoukvksa
dks mnkÙk cukrh gS rks nwljh vksj mlosQ lkSan;Zcksèk dks ek¡trh&l¡okjrh gSA og
euq"; dks balkfu;r ls] izÑfr ls] ns'k ls] vkSj o`gÙkj nqfu;k ls tksM+rh gSA
fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ fd'kksj eu dks rks dfork fo'ks"k :i ls izHkkfor djrh gS] D;ksafd
fd'kksj eu ljy] ftKklq vkSj jkxkRed gksrk gSA dfork fd'kksj Hkkoukvksa osQ
ifj"dkj] laosnu'khyrk osQ fodkl ,oa lqjQfp&fuekZ.k esa rks ;ksxnku djrh gh gS]
lkFk gh ;g Nk=kksa esa lqikB dh {kerk Hkh mRiUu djrh gSA
mYys[kuh; gS fd fganhrj fo|kFkhZ viuh ekr`Hkk"kk dh dforkvksa vkSj muosQ
ukn] Hkko rFkk fopkj&lkSan;Z ls lqifjfpr gksrs gh gSaA bl ladyu dh dforkvksa
dk rknkRE; ekr`Hkk"kk dh dforkvksa ls fcBkdj dkO;&f'k{k.k dks vkSj vfèkd
#fpdj rFkk mi;ksxh cuk;k tk ldrk gSA
dkO;&ikB
dfork osQ vkuan dk vuqHko djus osQ fy, igyh vko';drk gS mfpr y; vkSj
izokg osQ lkFk dfork dk okpuA dfork x| ugha gS] vr% x| dh Hkk¡fr ugha i<+h
tkrhA y; vkSj izokg gh mls x| ls fHkUu cukrs gSaA okpu ekSu gks ;k eq[kj] y;
2020-21
70/Li'kZ
vkSj izokg osQ lkFk gh gksuk pkfg,A y; dk fuèkkZj.k dkO;&iafDr;ksa esa fo|eku
xfr] fojke&fpÉ] ek=kk rFkk rqd ls gksrk gSA ek=kkvksa osQ ?kVus&c<+us ls mlosQ
izokg esa jQdkoV vkrh gSA vr% okpu esa 'kCnksa osQ mPpkj.k dk funksZ"k gksuk
vko';d gSA la;qDrk{kjksa dk 'kq¼ mPpkj.k u gksus ij Hkh dfork dh y; VwV
tk,xh vkSj og d.kZdVq cu tk,xhA
m}sfyr dj vJq&jkf'k;k¡
ân;&fprk,¡ èkèkdkdj]
egk egkekjh izpaM gks
iSQy jgh Fkh bèkj&mèkj]
{kh.k&oaQB e`roRlkvksa dk
d#.k&#nu nqnk±r furkar]
Hkjs gq, Fkk fut Ñ'k jo esa
gkgkdkj vikj v'kkarA
;gk¡ m}sfyr] vJq&jkf'k;k¡] {kh.k] e`roRlkvksa] gkgkdkj vkfn dk mPpkj.k lgh
u gksus ij dfork dk ikB Bhd ls u gks losQxk vkSj og izHkkoghu gks tk,xhA
'kCnkFkZ&cksèku
f}rh; Hkk"kk osQ :i esa fganh i<+usokys fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks dgha&dgha oqQN 'kCn dfBu
yx ldrs gSaA mudk vFkZ tkus fcuk mUgsa lexz Hkko&cksèk esa dfBukbZ gks ldrh
gSA vr% mUgsa 'kCnkFkZ crk, tkus pkfg, foaQrq 'kCnkFkZ&cksèku bruk cksf>y u gks
fd dfork osQ vkuan esa gh ckèkk iM+sA vPNk gks] ,d&nks ckj lLoj okpu osQ
}kjk dfork dh ewy laosnuk Li"V gks tkus osQ ckn gh 'kCnkFkZ crk, tk,¡A
jSnkl] jghe vkfn izkphu dfo;ksa dh Hkk"kk vkt dh fganh ls fHkUu gS]
ij xs;rk] Hkko&izo.krk osQ dkj.k mudh jpuk,¡ loZ=k yksdfiz; gSa vkSj cgqr
laHko gS fd ikB~;iqLrd esa m¼`r mudh oqQN jpukvksa ls fo|kFkhZ igys ls
ifjfpr gksa vkSj ,sls Hkko&cksèk dh oqQN dfork,¡ viuh ekr`Hkk"kk osQ ekè;e
2020-21
Page 5


dkO; [kaM
gj ns'k esa rw] gj Hks"k esa rw] rsjs uke vusd rw ,dgh gSA
rsjh jaxHkwfe ;g fo'o Hkjk] lc [ksy esa] esy esa rw gh rks gSAA
lkxj ls mBk ckny cuosQ] ckny ls iQVk ty gks djosQA
fiQj ugj cuk ufn;k¡ xgjh] rsjs fHkUu izdkj] rw ,dgh gSAA
phaVh ls Hkh v.kq&ijek.kq cuk] lc tho&txr~ dk :i fy;kA
dgha ioZr&o`{k fo'kky cuk] lkSan;Z rsjk] rw ,dgh gSAA
;g fnO; fn[kk;k gS ftlus] og gS xq#nso dh iw.kZ n;kA
rqdM+;k dgs dksbZ u vkSj fn[kk] cl eSa v# rw lc ,dgh gSAA
& lar rqdM+ksth
2020-21 2020-21
dfork dk iBu&ikBu
fdlh Hkh Hkk"kk osQ lkfgR; esa fopkjksa vkSj Hkkoksa osQ laizs"k.k dh eq[; :i ls nks
'kSfy;k¡ gksrh gSaµx| vkSj dforkA dfork ;k rks Nan] rqd] y;] lqj ,oa rky esa
c¡èkh gksrh gS ;k vrqdkar Hkh gksrh gSA nksuksa gh rjg dh dforkvksa esa vyx&vyx
HkkokuqHkwfr;ksa dk vkuan fy;k tk ldrk gSA ,d vksj dfork ikBd dh Hkkoukvksa
dks mnkÙk cukrh gS rks nwljh vksj mlosQ lkSan;Zcksèk dks ek¡trh&l¡okjrh gSA og
euq"; dks balkfu;r ls] izÑfr ls] ns'k ls] vkSj o`gÙkj nqfu;k ls tksM+rh gSA
fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ fd'kksj eu dks rks dfork fo'ks"k :i ls izHkkfor djrh gS] D;ksafd
fd'kksj eu ljy] ftKklq vkSj jkxkRed gksrk gSA dfork fd'kksj Hkkoukvksa osQ
ifj"dkj] laosnu'khyrk osQ fodkl ,oa lqjQfp&fuekZ.k esa rks ;ksxnku djrh gh gS]
lkFk gh ;g Nk=kksa esa lqikB dh {kerk Hkh mRiUu djrh gSA
mYys[kuh; gS fd fganhrj fo|kFkhZ viuh ekr`Hkk"kk dh dforkvksa vkSj muosQ
ukn] Hkko rFkk fopkj&lkSan;Z ls lqifjfpr gksrs gh gSaA bl ladyu dh dforkvksa
dk rknkRE; ekr`Hkk"kk dh dforkvksa ls fcBkdj dkO;&f'k{k.k dks vkSj vfèkd
#fpdj rFkk mi;ksxh cuk;k tk ldrk gSA
dkO;&ikB
dfork osQ vkuan dk vuqHko djus osQ fy, igyh vko';drk gS mfpr y; vkSj
izokg osQ lkFk dfork dk okpuA dfork x| ugha gS] vr% x| dh Hkk¡fr ugha i<+h
tkrhA y; vkSj izokg gh mls x| ls fHkUu cukrs gSaA okpu ekSu gks ;k eq[kj] y;
2020-21
70/Li'kZ
vkSj izokg osQ lkFk gh gksuk pkfg,A y; dk fuèkkZj.k dkO;&iafDr;ksa esa fo|eku
xfr] fojke&fpÉ] ek=kk rFkk rqd ls gksrk gSA ek=kkvksa osQ ?kVus&c<+us ls mlosQ
izokg esa jQdkoV vkrh gSA vr% okpu esa 'kCnksa osQ mPpkj.k dk funksZ"k gksuk
vko';d gSA la;qDrk{kjksa dk 'kq¼ mPpkj.k u gksus ij Hkh dfork dh y; VwV
tk,xh vkSj og d.kZdVq cu tk,xhA
m}sfyr dj vJq&jkf'k;k¡
ân;&fprk,¡ èkèkdkdj]
egk egkekjh izpaM gks
iSQy jgh Fkh bèkj&mèkj]
{kh.k&oaQB e`roRlkvksa dk
d#.k&#nu nqnk±r furkar]
Hkjs gq, Fkk fut Ñ'k jo esa
gkgkdkj vikj v'kkarA
;gk¡ m}sfyr] vJq&jkf'k;k¡] {kh.k] e`roRlkvksa] gkgkdkj vkfn dk mPpkj.k lgh
u gksus ij dfork dk ikB Bhd ls u gks losQxk vkSj og izHkkoghu gks tk,xhA
'kCnkFkZ&cksèku
f}rh; Hkk"kk osQ :i esa fganh i<+usokys fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks dgha&dgha oqQN 'kCn dfBu
yx ldrs gSaA mudk vFkZ tkus fcuk mUgsa lexz Hkko&cksèk esa dfBukbZ gks ldrh
gSA vr% mUgsa 'kCnkFkZ crk, tkus pkfg, foaQrq 'kCnkFkZ&cksèku bruk cksf>y u gks
fd dfork osQ vkuan esa gh ckèkk iM+sA vPNk gks] ,d&nks ckj lLoj okpu osQ
}kjk dfork dh ewy laosnuk Li"V gks tkus osQ ckn gh 'kCnkFkZ crk, tk,¡A
jSnkl] jghe vkfn izkphu dfo;ksa dh Hkk"kk vkt dh fganh ls fHkUu gS]
ij xs;rk] Hkko&izo.krk osQ dkj.k mudh jpuk,¡ loZ=k yksdfiz; gSa vkSj cgqr
laHko gS fd ikB~;iqLrd esa m¼`r mudh oqQN jpukvksa ls fo|kFkhZ igys ls
ifjfpr gksa vkSj ,sls Hkko&cksèk dh oqQN dfork,¡ viuh ekr`Hkk"kk osQ ekè;e
2020-21
dfork dk iBu&ikBu/71
ls Hkh i<+ pqosQ gksaA ,slh dforkvksa osQ lLoj ikB }kjk dfork dk Hkko&xzg.k
lgt gks ldrk gSA
Hkko&xzg.k vkSj jlkLokn
dfork dks lquus&i<+us ls tks vfuoZpuh; vkuan izkIr gksrk gS] mls gh vkpk;ks±
us ^jl* dgk gSA 'kCn&iz;ksx] vyadkj] dgus dh fof'k"V 'kSyh] Nan] y;] izokg
vkfn dfork osQ ckgjh rÙo gSa vkSj mldh vkRek laiw.kZ dfork esa O;kIr Hkko
fo'ks"k gh gSA
dfork dks ckj&ckj i<+us ls mldh ewy laosnuk rFkk mldk jpuk&dkS'ky
nksuksa gh Li"V gksrs gSa ijarq tgk¡ rd mlosQ Hkko dk iz'u gS] og fdlh in] iafDr
;k Nan esa u gksdj iwjh dfork esa O;kIr jgrk gSA
dfork,¡ ,slh Hkh gks ldrh gSa ftuesa dfo dk earO; loZFkk Li"V u gksrk gksA
dfo ek=k oqQN laosQr dj nsrk gS vkSj 'ks"k vLi"V gh jg tkrk gS] tks ikBd dks
lkspus&fopkjus osQ fy, ckfèkr dj mls iafDRk;ksa esa fNih xgjkbZ dks ukius osQ fy,
mdlkrk gSA ^[kq'kcw jprs gSa gkFk* dh fuEufyf[kr iafDr;k¡ nsf[k,µ
dbZ xfy;ksa OksQ chp
dbZ ukyksa OksQ ikj
owQMs+&djdV
OksQ <sjksa OksQ ckn
cncw ls iQVrs tkrs bl
Vksys OksQ vanj
[kq'kcw jprs gSa gkFk
[kq'kcw jprs gSa gkFkA
f'kYi&lkSan;Z dk mn~?kkVu
dfork dk vkuan ikBd dh jQfp] laosnu'khyrk vkSj laLdkjksa ij fuHkZj djrk gSA ;s
ckrsa fdlh esa vfèkd vkSj fdlh esa de Hkh gks ldrh gSa] ij ckj&ckj dkO;&ikB lquus
2020-21
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